Abstract

Polarization-gating has been widely used to probe superficial tissue structures, but the penetration depth properties of this method have not been completely elucidated. This study employs a polarization-sensitive Monte Carlo method to characterize the penetration depth statistics of polarization-gating. The analysis demonstrates that the penetration depth depends on both the illumination-collection geometry [illumination-collection area (R) and collection angle (θc)] and on the optical properties of the sample, which include the scattering coefficient (μs), absorption coefficient (μa), anisotropy factor (g), and the type of the phase function. We develop a mathematical expression relating the average penetration depth to the illumination-collection beam properties and optical properties of the medium. Finally, we quantify the sensitivity of the average penetration depth to changes in optical properties for different geometries of illumination and collection. The penetration depth model derived in this study can be applied to optimizing application-specific fiber-optic probes to target a sampling depth of interest with minimal sensitivity to the optical properties of the sample.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011 (3)

A. Radosevich, J. Rogers, V. Turzhitsky, N. Mutyal, J. Yi, H. Roy, and V. Backman, “Polarized enhanced backscattering spectroscopy for characterization of biological tissues at subdiffusion length-scales,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1313–1325 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Tiwari, S. E. Crawford, A. Radosevich, R. K. Wali, Y. Stypula, D. P. Kunte, N. Mutyal, S. Ruderman, A. Gomes, M. L. Cornwell, M. D. Cruz, J. Brasky, T. P. Gibson, V. Backman, and H. K. Roy, “Neo-angiogenesis and the premalignant micro-circulatory augmentation of early colon carcinogenesis,” Cancer Lett. 306, 205–213 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. G. Terry, Y. Zhu, M. T. Rinehart, W. J. Brown, S. C. Gebhart, S. Bright, E. Carretta, C. G. Ziefle, M. Panjehpour, J. Galanko, R. D. Madanick, E. S. Dellon, D. Trembath, A. Bennett, J. R. Goldblum, B. F. Overholt, J. T. Woosley, N. J. Shaheen, and A. Wax, “Detection of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus with in vivo depth-resolved nuclear morphology measurements,” Gastroenterology 140, 42–50 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (4)

L. T. Nieman, M. Jakovljevic, and K. Sokolov, “Compact beveled fiber optic probe design for enhanced depth discrimination in epithelial tissues,” Opt. Express 17, 2780–2796 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Rogers, I. R. Capoglu, and V. Backman, “Nonscalar elastic light scattering from continuous random media in the Born approximation,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1891–1893 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Pavlova, C. R. Weber, R. A. Schwarz, M. D. Williams, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of oral tissue: Monte Carlo modeling with site-specific tissue properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 014009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15, 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135, 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Nieman, C. W. Kan, A. Gillenwater, M. K. Markey, and K. Sokolov, “Probing local tissue changes in the oral cavity for early detection of cancer using oblique polarized reflectance spectroscopy: a pilot clinical trial,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Guo, M. F. G. Wood, and A. Vitkin, “A Monte Carlo study of penetration depth and sampling volume of polarized light in turbid media,” Opt. Commun. 281, 380–387 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Turzhitsky, A. J. Gomes, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, A. Kromine, J. D. Rogers, M. Jameel, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Measuring mucosal blood supply in vivo with a polarization-gating probe,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6046–6057 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

2005 (10)

Y. Liu, Y. Kim, X. Li, and V. Backman, “Investigation of depth selectivity of polarization gating for tissue characterization,” Opt. Express 13, 601–611 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, Y. L. Kim, and V. Backman, “Development of a bioengineered tissue model and its application in the investigation of the depth selectivity of polarization gating,” Appl. Opt. 44, 2288–2299 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Schwarz, D. Arifler, S. K. Chang, I. Pavlova, I. A. Hussain, V. Mack, B. Knight, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Ball lens coupled fiber-optic probe for depth-resolved spectroscopy of epithelial tissue,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1159–1161 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Ramella-Roman, S. Prahl, and S. Jacques, “Three Monte Carlo programs of polarized light transport into scattering media: part I,” Opt. Express 13, 4420–4438 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Arifler, R. A. Schwarz, S. K. Chang, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for diagnosis of epithelial precancer: model-based analysis of fiber-optic probe designs to resolve spectral information from epithelium and stroma,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4291–4305 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Ramella-Roman, S. A. Prahl, and S. L. Jacques, “Three Monte Carlo programs of polarized light transport into scattering media: part II,” Opt. Express 13, 10392–10405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Wang, J. E. Bender, J. Pfefer, U. Utzinger, and R. A. Drezek, “Depth-sensitive reflectance measurements using obliquely oriented fiber probes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 44017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Pfefer, A. Agrawal, and R. A. Drezek, “Oblique-incidence illumination and collection for depth-selective fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 44016 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Wei, D. Xing, J. J. Lu, H. M. Gu, G. Y. Wu, and Y. Jin, “Determination of optical properties of normal and adenomatous human colon tissues in vitro using integrating sphere techniques,” World J. Gastroenterol. 11, 2413–2419 (2005).

R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, J. L. Koetsier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, V. Turzhitsky, and V. Backman, “Increased microvascular blood content is an early event in colon carcinogenesis,” Gut. 54, 654–660 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

2003 (4)

C. Zhu, Q. Liu, and N. Ramanujam, “Effect of fiber optic probe geometry on depth-resolved fluorescence measurements from epithelial tissues: a Monte Carlo simulation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 237–247 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Kim, L. Yang, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, C. Kun, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, A. M. Ross, and M. N. Ediger, “Selective detection of fluorophore layers in turbid media: the role of fiber-optic probe design,” Opt. Lett. 28, 120–122 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Jaillon and H. Saint-Jalmes, “Description and time reduction of a Monte Carlo code to simulate propagation of polarized light through scattering media,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3290–3296 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

L. Quan and N. Ramanujam, “Relationship between depth of a target in a turbid medium and fluorescence measured by a variable-aperture method,” Opt. Lett. 27, 104–106 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Pfefer, K. T. Schomacker, M. N. Ediger, and N. S. Nishioka, “Multiple-fiber probe design for fluorescence spectroscopy in tissue,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4712–4721 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, “Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: design and performance,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 388–397 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329–340 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Moscoso, J. B. Keller, and G. Papanicolaou, “Depolarization and blurring of optical images by biological tissue,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A Opt. Image Sci. Vis. 18, 948–960(2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 119–129 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1996 (1)

M. Dogariu and T. Asakura, “Photon pathlength distribution from polarized backscattering in random media,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2234–2239 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

R. R. Anderson, “Polarized light examination and photography of the skin,” Arch. Dermatol. 127, 1000–1005 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A’Amar, O.

Aarnoudse, J. G.

Aaron, J.

Agrawal, A.

T. J. Pfefer, A. Agrawal, and R. A. Drezek, “Oblique-incidence illumination and collection for depth-selective fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 44016 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

Amelink, A.

Anderson, R. R.

R. R. Anderson, “Polarized light examination and photography of the skin,” Arch. Dermatol. 127, 1000–1005 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Arifler, D.

Asakura, T.

M. Dogariu and T. Asakura, “Photon pathlength distribution from polarized backscattering in random media,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2234–2239 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Backman, V.

A. K. Tiwari, S. E. Crawford, A. Radosevich, R. K. Wali, Y. Stypula, D. P. Kunte, N. Mutyal, S. Ruderman, A. Gomes, M. L. Cornwell, M. D. Cruz, J. Brasky, T. P. Gibson, V. Backman, and H. K. Roy, “Neo-angiogenesis and the premalignant micro-circulatory augmentation of early colon carcinogenesis,” Cancer Lett. 306, 205–213 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Radosevich, J. Rogers, V. Turzhitsky, N. Mutyal, J. Yi, H. Roy, and V. Backman, “Polarized enhanced backscattering spectroscopy for characterization of biological tissues at subdiffusion length-scales,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1313–1325 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Turzhitsky, A. Radosevich, J. D. Rogers, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, “A predictive model of backscattering at subdiffusion length scales,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 1034–1046 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15, 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Rogers, I. R. Capoglu, and V. Backman, “Nonscalar elastic light scattering from continuous random media in the Born approximation,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1891–1893 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135, 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Turzhitsky, A. J. Gomes, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, A. Kromine, J. D. Rogers, M. Jameel, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Measuring mucosal blood supply in vivo with a polarization-gating probe,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6046–6057 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Siegel, Y. L. Kim, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, and V. Backman, “Assessment of blood supply in superficial tissue by polarization-gated elastic light-scattering spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 45, 335–342 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, J. L. Koetsier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, V. Turzhitsky, and V. Backman, “Increased microvascular blood content is an early event in colon carcinogenesis,” Gut. 54, 654–660 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, Y. Kim, X. Li, and V. Backman, “Investigation of depth selectivity of polarization gating for tissue characterization,” Opt. Express 13, 601–611 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, Y. L. Kim, and V. Backman, “Development of a bioengineered tissue model and its application in the investigation of the depth selectivity of polarization gating,” Appl. Opt. 44, 2288–2299 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Kim, L. Yang, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, C. Kun, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Badizadegan, K.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bard, M. P.

Bender, J. E.

A. M. Wang, J. E. Bender, J. Pfefer, U. Utzinger, and R. A. Drezek, “Depth-sensitive reflectance measurements using obliquely oriented fiber probes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 44017 (2005).
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A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15, 3110–3117 (2009).
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Brand, R. E.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135, 1069–1078 (2008).
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A. K. Tiwari, S. E. Crawford, A. Radosevich, R. K. Wali, Y. Stypula, D. P. Kunte, N. Mutyal, S. Ruderman, A. Gomes, M. L. Cornwell, M. D. Cruz, J. Brasky, T. P. Gibson, V. Backman, and H. K. Roy, “Neo-angiogenesis and the premalignant micro-circulatory augmentation of early colon carcinogenesis,” Cancer Lett. 306, 205–213 (2011).
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N. G. Terry, Y. Zhu, M. T. Rinehart, W. J. Brown, S. C. Gebhart, S. Bright, E. Carretta, C. G. Ziefle, M. Panjehpour, J. Galanko, R. D. Madanick, E. S. Dellon, D. Trembath, A. Bennett, J. R. Goldblum, B. F. Overholt, J. T. Woosley, N. J. Shaheen, and A. Wax, “Detection of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus with in vivo depth-resolved nuclear morphology measurements,” Gastroenterology 140, 42–50 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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N. G. Terry, Y. Zhu, M. T. Rinehart, W. J. Brown, S. C. Gebhart, S. Bright, E. Carretta, C. G. Ziefle, M. Panjehpour, J. Galanko, R. D. Madanick, E. S. Dellon, D. Trembath, A. Bennett, J. R. Goldblum, B. F. Overholt, J. T. Woosley, N. J. Shaheen, and A. Wax, “Detection of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus with in vivo depth-resolved nuclear morphology measurements,” Gastroenterology 140, 42–50 (2011).
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Capoglu, I. R.

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Cornwell, M. L.

A. K. Tiwari, S. E. Crawford, A. Radosevich, R. K. Wali, Y. Stypula, D. P. Kunte, N. Mutyal, S. Ruderman, A. Gomes, M. L. Cornwell, M. D. Cruz, J. Brasky, T. P. Gibson, V. Backman, and H. K. Roy, “Neo-angiogenesis and the premalignant micro-circulatory augmentation of early colon carcinogenesis,” Cancer Lett. 306, 205–213 (2011).
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A. K. Tiwari, S. E. Crawford, A. Radosevich, R. K. Wali, Y. Stypula, D. P. Kunte, N. Mutyal, S. Ruderman, A. Gomes, M. L. Cornwell, M. D. Cruz, J. Brasky, T. P. Gibson, V. Backman, and H. K. Roy, “Neo-angiogenesis and the premalignant micro-circulatory augmentation of early colon carcinogenesis,” Cancer Lett. 306, 205–213 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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A. K. Tiwari, S. E. Crawford, A. Radosevich, R. K. Wali, Y. Stypula, D. P. Kunte, N. Mutyal, S. Ruderman, A. Gomes, M. L. Cornwell, M. D. Cruz, J. Brasky, T. P. Gibson, V. Backman, and H. K. Roy, “Neo-angiogenesis and the premalignant micro-circulatory augmentation of early colon carcinogenesis,” Cancer Lett. 306, 205–213 (2011).
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V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019–1026 (1999).
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N. G. Terry, Y. Zhu, M. T. Rinehart, W. J. Brown, S. C. Gebhart, S. Bright, E. Carretta, C. G. Ziefle, M. Panjehpour, J. Galanko, R. D. Madanick, E. S. Dellon, D. Trembath, A. Bennett, J. R. Goldblum, B. F. Overholt, J. T. Woosley, N. J. Shaheen, and A. Wax, “Detection of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus with in vivo depth-resolved nuclear morphology measurements,” Gastroenterology 140, 42–50 (2011).
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T. J. Pfefer, A. Agrawal, and R. A. Drezek, “Oblique-incidence illumination and collection for depth-selective fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 44016 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Wang, J. E. Bender, J. Pfefer, U. Utzinger, and R. A. Drezek, “Depth-sensitive reflectance measurements using obliquely oriented fiber probes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 44017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Feld, M. S.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019–1026 (1999).
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N. G. Terry, Y. Zhu, M. T. Rinehart, W. J. Brown, S. C. Gebhart, S. Bright, E. Carretta, C. G. Ziefle, M. Panjehpour, J. Galanko, R. D. Madanick, E. S. Dellon, D. Trembath, A. Bennett, J. R. Goldblum, B. F. Overholt, J. T. Woosley, N. J. Shaheen, and A. Wax, “Detection of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus with in vivo depth-resolved nuclear morphology measurements,” Gastroenterology 140, 42–50 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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N. G. Terry, Y. Zhu, M. T. Rinehart, W. J. Brown, S. C. Gebhart, S. Bright, E. Carretta, C. G. Ziefle, M. Panjehpour, J. Galanko, R. D. Madanick, E. S. Dellon, D. Trembath, A. Bennett, J. R. Goldblum, B. F. Overholt, J. T. Woosley, N. J. Shaheen, and A. Wax, “Detection of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus with in vivo depth-resolved nuclear morphology measurements,” Gastroenterology 140, 42–50 (2011).
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M. C. Skala, G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, Q. Liu, K. M. Vrotsos, C. L. Marshek-Stone, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, and N. Ramanujam, “Investigation of fiber-optic probe designs for optical spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial pre-cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34, 25–38 (2004).
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Gibson, T. P.

A. K. Tiwari, S. E. Crawford, A. Radosevich, R. K. Wali, Y. Stypula, D. P. Kunte, N. Mutyal, S. Ruderman, A. Gomes, M. L. Cornwell, M. D. Cruz, J. Brasky, T. P. Gibson, V. Backman, and H. K. Roy, “Neo-angiogenesis and the premalignant micro-circulatory augmentation of early colon carcinogenesis,” Cancer Lett. 306, 205–213 (2011).
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L. T. Nieman, C. W. Kan, A. Gillenwater, M. K. Markey, and K. Sokolov, “Probing local tissue changes in the oral cavity for early detection of cancer using oblique polarized reflectance spectroscopy: a pilot clinical trial,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024011 (2008).
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I. Pavlova, C. R. Weber, R. A. Schwarz, M. D. Williams, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of oral tissue: Monte Carlo modeling with site-specific tissue properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 014009 (2009).
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[CrossRef]

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135, 1069–1078 (2008).
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R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, J. L. Koetsier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, V. Turzhitsky, and V. Backman, “Increased microvascular blood content is an early event in colon carcinogenesis,” Gut. 54, 654–660 (2005).
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Y. L. Kim, L. Yang, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, C. Kun, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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N. G. Terry, Y. Zhu, M. T. Rinehart, W. J. Brown, S. C. Gebhart, S. Bright, E. Carretta, C. G. Ziefle, M. Panjehpour, J. Galanko, R. D. Madanick, E. S. Dellon, D. Trembath, A. Bennett, J. R. Goldblum, B. F. Overholt, J. T. Woosley, N. J. Shaheen, and A. Wax, “Detection of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus with in vivo depth-resolved nuclear morphology measurements,” Gastroenterology 140, 42–50 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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A. K. Tiwari, S. E. Crawford, A. Radosevich, R. K. Wali, Y. Stypula, D. P. Kunte, N. Mutyal, S. Ruderman, A. Gomes, M. L. Cornwell, M. D. Cruz, J. Brasky, T. P. Gibson, V. Backman, and H. K. Roy, “Neo-angiogenesis and the premalignant micro-circulatory augmentation of early colon carcinogenesis,” Cancer Lett. 306, 205–213 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135, 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A. J.

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15, 3110–3117 (2009).
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V. M. Turzhitsky, A. J. Gomes, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, A. Kromine, J. D. Rogers, M. Jameel, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Measuring mucosal blood supply in vivo with a polarization-gating probe,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6046–6057 (2008).
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Greve, J.

Gu, H. M.

H. J. Wei, D. Xing, J. J. Lu, H. M. Gu, G. Y. Wu, and Y. Jin, “Determination of optical properties of normal and adenomatous human colon tissues in vitro using integrating sphere techniques,” World J. Gastroenterol. 11, 2413–2419 (2005).

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V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019–1026 (1999).
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Hasabou, N.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135, 1069–1078 (2008).
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Itzkan, I.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019–1026 (1999).
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Jacques, S. L.

Jaillon, F.

Jakovljevic, M.

Jameel, M.

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15, 3110–3117 (2009).
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H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135, 1069–1078 (2008).
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V. M. Turzhitsky, A. J. Gomes, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, A. Kromine, J. D. Rogers, M. Jameel, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Measuring mucosal blood supply in vivo with a polarization-gating probe,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6046–6057 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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H. J. Wei, D. Xing, J. J. Lu, H. M. Gu, G. Y. Wu, and Y. Jin, “Determination of optical properties of normal and adenomatous human colon tissues in vitro using integrating sphere techniques,” World J. Gastroenterol. 11, 2413–2419 (2005).

Kan, C. W.

L. T. Nieman, C. W. Kan, A. Gillenwater, M. K. Markey, and K. Sokolov, “Probing local tissue changes in the oral cavity for early detection of cancer using oblique polarized reflectance spectroscopy: a pilot clinical trial,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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M. Moscoso, J. B. Keller, and G. Papanicolaou, “Depolarization and blurring of optical images by biological tissue,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A Opt. Image Sci. Vis. 18, 948–960(2001).
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Kim, Y.

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15, 3110–3117 (2009).
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Y. Liu, Y. Kim, X. Li, and V. Backman, “Investigation of depth selectivity of polarization gating for tissue characterization,” Opt. Express 13, 601–611 (2005).
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V. M. Turzhitsky, A. J. Gomes, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, A. Kromine, J. D. Rogers, M. Jameel, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Measuring mucosal blood supply in vivo with a polarization-gating probe,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6046–6057 (2008).
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M. P. Siegel, Y. L. Kim, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, and V. Backman, “Assessment of blood supply in superficial tissue by polarization-gated elastic light-scattering spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 45, 335–342 (2006).
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R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, J. L. Koetsier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, V. Turzhitsky, and V. Backman, “Increased microvascular blood content is an early event in colon carcinogenesis,” Gut. 54, 654–660 (2005).
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Y. Liu, Y. L. Kim, and V. Backman, “Development of a bioengineered tissue model and its application in the investigation of the depth selectivity of polarization gating,” Appl. Opt. 44, 2288–2299 (2005).
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Y. L. Kim, L. Yang, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, C. Kun, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243–256 (2003).
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Koelink, M. H.

Koetsier, J. L.

R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, J. L. Koetsier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, V. Turzhitsky, and V. Backman, “Increased microvascular blood content is an early event in colon carcinogenesis,” Gut. 54, 654–660 (2005).
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Kromin, A. K.

Y. L. Kim, L. Yang, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, C. Kun, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243–256 (2003).
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Kromine, A.

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15, 3110–3117 (2009).
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H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135, 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Turzhitsky, A. J. Gomes, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, A. Kromine, J. D. Rogers, M. Jameel, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Measuring mucosal blood supply in vivo with a polarization-gating probe,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6046–6057 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kun, C.

Y. L. Kim, L. Yang, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, C. Kun, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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A. K. Tiwari, S. E. Crawford, A. Radosevich, R. K. Wali, Y. Stypula, D. P. Kunte, N. Mutyal, S. Ruderman, A. Gomes, M. L. Cornwell, M. D. Cruz, J. Brasky, T. P. Gibson, V. Backman, and H. K. Roy, “Neo-angiogenesis and the premalignant micro-circulatory augmentation of early colon carcinogenesis,” Cancer Lett. 306, 205–213 (2011).
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R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, J. L. Koetsier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, V. Turzhitsky, and V. Backman, “Increased microvascular blood content is an early event in colon carcinogenesis,” Gut. 54, 654–660 (2005).
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S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329–340 (2002).
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C. Zhu, Q. Liu, and N. Ramanujam, “Effect of fiber optic probe geometry on depth-resolved fluorescence measurements from epithelial tissues: a Monte Carlo simulation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 237–247 (2003).
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H. J. Wei, D. Xing, J. J. Lu, H. M. Gu, G. Y. Wu, and Y. Jin, “Determination of optical properties of normal and adenomatous human colon tissues in vitro using integrating sphere techniques,” World J. Gastroenterol. 11, 2413–2419 (2005).

Mack, V.

Madanick, R. D.

N. G. Terry, Y. Zhu, M. T. Rinehart, W. J. Brown, S. C. Gebhart, S. Bright, E. Carretta, C. G. Ziefle, M. Panjehpour, J. Galanko, R. D. Madanick, E. S. Dellon, D. Trembath, A. Bennett, J. R. Goldblum, B. F. Overholt, J. T. Woosley, N. J. Shaheen, and A. Wax, “Detection of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus with in vivo depth-resolved nuclear morphology measurements,” Gastroenterology 140, 42–50 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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L. T. Nieman, C. W. Kan, A. Gillenwater, M. K. Markey, and K. Sokolov, “Probing local tissue changes in the oral cavity for early detection of cancer using oblique polarized reflectance spectroscopy: a pilot clinical trial,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024011 (2008).
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M. C. Skala, G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, Q. Liu, K. M. Vrotsos, C. L. Marshek-Stone, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, and N. Ramanujam, “Investigation of fiber-optic probe designs for optical spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial pre-cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34, 25–38 (2004).
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M. Moscoso, J. B. Keller, and G. Papanicolaou, “Depolarization and blurring of optical images by biological tissue,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A Opt. Image Sci. Vis. 18, 948–960(2001).
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A. K. Tiwari, S. E. Crawford, A. Radosevich, R. K. Wali, Y. Stypula, D. P. Kunte, N. Mutyal, S. Ruderman, A. Gomes, M. L. Cornwell, M. D. Cruz, J. Brasky, T. P. Gibson, V. Backman, and H. K. Roy, “Neo-angiogenesis and the premalignant micro-circulatory augmentation of early colon carcinogenesis,” Cancer Lett. 306, 205–213 (2011).
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A. Radosevich, J. Rogers, V. Turzhitsky, N. Mutyal, J. Yi, H. Roy, and V. Backman, “Polarized enhanced backscattering spectroscopy for characterization of biological tissues at subdiffusion length-scales,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1313–1325 (2011).
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L. Nieman, A. Myakov, J. Aaron, and K. Sokolov, “Optical sectioning using a fiber probe with an angled illumination-collection geometry: evaluation in engineered tissue phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 1308–1319 (2004).
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A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, “Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: design and performance,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 388–397 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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L. Nieman, A. Myakov, J. Aaron, and K. Sokolov, “Optical sectioning using a fiber probe with an angled illumination-collection geometry: evaluation in engineered tissue phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 1308–1319 (2004).
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A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, “Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: design and performance,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 388–397 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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L. T. Nieman, M. Jakovljevic, and K. Sokolov, “Compact beveled fiber optic probe design for enhanced depth discrimination in epithelial tissues,” Opt. Express 17, 2780–2796 (2009).
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L. T. Nieman, C. W. Kan, A. Gillenwater, M. K. Markey, and K. Sokolov, “Probing local tissue changes in the oral cavity for early detection of cancer using oblique polarized reflectance spectroscopy: a pilot clinical trial,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024011 (2008).
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N. G. Terry, Y. Zhu, M. T. Rinehart, W. J. Brown, S. C. Gebhart, S. Bright, E. Carretta, C. G. Ziefle, M. Panjehpour, J. Galanko, R. D. Madanick, E. S. Dellon, D. Trembath, A. Bennett, J. R. Goldblum, B. F. Overholt, J. T. Woosley, N. J. Shaheen, and A. Wax, “Detection of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus with in vivo depth-resolved nuclear morphology measurements,” Gastroenterology 140, 42–50 (2011).
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M. C. Skala, G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, Q. Liu, K. M. Vrotsos, C. L. Marshek-Stone, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, and N. Ramanujam, “Investigation of fiber-optic probe designs for optical spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial pre-cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34, 25–38 (2004).
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N. G. Terry, Y. Zhu, M. T. Rinehart, W. J. Brown, S. C. Gebhart, S. Bright, E. Carretta, C. G. Ziefle, M. Panjehpour, J. Galanko, R. D. Madanick, E. S. Dellon, D. Trembath, A. Bennett, J. R. Goldblum, B. F. Overholt, J. T. Woosley, N. J. Shaheen, and A. Wax, “Detection of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus with in vivo depth-resolved nuclear morphology measurements,” Gastroenterology 140, 42–50 (2011).
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R. A. Schwarz, D. Arifler, S. K. Chang, I. Pavlova, I. A. Hussain, V. Mack, B. Knight, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Ball lens coupled fiber-optic probe for depth-resolved spectroscopy of epithelial tissue,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1159–1161 (2005).
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A. M. Wang, J. E. Bender, J. Pfefer, U. Utzinger, and R. A. Drezek, “Depth-sensitive reflectance measurements using obliquely oriented fiber probes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 44017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pfefer, T. J.

Prahl, S.

Prahl, S. A.

Quan, L.

Radosevich, A.

A. K. Tiwari, S. E. Crawford, A. Radosevich, R. K. Wali, Y. Stypula, D. P. Kunte, N. Mutyal, S. Ruderman, A. Gomes, M. L. Cornwell, M. D. Cruz, J. Brasky, T. P. Gibson, V. Backman, and H. K. Roy, “Neo-angiogenesis and the premalignant micro-circulatory augmentation of early colon carcinogenesis,” Cancer Lett. 306, 205–213 (2011).
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A. Radosevich, J. Rogers, V. Turzhitsky, N. Mutyal, J. Yi, H. Roy, and V. Backman, “Polarized enhanced backscattering spectroscopy for characterization of biological tissues at subdiffusion length-scales,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1313–1325 (2011).
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V. Turzhitsky, A. Radosevich, J. D. Rogers, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, “A predictive model of backscattering at subdiffusion length scales,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 1034–1046 (2010).
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Ramanujam, N.

M. C. Skala, G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, Q. Liu, K. M. Vrotsos, C. L. Marshek-Stone, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, and N. Ramanujam, “Investigation of fiber-optic probe designs for optical spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial pre-cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34, 25–38 (2004).
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C. Zhu, Q. Liu, and N. Ramanujam, “Effect of fiber optic probe geometry on depth-resolved fluorescence measurements from epithelial tissues: a Monte Carlo simulation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 237–247 (2003).
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Ramella-Roman, J. C.

J. C. Ramella-Roman, S. A. Prahl, and S. L. Jacques, “Three Monte Carlo programs of polarized light transport into scattering media: part II,” Opt. Express 13, 10392–10405 (2005).
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S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329–340 (2002).
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Reif, R.

Richards-Kortum, R.

I. Pavlova, C. R. Weber, R. A. Schwarz, M. D. Williams, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of oral tissue: Monte Carlo modeling with site-specific tissue properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 014009 (2009).
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D. Arifler, R. A. Schwarz, S. K. Chang, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for diagnosis of epithelial precancer: model-based analysis of fiber-optic probe designs to resolve spectral information from epithelium and stroma,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4291–4305 (2005).
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R. A. Schwarz, D. Arifler, S. K. Chang, I. Pavlova, I. A. Hussain, V. Mack, B. Knight, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Ball lens coupled fiber-optic probe for depth-resolved spectroscopy of epithelial tissue,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1159–1161 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, “Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: design and performance,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 388–397 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rinehart, M. T.

N. G. Terry, Y. Zhu, M. T. Rinehart, W. J. Brown, S. C. Gebhart, S. Bright, E. Carretta, C. G. Ziefle, M. Panjehpour, J. Galanko, R. D. Madanick, E. S. Dellon, D. Trembath, A. Bennett, J. R. Goldblum, B. F. Overholt, J. T. Woosley, N. J. Shaheen, and A. Wax, “Detection of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus with in vivo depth-resolved nuclear morphology measurements,” Gastroenterology 140, 42–50 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J.

A. Radosevich, J. Rogers, V. Turzhitsky, N. Mutyal, J. Yi, H. Roy, and V. Backman, “Polarized enhanced backscattering spectroscopy for characterization of biological tissues at subdiffusion length-scales,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1313–1325 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135, 1069–1078 (2008).
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Rogers, J. D.

Roman, J. R.

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 119–129 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ross, A. M.

Roy, H.

A. Radosevich, J. Rogers, V. Turzhitsky, N. Mutyal, J. Yi, H. Roy, and V. Backman, “Polarized enhanced backscattering spectroscopy for characterization of biological tissues at subdiffusion length-scales,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1313–1325 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Roy, H. K.

A. K. Tiwari, S. E. Crawford, A. Radosevich, R. K. Wali, Y. Stypula, D. P. Kunte, N. Mutyal, S. Ruderman, A. Gomes, M. L. Cornwell, M. D. Cruz, J. Brasky, T. P. Gibson, V. Backman, and H. K. Roy, “Neo-angiogenesis and the premalignant micro-circulatory augmentation of early colon carcinogenesis,” Cancer Lett. 306, 205–213 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15, 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135, 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Turzhitsky, A. J. Gomes, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, A. Kromine, J. D. Rogers, M. Jameel, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Measuring mucosal blood supply in vivo with a polarization-gating probe,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6046–6057 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Siegel, Y. L. Kim, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, and V. Backman, “Assessment of blood supply in superficial tissue by polarization-gated elastic light-scattering spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 45, 335–342 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, J. L. Koetsier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, V. Turzhitsky, and V. Backman, “Increased microvascular blood content is an early event in colon carcinogenesis,” Gut. 54, 654–660 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Kim, L. Yang, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, C. Kun, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ruderman, S.

A. K. Tiwari, S. E. Crawford, A. Radosevich, R. K. Wali, Y. Stypula, D. P. Kunte, N. Mutyal, S. Ruderman, A. Gomes, M. L. Cornwell, M. D. Cruz, J. Brasky, T. P. Gibson, V. Backman, and H. K. Roy, “Neo-angiogenesis and the premalignant micro-circulatory augmentation of early colon carcinogenesis,” Cancer Lett. 306, 205–213 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15, 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135, 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Saint-Jalmes, H.

Schomacker, K. T.

Schwarz, R. A.

Shaheen, N. J.

N. G. Terry, Y. Zhu, M. T. Rinehart, W. J. Brown, S. C. Gebhart, S. Bright, E. Carretta, C. G. Ziefle, M. Panjehpour, J. Galanko, R. D. Madanick, E. S. Dellon, D. Trembath, A. Bennett, J. R. Goldblum, B. F. Overholt, J. T. Woosley, N. J. Shaheen, and A. Wax, “Detection of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus with in vivo depth-resolved nuclear morphology measurements,” Gastroenterology 140, 42–50 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, M. P.

Skala, M. C.

M. C. Skala, G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, Q. Liu, K. M. Vrotsos, C. L. Marshek-Stone, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, and N. Ramanujam, “Investigation of fiber-optic probe designs for optical spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial pre-cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34, 25–38 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sloot, P. M.

Sokolov, K.

L. T. Nieman, M. Jakovljevic, and K. Sokolov, “Compact beveled fiber optic probe design for enhanced depth discrimination in epithelial tissues,” Opt. Express 17, 2780–2796 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Nieman, C. W. Kan, A. Gillenwater, M. K. Markey, and K. Sokolov, “Probing local tissue changes in the oral cavity for early detection of cancer using oblique polarized reflectance spectroscopy: a pilot clinical trial,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Nieman, A. Myakov, J. Aaron, and K. Sokolov, “Optical sectioning using a fiber probe with an angled illumination-collection geometry: evaluation in engineered tissue phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 1308–1319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, “Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: design and performance,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 388–397 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sterenborg, H. J.

Stoyneva, V.

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15, 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stypula, Y.

A. K. Tiwari, S. E. Crawford, A. Radosevich, R. K. Wali, Y. Stypula, D. P. Kunte, N. Mutyal, S. Ruderman, A. Gomes, M. L. Cornwell, M. D. Cruz, J. Brasky, T. P. Gibson, V. Backman, and H. K. Roy, “Neo-angiogenesis and the premalignant micro-circulatory augmentation of early colon carcinogenesis,” Cancer Lett. 306, 205–213 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Taflove, A.

Terry, N. G.

N. G. Terry, Y. Zhu, M. T. Rinehart, W. J. Brown, S. C. Gebhart, S. Bright, E. Carretta, C. G. Ziefle, M. Panjehpour, J. Galanko, R. D. Madanick, E. S. Dellon, D. Trembath, A. Bennett, J. R. Goldblum, B. F. Overholt, J. T. Woosley, N. J. Shaheen, and A. Wax, “Detection of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus with in vivo depth-resolved nuclear morphology measurements,” Gastroenterology 140, 42–50 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

Tiwari, A. K.

A. K. Tiwari, S. E. Crawford, A. Radosevich, R. K. Wali, Y. Stypula, D. P. Kunte, N. Mutyal, S. Ruderman, A. Gomes, M. L. Cornwell, M. D. Cruz, J. Brasky, T. P. Gibson, V. Backman, and H. K. Roy, “Neo-angiogenesis and the premalignant micro-circulatory augmentation of early colon carcinogenesis,” Cancer Lett. 306, 205–213 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Trembath, D.

N. G. Terry, Y. Zhu, M. T. Rinehart, W. J. Brown, S. C. Gebhart, S. Bright, E. Carretta, C. G. Ziefle, M. Panjehpour, J. Galanko, R. D. Madanick, E. S. Dellon, D. Trembath, A. Bennett, J. R. Goldblum, B. F. Overholt, J. T. Woosley, N. J. Shaheen, and A. Wax, “Detection of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus with in vivo depth-resolved nuclear morphology measurements,” Gastroenterology 140, 42–50 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Turzhitsky, V.

A. Radosevich, J. Rogers, V. Turzhitsky, N. Mutyal, J. Yi, H. Roy, and V. Backman, “Polarized enhanced backscattering spectroscopy for characterization of biological tissues at subdiffusion length-scales,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1313–1325 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Turzhitsky, A. Radosevich, J. D. Rogers, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, “A predictive model of backscattering at subdiffusion length scales,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 1034–1046 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15, 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135, 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, J. L. Koetsier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, V. Turzhitsky, and V. Backman, “Increased microvascular blood content is an early event in colon carcinogenesis,” Gut. 54, 654–660 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Turzhitsky, V. M.

Utzinger, U.

A. M. Wang, J. E. Bender, J. Pfefer, U. Utzinger, and R. A. Drezek, “Depth-sensitive reflectance measurements using obliquely oriented fiber probes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 44017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, “Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: design and performance,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 388–397 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vakil, P.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135, 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef]

van Gemert, M. J.

Vitkin, A.

X. Guo, M. F. G. Wood, and A. Vitkin, “A Monte Carlo study of penetration depth and sampling volume of polarized light in turbid media,” Opt. Commun. 281, 380–387 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Guo, M. F. Wood, and A. Vitkin, “Monte Carlo study of pathlength distribution of polarized light in turbid media,” Opt. Express 15, 1348–1360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vrotsos, K. M.

M. C. Skala, G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, Q. Liu, K. M. Vrotsos, C. L. Marshek-Stone, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, and N. Ramanujam, “Investigation of fiber-optic probe designs for optical spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial pre-cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34, 25–38 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wali, R. K.

A. K. Tiwari, S. E. Crawford, A. Radosevich, R. K. Wali, Y. Stypula, D. P. Kunte, N. Mutyal, S. Ruderman, A. Gomes, M. L. Cornwell, M. D. Cruz, J. Brasky, T. P. Gibson, V. Backman, and H. K. Roy, “Neo-angiogenesis and the premalignant micro-circulatory augmentation of early colon carcinogenesis,” Cancer Lett. 306, 205–213 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Siegel, Y. L. Kim, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, and V. Backman, “Assessment of blood supply in superficial tissue by polarization-gated elastic light-scattering spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 45, 335–342 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, J. L. Koetsier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, V. Turzhitsky, and V. Backman, “Increased microvascular blood content is an early event in colon carcinogenesis,” Gut. 54, 654–660 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Kim, L. Yang, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, C. Kun, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A. M.

A. M. Wang, J. E. Bender, J. Pfefer, U. Utzinger, and R. A. Drezek, “Depth-sensitive reflectance measurements using obliquely oriented fiber probes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 44017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

Wax, A.

N. G. Terry, Y. Zhu, M. T. Rinehart, W. J. Brown, S. C. Gebhart, S. Bright, E. Carretta, C. G. Ziefle, M. Panjehpour, J. Galanko, R. D. Madanick, E. S. Dellon, D. Trembath, A. Bennett, J. R. Goldblum, B. F. Overholt, J. T. Woosley, N. J. Shaheen, and A. Wax, “Detection of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus with in vivo depth-resolved nuclear morphology measurements,” Gastroenterology 140, 42–50 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Weber, C. R.

I. Pavlova, C. R. Weber, R. A. Schwarz, M. D. Williams, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of oral tissue: Monte Carlo modeling with site-specific tissue properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 014009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wei, H. J.

H. J. Wei, D. Xing, J. J. Lu, H. M. Gu, G. Y. Wu, and Y. Jin, “Determination of optical properties of normal and adenomatous human colon tissues in vitro using integrating sphere techniques,” World J. Gastroenterol. 11, 2413–2419 (2005).

Welch, A. J.

Wicky, L.

A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, “Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: design and performance,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 388–397 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Williams, M. D.

I. Pavlova, C. R. Weber, R. A. Schwarz, M. D. Williams, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of oral tissue: Monte Carlo modeling with site-specific tissue properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 014009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wood, M. F.

Wood, M. F. G.

X. Guo, M. F. G. Wood, and A. Vitkin, “A Monte Carlo study of penetration depth and sampling volume of polarized light in turbid media,” Opt. Commun. 281, 380–387 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Woosley, J. T.

N. G. Terry, Y. Zhu, M. T. Rinehart, W. J. Brown, S. C. Gebhart, S. Bright, E. Carretta, C. G. Ziefle, M. Panjehpour, J. Galanko, R. D. Madanick, E. S. Dellon, D. Trembath, A. Bennett, J. R. Goldblum, B. F. Overholt, J. T. Woosley, N. J. Shaheen, and A. Wax, “Detection of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus with in vivo depth-resolved nuclear morphology measurements,” Gastroenterology 140, 42–50 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, G. Y.

H. J. Wei, D. Xing, J. J. Lu, H. M. Gu, G. Y. Wu, and Y. Jin, “Determination of optical properties of normal and adenomatous human colon tissues in vitro using integrating sphere techniques,” World J. Gastroenterol. 11, 2413–2419 (2005).

Xing, D.

H. J. Wei, D. Xing, J. J. Lu, H. M. Gu, G. Y. Wu, and Y. Jin, “Determination of optical properties of normal and adenomatous human colon tissues in vitro using integrating sphere techniques,” World J. Gastroenterol. 11, 2413–2419 (2005).

Yang, L.

Y. L. Kim, L. Yang, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, C. Kun, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yen, E.

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15, 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yi, J.

A. Radosevich, J. Rogers, V. Turzhitsky, N. Mutyal, J. Yi, H. Roy, and V. Backman, “Polarized enhanced backscattering spectroscopy for characterization of biological tissues at subdiffusion length-scales,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1313–1325 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Young, K. L.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135, 1069–1078 (2008).
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Zhu, C.

M. C. Skala, G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, Q. Liu, K. M. Vrotsos, C. L. Marshek-Stone, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, and N. Ramanujam, “Investigation of fiber-optic probe designs for optical spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial pre-cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34, 25–38 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhu, Q. Liu, and N. Ramanujam, “Effect of fiber optic probe geometry on depth-resolved fluorescence measurements from epithelial tissues: a Monte Carlo simulation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 237–247 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

N. G. Terry, Y. Zhu, M. T. Rinehart, W. J. Brown, S. C. Gebhart, S. Bright, E. Carretta, C. G. Ziefle, M. Panjehpour, J. Galanko, R. D. Madanick, E. S. Dellon, D. Trembath, A. Bennett, J. R. Goldblum, B. F. Overholt, J. T. Woosley, N. J. Shaheen, and A. Wax, “Detection of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus with in vivo depth-resolved nuclear morphology measurements,” Gastroenterology 140, 42–50 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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N. G. Terry, Y. Zhu, M. T. Rinehart, W. J. Brown, S. C. Gebhart, S. Bright, E. Carretta, C. G. Ziefle, M. Panjehpour, J. Galanko, R. D. Madanick, E. S. Dellon, D. Trembath, A. Bennett, J. R. Goldblum, B. F. Overholt, J. T. Woosley, N. J. Shaheen, and A. Wax, “Detection of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus with in vivo depth-resolved nuclear morphology measurements,” Gastroenterology 140, 42–50 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zijistra, W. G.

Zijp, J. R.

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A. K. Tiwari, S. E. Crawford, A. Radosevich, R. K. Wali, Y. Stypula, D. P. Kunte, N. Mutyal, S. Ruderman, A. Gomes, M. L. Cornwell, M. D. Cruz, J. Brasky, T. P. Gibson, V. Backman, and H. K. Roy, “Neo-angiogenesis and the premalignant micro-circulatory augmentation of early colon carcinogenesis,” Cancer Lett. 306, 205–213 (2011).
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A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15, 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gastroenterology (2)

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135, 1069–1078 (2008).
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N. G. Terry, Y. Zhu, M. T. Rinehart, W. J. Brown, S. C. Gebhart, S. Bright, E. Carretta, C. G. Ziefle, M. Panjehpour, J. Galanko, R. D. Madanick, E. S. Dellon, D. Trembath, A. Bennett, J. R. Goldblum, B. F. Overholt, J. T. Woosley, N. J. Shaheen, and A. Wax, “Detection of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus with in vivo depth-resolved nuclear morphology measurements,” Gastroenterology 140, 42–50 (2011).
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R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, J. L. Koetsier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, V. Turzhitsky, and V. Backman, “Increased microvascular blood content is an early event in colon carcinogenesis,” Gut. 54, 654–660 (2005).
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A. Radosevich, J. Rogers, V. Turzhitsky, N. Mutyal, J. Yi, H. Roy, and V. Backman, “Polarized enhanced backscattering spectroscopy for characterization of biological tissues at subdiffusion length-scales,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1313–1325 (2011).
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C. Zhu, Q. Liu, and N. Ramanujam, “Effect of fiber optic probe geometry on depth-resolved fluorescence measurements from epithelial tissues: a Monte Carlo simulation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 237–247 (2003).
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A. M. Wang, J. E. Bender, J. Pfefer, U. Utzinger, and R. A. Drezek, “Depth-sensitive reflectance measurements using obliquely oriented fiber probes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 44017 (2005).
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A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, “Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: design and performance,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 388–397 (2002).
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I. Pavlova, C. R. Weber, R. A. Schwarz, M. D. Williams, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of oral tissue: Monte Carlo modeling with site-specific tissue properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 014009 (2009).
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M. C. Skala, G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, Q. Liu, K. M. Vrotsos, C. L. Marshek-Stone, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, and N. Ramanujam, “Investigation of fiber-optic probe designs for optical spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial pre-cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34, 25–38 (2004).
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