Abstract

In fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT), diffuse-light measurements are obtained from a series of source–detector pairs placed on the boundary of the medium. The sensitivity of measurements deteriorates quickly with increased distance from the sources and detectors and therefore yields poor depth quantitative recovery. A depth compensation algorithm is presented in this paper to reconstruct fluorescent inclusions in deep tissues. Two weight matrixes are employed to level off sensitivity differences and enhance prominent elements of the solution. Results of numerical and phantom experiments demonstrate that both relative quantitation and spatial resolution of FMT are improved for inclusions at different depths.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2012 (1)

M. Li, X. Cao, F. Liu, B. Zhang, J. Luo, and J. Bai, “Reconstruction of fluorescence molecular tomography using a neighborhood regularization,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59, 1799–1803 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

2010 (5)

Y. Lin, W. C. Barber, J. S. Iwanczyk, W. Roeck, O. Nalcioglu, and G. Gulsen, “Quantitative fluorescence tomography using a combined tri-modality FT/DOT/XCT system,” Opt. Express 18, 7835–7850 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Liu, X. Liu, D. Wang, B. Zhang, and J. Bai, “A parallel excitation based fluorescence molecular tomography system for whole-body simultaneous imaging of small animals,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 38, 3440–3448 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Niu, Z. J. Lin, F. Tian, S. Dhamne, and H. Liu, “Comprehensive Investigation of three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography with depth compensation algorithm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 046005 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, “Going deeper than microscopy: the optical imaging frontier in biology,” Nat. Methods 7, 603–614 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Leblond, S. C. Davis, P. A. Valdes, and B. W. Pogue, “Pre-clinical whole-body fluorescence imaging: review of instruments, methods and applications,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 98, 77–94 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

2008 (2)

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

2005 (3)

A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, “Hyperspectral and multispectral bioluminescence optical tomography for small animal imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 5421–5441 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Soubret, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, “Accuracy of fluorescent tomography in the presence of heterogeneities: study of the normalized Born ratio,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 1377–1386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Davis, B. W. Pogue, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, “Contrast-detail analysis characterizing diffuse optical fluorescence tomography image reconstruction,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 050501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

E. E. Graves, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, “Fluorescence molecular imaging of small animal tumor models,” Curr. Mol. Med. 4, 419–430 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Ripoll and V. Ntziachristos, “Imaging scattering media from a distance: theory and applications of noncontact optical tomography,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 18, 1403–1431 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Godavarty, A. Thompson, R. Roy, M. Gurfinkel, M. Eppstein, C. Zhang, and E. Sevick-Muraca, “Diagnostic imaging of breast cancer using fluorescence-enhanced optical tomography: phantom studies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 488–496 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

V. Ntziachristos, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, “Fluorescence imaging with near-infrared light: new technological advances that enable in vivo molecular imaging,” Eur. Radiol. 13, 195–208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1999 (2)

1992 (1)

P. Hansen, “Analysis of discrete ill-posed problems by means of the L-curve,” SIAM Rev. 34, 561–580 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Andersson-Engels, S.

Arridge, S. R.

A. D. Zacharopoulos, P. Svenmarker, J. Axelsson, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, and S. Andersson-Engels, “A matrix-free algorithm for multiple wavelength fluorescence tomography,” Opt. Express 17, 3025–3035 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge, “Optical tomography in medical imaging,” Inverse Probl. 15, R41–R93 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge, “Linear and non-linear methods in optical tomography,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2000), Vol. 38, pp. 495–497.

Axelsson, J.

Bading, J. R.

A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, “Hyperspectral and multispectral bioluminescence optical tomography for small animal imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 5421–5441 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bai, J.

M. Li, X. Cao, F. Liu, B. Zhang, J. Luo, and J. Bai, “Reconstruction of fluorescence molecular tomography using a neighborhood regularization,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59, 1799–1803 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhang, X. Cao, F. Liu, X. Liu, X. Wang, and J. Bai, “Early-photon fluorescence tomography of a heterogeneous mouse model with the telegraph equation,” Appl. Opt. 50, 5397–5407 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Liu, X. Liu, D. Wang, B. Zhang, and J. Bai, “A parallel excitation based fluorescence molecular tomography system for whole-body simultaneous imaging of small animals,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 38, 3440–3448 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Wang, X. Liu, Y. Chen, and J. Bai, “A novel finite-element-based algorithm for fluorescence molecular tomography of heterogeneous media,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 13, 766–773 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Song, D. F. Wang, N. G. Chen, J. Bai, and H. Wang, “Reconstruction for free-space fluorescence tomography using a novel hybrid adaptive finite element algorithm,” Opt. Express 15, 18300–18317 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barber, W. C.

Bremer, C.

V. Ntziachristos, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, “Fluorescence imaging with near-infrared light: new technological advances that enable in vivo molecular imaging,” Eur. Radiol. 13, 195–208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brooks, D.

Cao, X.

M. Li, X. Cao, F. Liu, B. Zhang, J. Luo, and J. Bai, “Reconstruction of fluorescence molecular tomography using a neighborhood regularization,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59, 1799–1803 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhang, X. Cao, F. Liu, X. Liu, X. Wang, and J. Bai, “Early-photon fluorescence tomography of a heterogeneous mouse model with the telegraph equation,” Appl. Opt. 50, 5397–5407 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chaudhari, A. J.

A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, “Hyperspectral and multispectral bioluminescence optical tomography for small animal imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 5421–5441 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, N. G.

Chen, Y.

D. Wang, X. Liu, Y. Chen, and J. Bai, “A novel finite-element-based algorithm for fluorescence molecular tomography of heterogeneous media,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 13, 766–773 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cherry, S. R.

A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, “Hyperspectral and multispectral bioluminescence optical tomography for small animal imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 5421–5441 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Conti, P. S.

A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, “Hyperspectral and multispectral bioluminescence optical tomography for small animal imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 5421–5441 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Darvas, F.

A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, “Hyperspectral and multispectral bioluminescence optical tomography for small animal imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 5421–5441 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Davis, S. C.

F. Leblond, S. C. Davis, P. A. Valdes, and B. W. Pogue, “Pre-clinical whole-body fluorescence imaging: review of instruments, methods and applications,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 98, 77–94 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Kepshire, S. C. Davis, H. Dehghani, K. D. Paulsen, and B. W. Pogue, “Subsurface diffuse optical tomography can localize absorber and fluorescent objects but recovered image sensitivity is nonlinear with depth,” Appl. Opt. 46, 1669–1678 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Davis, B. W. Pogue, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, “Contrast-detail analysis characterizing diffuse optical fluorescence tomography image reconstruction,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 050501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dehghani, H.

Dhamne, S.

H. Niu, Z. J. Lin, F. Tian, S. Dhamne, and H. Liu, “Comprehensive Investigation of three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography with depth compensation algorithm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 046005 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Engl, H. W.

H. W. Engl, M. Hanke, and A. Neubauer, Regularization of Inverse Problems (Springer Netherlands, 1996).

Eppstein, M.

A. Godavarty, A. Thompson, R. Roy, M. Gurfinkel, M. Eppstein, C. Zhang, and E. Sevick-Muraca, “Diagnostic imaging of breast cancer using fluorescence-enhanced optical tomography: phantom studies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 488–496 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, F.

Godavarty, A.

A. Godavarty, A. Thompson, R. Roy, M. Gurfinkel, M. Eppstein, C. Zhang, and E. Sevick-Muraca, “Diagnostic imaging of breast cancer using fluorescence-enhanced optical tomography: phantom studies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 488–496 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Graves, E. E.

E. E. Graves, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, “Fluorescence molecular imaging of small animal tumor models,” Curr. Mol. Med. 4, 419–430 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gulsen, G.

Guo, P.

Gurfinkel, M.

A. Godavarty, A. Thompson, R. Roy, M. Gurfinkel, M. Eppstein, C. Zhang, and E. Sevick-Muraca, “Diagnostic imaging of breast cancer using fluorescence-enhanced optical tomography: phantom studies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 488–496 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hanke, M.

H. W. Engl, M. Hanke, and A. Neubauer, Regularization of Inverse Problems (Springer Netherlands, 1996).

Hansen, P.

P. Hansen, “Analysis of discrete ill-posed problems by means of the L-curve,” SIAM Rev. 34, 561–580 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hyde, D.

Iwanczyk, J. S.

Jiang, T. Z.

Kepshire, D. S.

Leahy, R. M.

A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, “Hyperspectral and multispectral bioluminescence optical tomography for small animal imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 5421–5441 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leblond, F.

F. Leblond, S. C. Davis, P. A. Valdes, and B. W. Pogue, “Pre-clinical whole-body fluorescence imaging: review of instruments, methods and applications,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 98, 77–94 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

M. Li, X. Cao, F. Liu, B. Zhang, J. Luo, and J. Bai, “Reconstruction of fluorescence molecular tomography using a neighborhood regularization,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59, 1799–1803 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.

Lin, Z. J.

H. Niu, Z. J. Lin, F. Tian, S. Dhamne, and H. Liu, “Comprehensive Investigation of three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography with depth compensation algorithm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 046005 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F.

M. Li, X. Cao, F. Liu, B. Zhang, J. Luo, and J. Bai, “Reconstruction of fluorescence molecular tomography using a neighborhood regularization,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59, 1799–1803 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhang, X. Cao, F. Liu, X. Liu, X. Wang, and J. Bai, “Early-photon fluorescence tomography of a heterogeneous mouse model with the telegraph equation,” Appl. Opt. 50, 5397–5407 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Liu, X. Liu, D. Wang, B. Zhang, and J. Bai, “A parallel excitation based fluorescence molecular tomography system for whole-body simultaneous imaging of small animals,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 38, 3440–3448 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

H. Niu, Z. J. Lin, F. Tian, S. Dhamne, and H. Liu, “Comprehensive Investigation of three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography with depth compensation algorithm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 046005 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

B. Zhang, X. Cao, F. Liu, X. Liu, X. Wang, and J. Bai, “Early-photon fluorescence tomography of a heterogeneous mouse model with the telegraph equation,” Appl. Opt. 50, 5397–5407 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Liu, X. Liu, D. Wang, B. Zhang, and J. Bai, “A parallel excitation based fluorescence molecular tomography system for whole-body simultaneous imaging of small animals,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 38, 3440–3448 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Wang, X. Liu, Y. Chen, and J. Bai, “A novel finite-element-based algorithm for fluorescence molecular tomography of heterogeneous media,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 13, 766–773 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

M. Li, X. Cao, F. Liu, B. Zhang, J. Luo, and J. Bai, “Reconstruction of fluorescence molecular tomography using a neighborhood regularization,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59, 1799–1803 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Marjono, A.

McBride, T. O.

Miller, E.

Moats, R. A.

A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, “Hyperspectral and multispectral bioluminescence optical tomography for small animal imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 5421–5441 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nalcioglu, O.

Naser, M. A.

Neubauer, A.

H. W. Engl, M. Hanke, and A. Neubauer, Regularization of Inverse Problems (Springer Netherlands, 1996).

Niu, H.

H. Niu, Z. J. Lin, F. Tian, S. Dhamne, and H. Liu, “Comprehensive Investigation of three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography with depth compensation algorithm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 046005 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Niu, H. J.

Ntziachristos, V.

V. Ntziachristos, “Going deeper than microscopy: the optical imaging frontier in biology,” Nat. Methods 7, 603–614 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Hyde, R. Schulz, D. Brooks, E. Miller, and V. Ntziachristos, “Performance dependence of hybrid x-ray computed tomography/fluorescence molecular tomography on the optical forward problem,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 919–923 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Soubret and V. Ntziachristos, “Fluorescence molecular tomography in the presence of background fluorescence,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 3983–4001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Soubret, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, “Accuracy of fluorescent tomography in the presence of heterogeneities: study of the normalized Born ratio,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 1377–1386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Ripoll and V. Ntziachristos, “Imaging scattering media from a distance: theory and applications of noncontact optical tomography,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 18, 1403–1431 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Graves, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, “Fluorescence molecular imaging of small animal tumor models,” Curr. Mol. Med. 4, 419–430 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, “Fluorescence imaging with near-infrared light: new technological advances that enable in vivo molecular imaging,” Eur. Radiol. 13, 195–208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos and R. Weissleder, “Experimental three-dimensional fluorescence reconstruction of diffuse media by use of a normalized Born approximation,” Opt. Lett. 26, 893–895 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Okawa, S.

Osterberg, U. L.

Patterson, M. S.

Paulsen, K. D.

Pogue, B. W.

Prewitt, J.

Ripoll, J.

A. Soubret, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, “Accuracy of fluorescent tomography in the presence of heterogeneities: study of the normalized Born ratio,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 1377–1386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Ripoll and V. Ntziachristos, “Imaging scattering media from a distance: theory and applications of noncontact optical tomography,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 18, 1403–1431 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Roeck, W.

Roy, R.

A. Godavarty, A. Thompson, R. Roy, M. Gurfinkel, M. Eppstein, C. Zhang, and E. Sevick-Muraca, “Diagnostic imaging of breast cancer using fluorescence-enhanced optical tomography: phantom studies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 488–496 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, R.

Schweiger, M.

Sevick-Muraca, E.

A. Godavarty, A. Thompson, R. Roy, M. Gurfinkel, M. Eppstein, C. Zhang, and E. Sevick-Muraca, “Diagnostic imaging of breast cancer using fluorescence-enhanced optical tomography: phantom studies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 488–496 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. J.

A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry, and R. M. Leahy, “Hyperspectral and multispectral bioluminescence optical tomography for small animal imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 5421–5441 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Song, X. D.

Song, X. L.

Soubret, A.

A. Soubret and V. Ntziachristos, “Fluorescence molecular tomography in the presence of background fluorescence,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 3983–4001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Soubret, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, “Accuracy of fluorescent tomography in the presence of heterogeneities: study of the normalized Born ratio,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 1377–1386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Svenmarker, P.

Thompson, A.

A. Godavarty, A. Thompson, R. Roy, M. Gurfinkel, M. Eppstein, C. Zhang, and E. Sevick-Muraca, “Diagnostic imaging of breast cancer using fluorescence-enhanced optical tomography: phantom studies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 488–496 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tian, F.

H. Niu, Z. J. Lin, F. Tian, S. Dhamne, and H. Liu, “Comprehensive Investigation of three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography with depth compensation algorithm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 046005 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Valdes, P. A.

F. Leblond, S. C. Davis, P. A. Valdes, and B. W. Pogue, “Pre-clinical whole-body fluorescence imaging: review of instruments, methods and applications,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 98, 77–94 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.

F. Liu, X. Liu, D. Wang, B. Zhang, and J. Bai, “A parallel excitation based fluorescence molecular tomography system for whole-body simultaneous imaging of small animals,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 38, 3440–3448 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Wang, X. Liu, Y. Chen, and J. Bai, “A novel finite-element-based algorithm for fluorescence molecular tomography of heterogeneous media,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 13, 766–773 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D. F.

Wang, H.

Wang, X.

Weissleder, R.

E. E. Graves, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, “Fluorescence molecular imaging of small animal tumor models,” Curr. Mol. Med. 4, 419–430 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, “Fluorescence imaging with near-infrared light: new technological advances that enable in vivo molecular imaging,” Eur. Radiol. 13, 195–208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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