Abstract

Underwater optical image simulation is a valuable tool for oceanic science, especially for the characterization of image processing techniques such as color restoration. In this context, simulating images with a correct color rendering is crucial. This paper presents an extension of existing image simulation models to RGB imaging. The influence of the spectral discretization of the model parameters on the color rendering of the simulated images is studied. It is especially shown that, if only RGB data of the scene chosen for simulations are available, a spectral reconstruction step prior to the simulations improves the image color rendering.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  17. K. Iqbal, R. Abdul Salam, M. Osman, and A. Talib, “Underwater image enhancement using an integrated colour model,” IAENG Int. J. Comput. Sci. 34, 239–244 (2007).
  18. F. Petit, A.-S. Capelle-Laize, and P. Carre, “Underwater image enhancement by attenuation inversion with quaternions,” in IEEE International Conference on Acoustics Speech and Signal Processing (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1177–1180.
  19. L. Torres-Méndez and G. Dudek, “Color correction of underwater images for aquatic robot inspection,” in Energy Minimization Methods in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (Springer, 2005), pp. 60–73.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  29. E. Valero, J. Nieves, S. Nascimento, K. Amano, and D. Foster, “Recovering spectral data from natural scenes with an RGB digital camera and colored filters,” Color Res. Appl. 32, 352–360 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  30. R. Clark, G. Swayze, R. Wise, E. Livo, T. Hoefen, R. Kokaly, and S. Sutley, “USGS digital spectral library splib06a; U.S. Geological Survey, Digital Data Series 231, http://speclab.cr.usgs.gov/spectral.lib06 ” (2007).
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  34. M. E. Lee and R. L. Lewis, “A new method for the measurement of the optical volume scattering function in the upper ocean,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20, 563–571 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  35. Y. C. Agrawal, “The optical volume scattering function: temporal and vertical variability in the water column off the New Jersey coast,” Liminology and Oceanography 50, 1787–1794 (2005).

2010

R. Schettini and S. Corchs, “Underwater image processing: state of the art of restoration and image enhancement methods,” EURASIP J. Adv. Sig. Proc. 2010 (2010).

2009

T. Treibitz and Y. Schechner, “Active polarization descattering,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 31, 385–399(2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

D. Kocak, F. Dalgleish, and F. Caimi, “A focus on recent developments and trends in underwater imaging,” Marine Technology 42, 52–67 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Hou, D. Gray, A. Weidemann, and R. Arnone, “Comparison and validation of point spread models for imaging in natural waters,” Opt. Express 16, 9958–9965 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

J. Ahlén, D. Sundgren, and E. Bengtsson, “Application of underwater hyperspectral data for color correction purposes,” Pattern Recog. Image Anal. 17, 170–173 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Valero, J. Nieves, S. Nascimento, K. Amano, and D. Foster, “Recovering spectral data from natural scenes with an RGB digital camera and colored filters,” Color Res. Appl. 32, 352–360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Iqbal, R. Abdul Salam, M. Osman, and A. Talib, “Underwater image enhancement using an integrated colour model,” IAENG Int. J. Comput. Sci. 34, 239–244 (2007).

2006

E. Trucco and A. Olmos-Antillon, “Self-tuning underwater image restoration,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 31, 511–519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Y. Schechner and N. Karpel, “Recovery of underwater visibility and structure by polarization analysis,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 30, 570–587 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Agrawal, “The optical volume scattering function: temporal and vertical variability in the water column off the New Jersey coast,” Liminology and Oceanography 50, 1787–1794 (2005).

2003

M. E. Lee and R. L. Lewis, “A new method for the measurement of the optical volume scattering function in the upper ocean,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20, 563–571 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Chambah, D. Semani, A. Renouf, P. Courtellemont, and A. Rizzi, “Underwater color constancy: enhancement of automatic live fish recognition,” Proc. SPIE 5293, 157–168 (2003).

2002

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, “Case studies of aerosol retrievals over the ocean from multiangle, multispectral photopolarimetric remote sensing data,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 383–397 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. Jaffe, J. Mclean, M. Strand, and K. Moore, “Underwater optical imaging: status and prospects,” Oceanography 14, 64–75 (2001).

2000

1993

1990

J. Jaffe, “Computer modeling and the design of optimal underwater imaging systems,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 15, 101–111 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987

A. Pentland, “A new sense for depth of field,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 9, 523–531 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1979

B. McGlamery, “A computer model for underwater camera systems,” Proc. SPIE 0208, 221–231 (1979).

1977

1976

1973

W. Wells, “Theory of small angle scattering,” AGARD Conf. Proc. 81, 1–20 (1973).

Abdul Salam, R.

K. Iqbal, R. Abdul Salam, M. Osman, and A. Talib, “Underwater image enhancement using an integrated colour model,” IAENG Int. J. Comput. Sci. 34, 239–244 (2007).

Agrawal, Y. C.

Y. C. Agrawal, “The optical volume scattering function: temporal and vertical variability in the water column off the New Jersey coast,” Liminology and Oceanography 50, 1787–1794 (2005).

Ahlén, J.

J. Ahlén, D. Sundgren, and E. Bengtsson, “Application of underwater hyperspectral data for color correction purposes,” Pattern Recog. Image Anal. 17, 170–173 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Ahlén, E. Bengtsson, and D. Sundgren, “Evaluation of underwater spectral data for colour correction applications,” in Proceedings of the 5th WSEAS International Conference on Circuits, Systems, Electronics, Control & Signal Processing (World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society, 2006), pp. 321–326.

Amano, K.

E. Valero, J. Nieves, S. Nascimento, K. Amano, and D. Foster, “Recovering spectral data from natural scenes with an RGB digital camera and colored filters,” Color Res. Appl. 32, 352–360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, R.

Bazeille, S.

S. Bazeille, I. Quidu, L. Jaulin, and J.-P. Malkasse, “Automatic underwater image preprocessing,” presented at CMM06, Brest, France, 16–19 October 2006).

Bengtsson, E.

J. Ahlén, D. Sundgren, and E. Bengtsson, “Application of underwater hyperspectral data for color correction purposes,” Pattern Recog. Image Anal. 17, 170–173 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Ahlén, E. Bengtsson, and D. Sundgren, “Evaluation of underwater spectral data for colour correction applications,” in Proceedings of the 5th WSEAS International Conference on Circuits, Systems, Electronics, Control & Signal Processing (World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society, 2006), pp. 321–326.

Caimi, F.

D. Kocak, F. Dalgleish, and F. Caimi, “A focus on recent developments and trends in underwater imaging,” Marine Technology 42, 52–67 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cairns, B.

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, “Case studies of aerosol retrievals over the ocean from multiangle, multispectral photopolarimetric remote sensing data,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 383–397 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Capelle-Laize, A.-S.

F. Petit, A.-S. Capelle-Laize, and P. Carre, “Underwater image enhancement by attenuation inversion with quaternions,” in IEEE International Conference on Acoustics Speech and Signal Processing (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1177–1180.

Carre, P.

F. Petit, A.-S. Capelle-Laize, and P. Carre, “Underwater image enhancement by attenuation inversion with quaternions,” in IEEE International Conference on Acoustics Speech and Signal Processing (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1177–1180.

Chambah, M.

M. Chambah, D. Semani, A. Renouf, P. Courtellemont, and A. Rizzi, “Underwater color constancy: enhancement of automatic live fish recognition,” Proc. SPIE 5293, 157–168 (2003).

Chowdhary, J.

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, “Case studies of aerosol retrievals over the ocean from multiangle, multispectral photopolarimetric remote sensing data,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 383–397 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Clark, R.

R. Clark, G. Swayze, R. Wise, E. Livo, T. Hoefen, R. Kokaly, and S. Sutley, “USGS digital spectral library splib06a; U.S. Geological Survey, Digital Data Series 231, http://speclab.cr.usgs.gov/spectral.lib06 ” (2007).

Corchs, S.

R. Schettini and S. Corchs, “Underwater image processing: state of the art of restoration and image enhancement methods,” EURASIP J. Adv. Sig. Proc. 2010 (2010).

Courtellemont, P.

M. Chambah, D. Semani, A. Renouf, P. Courtellemont, and A. Rizzi, “Underwater color constancy: enhancement of automatic live fish recognition,” Proc. SPIE 5293, 157–168 (2003).

Dalgleish, F.

D. Kocak, F. Dalgleish, and F. Caimi, “A focus on recent developments and trends in underwater imaging,” Marine Technology 42, 52–67 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dudek, G.

L. Torres-Méndez and G. Dudek, “Color correction of underwater images for aquatic robot inspection,” in Energy Minimization Methods in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (Springer, 2005), pp. 60–73.

Duntley, S.

S. Duntley, “Underwater lighting by submerged lasers and incandescent sources,” Tech. Rep. (Scripps. Inst. of Oceanography, 1971).

Foster, D.

E. Valero, J. Nieves, S. Nascimento, K. Amano, and D. Foster, “Recovering spectral data from natural scenes with an RGB digital camera and colored filters,” Color Res. Appl. 32, 352–360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gentili, B.

Gordon, H. R.

Gray, D.

Han, X.

S. Negahdaripour, H. Zhang, and X. Han, “Investigation of photometric stereo method for 3-d shape recovery from underwater imagery,” in MTS/IEEE Oceans (Marine Technol. Soc, 2002), pp. 1010–1017.

Hoefen, T.

R. Clark, G. Swayze, R. Wise, E. Livo, T. Hoefen, R. Kokaly, and S. Sutley, “USGS digital spectral library splib06a; U.S. Geological Survey, Digital Data Series 231, http://speclab.cr.usgs.gov/spectral.lib06 ” (2007).

Holst, G. C.

G. C. Holst and T. S. Lomheim, CMOS/CCD Sensors and Camera Systems (SPIE, 2007).

Hou, W.

Iqbal, K.

K. Iqbal, R. Abdul Salam, M. Osman, and A. Talib, “Underwater image enhancement using an integrated colour model,” IAENG Int. J. Comput. Sci. 34, 239–244 (2007).

Jaffe, J.

J. Jaffe, J. Mclean, M. Strand, and K. Moore, “Underwater optical imaging: status and prospects,” Oceanography 14, 64–75 (2001).

J. Jaffe, “Computer modeling and the design of optimal underwater imaging systems,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 15, 101–111 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jaulin, L.

S. Bazeille, I. Quidu, L. Jaulin, and J.-P. Malkasse, “Automatic underwater image preprocessing,” presented at CMM06, Brest, France, 16–19 October 2006).

Jin, Z.

Karpel, N.

Y. Schechner and N. Karpel, “Recovery of underwater visibility and structure by polarization analysis,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 30, 570–587 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kattawar, G. W.

Kocak, D.

D. Kocak, F. Dalgleish, and F. Caimi, “A focus on recent developments and trends in underwater imaging,” Marine Technology 42, 52–67 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kokaly, R.

R. Clark, G. Swayze, R. Wise, E. Livo, T. Hoefen, R. Kokaly, and S. Sutley, “USGS digital spectral library splib06a; U.S. Geological Survey, Digital Data Series 231, http://speclab.cr.usgs.gov/spectral.lib06 ” (2007).

Lee, M. E.

M. E. Lee and R. L. Lewis, “A new method for the measurement of the optical volume scattering function in the upper ocean,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20, 563–571 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, R. L.

M. E. Lee and R. L. Lewis, “A new method for the measurement of the optical volume scattering function in the upper ocean,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20, 563–571 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Livo, E.

R. Clark, G. Swayze, R. Wise, E. Livo, T. Hoefen, R. Kokaly, and S. Sutley, “USGS digital spectral library splib06a; U.S. Geological Survey, Digital Data Series 231, http://speclab.cr.usgs.gov/spectral.lib06 ” (2007).

Loisel, H.

Lomheim, T. S.

G. C. Holst and T. S. Lomheim, CMOS/CCD Sensors and Camera Systems (SPIE, 2007).

Luo, M. R.

L. W. MacDonald and M. R. Luo, Colour Imaging: Vision and Technology (Wiley, 1999).

MacDonald, L. W.

L. W. MacDonald and M. R. Luo, Colour Imaging: Vision and Technology (Wiley, 1999).

Malkasse, J.-P.

S. Bazeille, I. Quidu, L. Jaulin, and J.-P. Malkasse, “Automatic underwater image preprocessing,” presented at CMM06, Brest, France, 16–19 October 2006).

Mancill, C.

McGlamery, B.

B. McGlamery, “A computer model for underwater camera systems,” Proc. SPIE 0208, 221–231 (1979).

B. McGlamery, “Computer analysis and simulation of underwater camera system performance,” Tech. Rep. (Scripps. Inst. of Oceanography, 1975).

Mclean, J.

J. Jaffe, J. Mclean, M. Strand, and K. Moore, “Underwater optical imaging: status and prospects,” Oceanography 14, 64–75 (2001).

Mertens, L.

Mitre, S. K.

C. R. Rao and S. K. Mitre, “Generalized inverse of a matrix and its application,” in Proceedings of the 6th Berkeley Symposium of Mathematical Statistics and Probability (University of California, 1972), Vol. I, pp. 601–620.

Mobley, C.

C. Mobley, Light and Water (Academic, 1994).

Mobley, C. D.

Moore, K.

J. Jaffe, J. Mclean, M. Strand, and K. Moore, “Underwater optical imaging: status and prospects,” Oceanography 14, 64–75 (2001).

Nascimento, S.

E. Valero, J. Nieves, S. Nascimento, K. Amano, and D. Foster, “Recovering spectral data from natural scenes with an RGB digital camera and colored filters,” Color Res. Appl. 32, 352–360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Negahdaripour, S.

S. Negahdaripour, H. Zhang, and X. Han, “Investigation of photometric stereo method for 3-d shape recovery from underwater imagery,” in MTS/IEEE Oceans (Marine Technol. Soc, 2002), pp. 1010–1017.

Nieves, J.

E. Valero, J. Nieves, S. Nascimento, K. Amano, and D. Foster, “Recovering spectral data from natural scenes with an RGB digital camera and colored filters,” Color Res. Appl. 32, 352–360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Olmos-Antillon, A.

E. Trucco and A. Olmos-Antillon, “Self-tuning underwater image restoration,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 31, 511–519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Osman, M.

K. Iqbal, R. Abdul Salam, M. Osman, and A. Talib, “Underwater image enhancement using an integrated colour model,” IAENG Int. J. Comput. Sci. 34, 239–244 (2007).

Pentland, A.

A. Pentland, “A new sense for depth of field,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 9, 523–531 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Petit, F.

F. Petit, A.-S. Capelle-Laize, and P. Carre, “Underwater image enhancement by attenuation inversion with quaternions,” in IEEE International Conference on Acoustics Speech and Signal Processing (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1177–1180.

Petzold, T.

T. Petzold, “Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters,” Tech. Rep. (Scripps. Inst. of Oceanography, 1972).

Pratt, W.

Quidu, I.

S. Bazeille, I. Quidu, L. Jaulin, and J.-P. Malkasse, “Automatic underwater image preprocessing,” presented at CMM06, Brest, France, 16–19 October 2006).

Rao, C. R.

C. R. Rao and S. K. Mitre, “Generalized inverse of a matrix and its application,” in Proceedings of the 6th Berkeley Symposium of Mathematical Statistics and Probability (University of California, 1972), Vol. I, pp. 601–620.

Reinersman, P.

Renouf, A.

M. Chambah, D. Semani, A. Renouf, P. Courtellemont, and A. Rizzi, “Underwater color constancy: enhancement of automatic live fish recognition,” Proc. SPIE 5293, 157–168 (2003).

Replogle, F.

Rizzi, A.

M. Chambah, D. Semani, A. Renouf, P. Courtellemont, and A. Rizzi, “Underwater color constancy: enhancement of automatic live fish recognition,” Proc. SPIE 5293, 157–168 (2003).

Schechner, Y.

T. Treibitz and Y. Schechner, “Active polarization descattering,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 31, 385–399(2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Schechner and N. Karpel, “Recovery of underwater visibility and structure by polarization analysis,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 30, 570–587 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schettini, R.

R. Schettini and S. Corchs, “Underwater image processing: state of the art of restoration and image enhancement methods,” EURASIP J. Adv. Sig. Proc. 2010 (2010).

Semani, D.

M. Chambah, D. Semani, A. Renouf, P. Courtellemont, and A. Rizzi, “Underwater color constancy: enhancement of automatic live fish recognition,” Proc. SPIE 5293, 157–168 (2003).

Stamnes, K.

Stavn, R. H.

Stramski, D.

Strand, M.

J. Jaffe, J. Mclean, M. Strand, and K. Moore, “Underwater optical imaging: status and prospects,” Oceanography 14, 64–75 (2001).

Sundgren, D.

J. Ahlén, D. Sundgren, and E. Bengtsson, “Application of underwater hyperspectral data for color correction purposes,” Pattern Recog. Image Anal. 17, 170–173 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Ahlén, E. Bengtsson, and D. Sundgren, “Evaluation of underwater spectral data for colour correction applications,” in Proceedings of the 5th WSEAS International Conference on Circuits, Systems, Electronics, Control & Signal Processing (World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society, 2006), pp. 321–326.

Sutley, S.

R. Clark, G. Swayze, R. Wise, E. Livo, T. Hoefen, R. Kokaly, and S. Sutley, “USGS digital spectral library splib06a; U.S. Geological Survey, Digital Data Series 231, http://speclab.cr.usgs.gov/spectral.lib06 ” (2007).

Swayze, G.

R. Clark, G. Swayze, R. Wise, E. Livo, T. Hoefen, R. Kokaly, and S. Sutley, “USGS digital spectral library splib06a; U.S. Geological Survey, Digital Data Series 231, http://speclab.cr.usgs.gov/spectral.lib06 ” (2007).

Talib, A.

K. Iqbal, R. Abdul Salam, M. Osman, and A. Talib, “Underwater image enhancement using an integrated colour model,” IAENG Int. J. Comput. Sci. 34, 239–244 (2007).

Torres-Méndez, L.

L. Torres-Méndez and G. Dudek, “Color correction of underwater images for aquatic robot inspection,” in Energy Minimization Methods in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (Springer, 2005), pp. 60–73.

Travis, L. D.

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, “Case studies of aerosol retrievals over the ocean from multiangle, multispectral photopolarimetric remote sensing data,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 383–397 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Treibitz, T.

T. Treibitz and Y. Schechner, “Active polarization descattering,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 31, 385–399(2009).
[CrossRef]

Trucco, E.

E. Trucco and A. Olmos-Antillon, “Self-tuning underwater image restoration,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 31, 511–519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Valero, E.

E. Valero, J. Nieves, S. Nascimento, K. Amano, and D. Foster, “Recovering spectral data from natural scenes with an RGB digital camera and colored filters,” Color Res. Appl. 32, 352–360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weidemann, A.

Wells, W.

W. Wells, “Theory of small angle scattering,” AGARD Conf. Proc. 81, 1–20 (1973).

Wise, R.

R. Clark, G. Swayze, R. Wise, E. Livo, T. Hoefen, R. Kokaly, and S. Sutley, “USGS digital spectral library splib06a; U.S. Geological Survey, Digital Data Series 231, http://speclab.cr.usgs.gov/spectral.lib06 ” (2007).

Zhang, H.

S. Negahdaripour, H. Zhang, and X. Han, “Investigation of photometric stereo method for 3-d shape recovery from underwater imagery,” in MTS/IEEE Oceans (Marine Technol. Soc, 2002), pp. 1010–1017.

AGARD Conf. Proc.

W. Wells, “Theory of small angle scattering,” AGARD Conf. Proc. 81, 1–20 (1973).

Appl. Opt.

Color Res. Appl.

E. Valero, J. Nieves, S. Nascimento, K. Amano, and D. Foster, “Recovering spectral data from natural scenes with an RGB digital camera and colored filters,” Color Res. Appl. 32, 352–360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

EURASIP J. Adv. Sig. Proc.

R. Schettini and S. Corchs, “Underwater image processing: state of the art of restoration and image enhancement methods,” EURASIP J. Adv. Sig. Proc. 2010 (2010).

IAENG Int. J. Comput. Sci.

K. Iqbal, R. Abdul Salam, M. Osman, and A. Talib, “Underwater image enhancement using an integrated colour model,” IAENG Int. J. Comput. Sci. 34, 239–244 (2007).

IEEE J. Ocean. Eng.

J. Jaffe, “Computer modeling and the design of optimal underwater imaging systems,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 15, 101–111 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. Trucco and A. Olmos-Antillon, “Self-tuning underwater image restoration,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 31, 511–519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Schechner and N. Karpel, “Recovery of underwater visibility and structure by polarization analysis,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 30, 570–587 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell.

A. Pentland, “A new sense for depth of field,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 9, 523–531 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. Treibitz and Y. Schechner, “Active polarization descattering,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 31, 385–399(2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.

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