Abstract

We propose a sensor scheme operating in the wavelength band of 1460–1530 nm (S band) that utilizes two orthogonally polarized eigenmodes in a ridge-waveguide geometry by employing a pair of nonidentical asymmetric long-period gratings. Numerical simulations show a high sensitivity 4900nm/RIU (refractive index unit) over the refractive index range 1.33–1.34 exhibiting a relative resonance shift of 1 pm for an index change of 107. Such high resolution sensors enable detection of minute changes with potential applications to various biochemical industries.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65(1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. Rastogi and K. S. Chiang, “Long-period gratings in planar optical waveguides,” App. Opt. 41, 6351–6355 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. U. Tiwari, S. M. Tripathi, K. Thyagarajan, M. R. Shenoy, V. Mishra, S. C. Jain, N. Singh, and P. Kapur, “Tunable wavelength division multiplexing channel isolation filter based on dual chirped long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3747–3749 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Thyagarajan and J. Kaur, “A novel design of an intrinsically gain flattened erbium doped fiber,” Opt. Commun. 183, 407–413 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Das and K. Thyagarajan, “Dispersion compensation in transmission using uniform long period fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 190, 159–163 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Kakkar and K. Thyagarajan, “Novel fiber design for broadband long period gratings,” Opt. Commun. 220, 309–314 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. S. Chiang, “Development of long-period fiber grating coupling devices,” Appl. Opt. 48, F61–F67 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. Bhatia, “Applications of long-period gratings to single and multi-parameter sensing,” Opt. Express 4, 457–466 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. S. Chiang, K. P. Lor, Q. Liu, C. K. Chow, Y. M. Chu, and H. P. Chan, “Long-period waveguide gratings,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5690–5696 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. P. Lor, Q. Liu, and K. S. Chiang, “UV-written long-period gratings on polymer waveguides,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 594–596 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. L. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Y. M. Cui, C. H. Chen, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Long period grating in/on planar and channel waveguides: A theory description,” Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 1204–1213 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. Jin, K. S. Chiang, and Q. Liu, “Electro-optic long-period waveguide gratings in lithium niobate,” Opt. Express 16, 20409–20417 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. S. Kwon and S. Y. Shin, “Refractive index sensitivity measurement of a long-period waveguide grating,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1923–1925 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Q. Liu and K. S. Chiang, “Refractive-index sensor based on long-range surface plasmon mode excitation with long-period waveguide grating,” Opt. Express 17, 7933–7942 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. X. Shu, X. Zhu, Q. Wang, S. Jiang, W. Shi, Z. Huang, and E. Huang, “Dual resonance peaks of LP015 cladding mode in long period gratings,” Electron. Lett. 35, 649–650 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. X. Shu, X. Zhu, S. Jiang, W. Shi, and D. Huang, “High sensitivity of dual resonant peaks of long-period fiber grating to surrounding refractive index changes,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1580–1581 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides (Academic, 2000).
  18. A. Kumar, K. Thyagarajan, and A. K. Ghatak, “Analysis of rectangular core dielectric waveguide; an accurate perturbation approach,” Opt. Lett. 8, 63–65 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277–1294 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. K. Ghatak and K. Thyagarajan, Introduction to Fiber Optics (Cambridge University, 1998).
  21. R. Garg and K. Thyagarajan, “Polarization-independent wavelength filter based on dual asymmetric long-period gratings in channel waveguides,” J. Mod. Opt. 58, 1633–1637 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Kawachi, “Silica waveguides on silicon and their application to integrated—optic components,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 391–416 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. M. Tripathi, A. Kumar, E. Marin, and J. P. Meunier, “Bragg grating based biochemical sensor using submicron Si/SiO2 waveguides for lab-on-a-chip applications: a novel design,” App. Opt. 48, 4562–4567 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. X. Dai, R. B. Walker, S. J. Mihailov, C. Chen, C. Blanchetière, C. L. Callender, and J. Albert, “Temperature insensitive refractometer using core and cladding modes in open-top ridge waveguide,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 451–456 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Q. Liu, K. S. Chiang, and V. Rastogi, “Analysis of corrugated long-period gratings in slab waveguides and their polarization dependence,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 3399–3405 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  26. H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, and F. Bucholtz, “Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1606–1612 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

2009 (3)

S. M. Tripathi, A. Kumar, E. Marin, and J. P. Meunier, “Bragg grating based biochemical sensor using submicron Si/SiO2 waveguides for lab-on-a-chip applications: a novel design,” App. Opt. 48, 4562–4567 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, “Development of long-period fiber grating coupling devices,” Appl. Opt. 48, F61–F67 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liu and K. S. Chiang, “Refractive-index sensor based on long-range surface plasmon mode excitation with long-period waveguide grating,” Opt. Express 17, 7933–7942 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

W. Jin, K. S. Chiang, and Q. Liu, “Electro-optic long-period waveguide gratings in lithium niobate,” Opt. Express 16, 20409–20417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Dai, R. B. Walker, S. J. Mihailov, C. Chen, C. Blanchetière, C. L. Callender, and J. Albert, “Temperature insensitive refractometer using core and cladding modes in open-top ridge waveguide,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 451–456 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

D. L. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Y. M. Cui, C. H. Chen, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Long period grating in/on planar and channel waveguides: A theory description,” Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 1204–1213 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

M. S. Kwon and S. Y. Shin, “Refractive index sensitivity measurement of a long-period waveguide grating,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1923–1925 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Lor, Q. Liu, and K. S. Chiang, “UV-written long-period gratings on polymer waveguides,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 594–596 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. S. Chiang, K. P. Lor, Q. Liu, C. K. Chow, Y. M. Chu, and H. P. Chan, “Long-period waveguide gratings,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5690–5696 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

V. Rastogi and K. S. Chiang, “Long-period gratings in planar optical waveguides,” App. Opt. 41, 6351–6355 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Das and K. Thyagarajan, “Dispersion compensation in transmission using uniform long period fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 190, 159–163 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

K. Thyagarajan and J. Kaur, “A novel design of an intrinsically gain flattened erbium doped fiber,” Opt. Commun. 183, 407–413 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

V. Bhatia, “Applications of long-period gratings to single and multi-parameter sensing,” Opt. Express 4, 457–466 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, X. Zhu, Q. Wang, S. Jiang, W. Shi, Z. Huang, and E. Huang, “Dual resonance peaks of LP015 cladding mode in long period gratings,” Electron. Lett. 35, 649–650 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, X. Zhu, S. Jiang, W. Shi, and D. Huang, “High sensitivity of dual resonant peaks of long-period fiber grating to surrounding refractive index changes,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1580–1581 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277–1294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65(1996).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. Kawachi, “Silica waveguides on silicon and their application to integrated—optic components,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 391–416 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

Albert, J.

X. Dai, R. B. Walker, S. J. Mihailov, C. Chen, C. Blanchetière, C. L. Callender, and J. Albert, “Temperature insensitive refractometer using core and cladding modes in open-top ridge waveguide,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 451–456 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bhatia, V.

V. Bhatia, “Applications of long-period gratings to single and multi-parameter sensing,” Opt. Express 4, 457–466 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65(1996).
[CrossRef]

Blanchetière, C.

X. Dai, R. B. Walker, S. J. Mihailov, C. Chen, C. Blanchetière, C. L. Callender, and J. Albert, “Temperature insensitive refractometer using core and cladding modes in open-top ridge waveguide,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 451–456 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bucholtz, F.

Callender, C. L.

X. Dai, R. B. Walker, S. J. Mihailov, C. Chen, C. Blanchetière, C. L. Callender, and J. Albert, “Temperature insensitive refractometer using core and cladding modes in open-top ridge waveguide,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 451–456 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chan, H. P.

K. S. Chiang, K. P. Lor, Q. Liu, C. K. Chow, Y. M. Chu, and H. P. Chan, “Long-period waveguide gratings,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5690–5696 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

X. Dai, R. B. Walker, S. J. Mihailov, C. Chen, C. Blanchetière, C. L. Callender, and J. Albert, “Temperature insensitive refractometer using core and cladding modes in open-top ridge waveguide,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 451–456 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. H.

D. L. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Y. M. Cui, C. H. Chen, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Long period grating in/on planar and channel waveguides: A theory description,” Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 1204–1213 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, K. S.

Chow, C. K.

K. S. Chiang, K. P. Lor, Q. Liu, C. K. Chow, Y. M. Chu, and H. P. Chan, “Long-period waveguide gratings,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5690–5696 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chu, Y. M.

K. S. Chiang, K. P. Lor, Q. Liu, C. K. Chow, Y. M. Chu, and H. P. Chan, “Long-period waveguide gratings,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5690–5696 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y. M.

D. L. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Y. M. Cui, C. H. Chen, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Long period grating in/on planar and channel waveguides: A theory description,” Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 1204–1213 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dai, X.

X. Dai, R. B. Walker, S. J. Mihailov, C. Chen, C. Blanchetière, C. L. Callender, and J. Albert, “Temperature insensitive refractometer using core and cladding modes in open-top ridge waveguide,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 451–456 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Das, M.

M. Das and K. Thyagarajan, “Dispersion compensation in transmission using uniform long period fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 190, 159–163 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277–1294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65(1996).
[CrossRef]

Garg, R.

R. Garg and K. Thyagarajan, “Polarization-independent wavelength filter based on dual asymmetric long-period gratings in channel waveguides,” J. Mod. Opt. 58, 1633–1637 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ghatak, A. K.

Huang, D.

X. Shu, X. Zhu, S. Jiang, W. Shi, and D. Huang, “High sensitivity of dual resonant peaks of long-period fiber grating to surrounding refractive index changes,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1580–1581 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, E.

X. Shu, X. Zhu, Q. Wang, S. Jiang, W. Shi, Z. Huang, and E. Huang, “Dual resonance peaks of LP015 cladding mode in long period gratings,” Electron. Lett. 35, 649–650 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z.

X. Shu, X. Zhu, Q. Wang, S. Jiang, W. Shi, Z. Huang, and E. Huang, “Dual resonance peaks of LP015 cladding mode in long period gratings,” Electron. Lett. 35, 649–650 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jain, S. C.

Jiang, S.

X. Shu, X. Zhu, S. Jiang, W. Shi, and D. Huang, “High sensitivity of dual resonant peaks of long-period fiber grating to surrounding refractive index changes,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1580–1581 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, X. Zhu, Q. Wang, S. Jiang, W. Shi, Z. Huang, and E. Huang, “Dual resonance peaks of LP015 cladding mode in long period gratings,” Electron. Lett. 35, 649–650 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jin, W.

Judkins, J. B.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65(1996).
[CrossRef]

Kakkar, C.

C. Kakkar and K. Thyagarajan, “Novel fiber design for broadband long period gratings,” Opt. Commun. 220, 309–314 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kapur, P.

Kaur, J.

K. Thyagarajan and J. Kaur, “A novel design of an intrinsically gain flattened erbium doped fiber,” Opt. Commun. 183, 407–413 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kawachi, M.

M. Kawachi, “Silica waveguides on silicon and their application to integrated—optic components,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 391–416 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

Kumar, A.

S. M. Tripathi, A. Kumar, E. Marin, and J. P. Meunier, “Bragg grating based biochemical sensor using submicron Si/SiO2 waveguides for lab-on-a-chip applications: a novel design,” App. Opt. 48, 4562–4567 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Kumar, K. Thyagarajan, and A. K. Ghatak, “Analysis of rectangular core dielectric waveguide; an accurate perturbation approach,” Opt. Lett. 8, 63–65 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, M. S.

M. S. Kwon and S. Y. Shin, “Refractive index sensitivity measurement of a long-period waveguide grating,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1923–1925 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lemaire, P. J.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65(1996).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Q.

Lor, K. P.

K. P. Lor, Q. Liu, and K. S. Chiang, “UV-written long-period gratings on polymer waveguides,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 594–596 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, K. P. Lor, Q. Liu, C. K. Chow, Y. M. Chu, and H. P. Chan, “Long-period waveguide gratings,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5690–5696 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marin, E.

S. M. Tripathi, A. Kumar, E. Marin, and J. P. Meunier, “Bragg grating based biochemical sensor using submicron Si/SiO2 waveguides for lab-on-a-chip applications: a novel design,” App. Opt. 48, 4562–4567 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meunier, J. P.

S. M. Tripathi, A. Kumar, E. Marin, and J. P. Meunier, “Bragg grating based biochemical sensor using submicron Si/SiO2 waveguides for lab-on-a-chip applications: a novel design,” App. Opt. 48, 4562–4567 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mihailov, S. J.

X. Dai, R. B. Walker, S. J. Mihailov, C. Chen, C. Blanchetière, C. L. Callender, and J. Albert, “Temperature insensitive refractometer using core and cladding modes in open-top ridge waveguide,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 451–456 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, V.

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides (Academic, 2000).

Patrick, H. J.

Pun, E. Y. B.

D. L. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Y. M. Cui, C. H. Chen, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Long period grating in/on planar and channel waveguides: A theory description,” Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 1204–1213 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rastogi, V.

Shenoy, M. R.

Shi, W.

X. Shu, X. Zhu, Q. Wang, S. Jiang, W. Shi, Z. Huang, and E. Huang, “Dual resonance peaks of LP015 cladding mode in long period gratings,” Electron. Lett. 35, 649–650 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, X. Zhu, S. Jiang, W. Shi, and D. Huang, “High sensitivity of dual resonant peaks of long-period fiber grating to surrounding refractive index changes,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1580–1581 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shin, S. Y.

M. S. Kwon and S. Y. Shin, “Refractive index sensitivity measurement of a long-period waveguide grating,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1923–1925 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shu, X.

X. Shu, X. Zhu, S. Jiang, W. Shi, and D. Huang, “High sensitivity of dual resonant peaks of long-period fiber grating to surrounding refractive index changes,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1580–1581 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, X. Zhu, Q. Wang, S. Jiang, W. Shi, Z. Huang, and E. Huang, “Dual resonance peaks of LP015 cladding mode in long period gratings,” Electron. Lett. 35, 649–650 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Singh, N.

Sipe, J. E.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65(1996).
[CrossRef]

Thyagarajan, K.

R. Garg and K. Thyagarajan, “Polarization-independent wavelength filter based on dual asymmetric long-period gratings in channel waveguides,” J. Mod. Opt. 58, 1633–1637 (2011).
[CrossRef]

U. Tiwari, S. M. Tripathi, K. Thyagarajan, M. R. Shenoy, V. Mishra, S. C. Jain, N. Singh, and P. Kapur, “Tunable wavelength division multiplexing channel isolation filter based on dual chirped long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3747–3749 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Kakkar and K. Thyagarajan, “Novel fiber design for broadband long period gratings,” Opt. Commun. 220, 309–314 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Das and K. Thyagarajan, “Dispersion compensation in transmission using uniform long period fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 190, 159–163 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Thyagarajan and J. Kaur, “A novel design of an intrinsically gain flattened erbium doped fiber,” Opt. Commun. 183, 407–413 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Kumar, K. Thyagarajan, and A. K. Ghatak, “Analysis of rectangular core dielectric waveguide; an accurate perturbation approach,” Opt. Lett. 8, 63–65 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Ghatak and K. Thyagarajan, Introduction to Fiber Optics (Cambridge University, 1998).

Tiwari, U.

Tripathi, S. M.

U. Tiwari, S. M. Tripathi, K. Thyagarajan, M. R. Shenoy, V. Mishra, S. C. Jain, N. Singh, and P. Kapur, “Tunable wavelength division multiplexing channel isolation filter based on dual chirped long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3747–3749 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Tripathi, A. Kumar, E. Marin, and J. P. Meunier, “Bragg grating based biochemical sensor using submicron Si/SiO2 waveguides for lab-on-a-chip applications: a novel design,” App. Opt. 48, 4562–4567 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65(1996).
[CrossRef]

Walker, R. B.

X. Dai, R. B. Walker, S. J. Mihailov, C. Chen, C. Blanchetière, C. L. Callender, and J. Albert, “Temperature insensitive refractometer using core and cladding modes in open-top ridge waveguide,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 451–456 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

X. Shu, X. Zhu, Q. Wang, S. Jiang, W. Shi, Z. Huang, and E. Huang, “Dual resonance peaks of LP015 cladding mode in long period gratings,” Electron. Lett. 35, 649–650 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D. L.

D. L. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Y. M. Cui, C. H. Chen, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Long period grating in/on planar and channel waveguides: A theory description,” Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 1204–1213 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

D. L. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Y. M. Cui, C. H. Chen, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Long period grating in/on planar and channel waveguides: A theory description,” Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 1204–1213 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X.

X. Shu, X. Zhu, S. Jiang, W. Shi, and D. Huang, “High sensitivity of dual resonant peaks of long-period fiber grating to surrounding refractive index changes,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1580–1581 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, X. Zhu, Q. Wang, S. Jiang, W. Shi, Z. Huang, and E. Huang, “Dual resonance peaks of LP015 cladding mode in long period gratings,” Electron. Lett. 35, 649–650 (1999).
[CrossRef]

App. Opt. (2)

V. Rastogi and K. S. Chiang, “Long-period gratings in planar optical waveguides,” App. Opt. 41, 6351–6355 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Tripathi, A. Kumar, E. Marin, and J. P. Meunier, “Bragg grating based biochemical sensor using submicron Si/SiO2 waveguides for lab-on-a-chip applications: a novel design,” App. Opt. 48, 4562–4567 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (2)

X. Shu, X. Zhu, Q. Wang, S. Jiang, W. Shi, Z. Huang, and E. Huang, “Dual resonance peaks of LP015 cladding mode in long period gratings,” Electron. Lett. 35, 649–650 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, X. Zhu, S. Jiang, W. Shi, and D. Huang, “High sensitivity of dual resonant peaks of long-period fiber grating to surrounding refractive index changes,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1580–1581 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

X. Dai, R. B. Walker, S. J. Mihailov, C. Chen, C. Blanchetière, C. L. Callender, and J. Albert, “Temperature insensitive refractometer using core and cladding modes in open-top ridge waveguide,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 451–456 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

Q. Liu, K. S. Chiang, and V. Rastogi, “Analysis of corrugated long-period gratings in slab waveguides and their polarization dependence,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 3399–3405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, and F. Bucholtz, “Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1606–1612 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277–1294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65(1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

R. Garg and K. Thyagarajan, “Polarization-independent wavelength filter based on dual asymmetric long-period gratings in channel waveguides,” J. Mod. Opt. 58, 1633–1637 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. S. Chiang, K. P. Lor, Q. Liu, C. K. Chow, Y. M. Chu, and H. P. Chan, “Long-period waveguide gratings,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5690–5696 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

K. Thyagarajan and J. Kaur, “A novel design of an intrinsically gain flattened erbium doped fiber,” Opt. Commun. 183, 407–413 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Das and K. Thyagarajan, “Dispersion compensation in transmission using uniform long period fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 190, 159–163 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Kakkar and K. Thyagarajan, “Novel fiber design for broadband long period gratings,” Opt. Commun. 220, 309–314 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

D. L. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Y. M. Cui, C. H. Chen, and E. Y. B. Pun, “Long period grating in/on planar and channel waveguides: A theory description,” Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 1204–1213 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the sensor geometry.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Field plots for few modes of the waveguide geometry.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Phase-matching curves for coupling between core and second order cladding mode for varying cladding thickness. Insets specifically show the crossing points.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Comparison of the phase-matching curves for coupling core mode into different cladding modes at fixed cladding thickness d=3.1μm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Response of phase-matching curves at two different ambient refractive indices for (a) LPWG I exhibiting a red shift and (b) LPWG II exhibiting a blue shift.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Evolution of transmission spectrum in response to cover/ambient refractive index change.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Plot of total wavelength shift v/s cover refractive index.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Variation of effective indices of all participating modes with respect to (a) core thickness (b) cladding thickness, for an ambient refractive index change from 1.33 to 1.34.

Equations (12)

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n2(x,y)=n2(x)+n2(y)nf2
n2(x)=nf2for|x|<a=ncl2fora<|x|<a+d=nc2for|x|>a+d
n2(y)=nc2fory<0=nf2for0<y<2b=ns2fory>2b.
npert=ncl+δn(z)
δn(z)=Δn1¯+Δn1sin(2πzΛ1)for{(a+d)<x<a0<y<2b=Δn2¯+Δn2sin(2πzΛ2)for{a<x<a+d0<y<2b=0elsewhere.
dRdz=κSjδRdSdz=κR+jδS
κ1111=k02nclβ11E11*(x,y)Δn¯E11(x,y)dxdyE11*(x,y)E11(x,y)dxdy;κ11mn=k02ncl2β11E11*(x,y)ΔnEmn(x,y)dxdyE11*(x,y)E11(x,y)dxdyκmn11=k02ncl2βmnEmn*(x,y)ΔnE11(x,y)dxdyEmn*(x,y)Emn(x,y)dxdy;κmnmn=k02nclβmnEmn*(x,y)Δn¯Emn(x,y)dxdyEmn*(x,y)Emn(x,y)dxdy.
T=|R(Lg)|2|R(0)|2
nf(λ=1.5μm)=1.4720;ncl(λ=1.5μm)=1.4535;ns(λ=1.5μm)=1.4446;nc=1.33(ambient);2a=2.5μm;2b=1.2μm;d=3.1μm;
Λ=λresneffco(λres)neffcl(λres)
Δλres=|ΔλresxΔλresy|.
Sn=d(Δλres)dncnm/RIU.

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