Abstract

A new technology for remote measuring of vibration sources was recently developed for industrial, medical, and security-related applications [Int. Appl. Patent No:  PCT/IL2008/001008]. It requires relatively expensive equipment, such as high-speed complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensors and customized optics. In this paper, we demonstrate how the usage of a simple personal computer (PC) mouse as an optical system composed of a low-power laser and a CMOS circuitry on the same integrated circuit package, can be used to monitor heartbeat from the wrist. The method is based on modifying the mouse optical system in such a way that it will recognize temporal change in skin’s vibration profile, generated due to the heart pulses, as mouse movement. The tests that were carried out show a very good correlation between the heartbeat rate measured from human skin and the reference values taken manually.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Maton, Human Biology and Health (Prentice-Hall, 1993).
  2. J. G. Webster, Medical Instrumentation Application and Design, 4th ed. (Wiley, 2009).
  3. K. J. Fleckenstein, “The Mosso plethysmograph in 19th century physiology,” Med. Instrum. 18, 330–331 (1984).
  4. J. Spigulis, “Optical noninvasive monitoring of skin blood pulsations,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1850–1857 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. D. Hong and M. Fox, “Noninvasive detection of cardiovascular pulsations by optical Doppler techniques,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 382–390 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Takano and Y. Ohta, “Heart rate measurement based on a time-lapse image,” Med. Eng. Phys. 29, 853–857 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Erts, U. Rubins, and J. Spigulis, “Monitoring of blood pulsation using non-contact technique,” in IFMBE Proceedings 25/VII, O. Dössel and W. C. Schlegel, eds. (Springer, 2009), pp. 754–756.
  8. S. S. Ul’yanov, V. P. Ryabukho, and V. V. Tuchin, “Speckle interferometry for biotissue vibration measurement,” Opt. Eng. 33, 908–914 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Yapp, “Who’s bugging you? How are you protecting your information?,” Information Security Technical Report 5, 23–33 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. Hasan, N. Yu, and J. Paradiso, “The Termenova: A hybrid free-gesture interface,” presented at the 2002 Conference on New Instrumentations for Musical Expression (NIME-02), Dublin, Ireland, 24–26May 2002.
  11. SPIE Session on Biomedical OptoAcoustics, Vol. 3916, California, Jan.2000, http://www.spie.org/web/meetings/programs/pw00/confs/3916.html .
  12. Z. Zalevsky, and J. Garcia, “Motion detection system and method,” Israeli patent application no. 184868, (July 2007); WO/2009/013738 international application no. PCT/IL2008/001008 (July 2008).
  13. H. M. Pedersen, “Intensity correlation metrology: a comparative study,” Opt. Acta 29, 105–118 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. C. Dainty, Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1989).
  15. R. S. Sirohi, Speckle Metrology (Marcel Dekker, 1993).
  16. Z. Zalevsky, Y. Beiderman, I. Margalit, S. Gingold, M. Teicher, V. Mico, and J. Garcia, “Simultaneous remote extraction of multiple speech sources and heart beats from secondary speckles pattern,” Opt. Express 17, 21566–21580 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Beiderman, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Optical technique for classification, recognition and identification of obscured objects,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4274–4282 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Beiderman, I. Horovitz, N. Burshtein, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Remote estimation of blood pulse pressure via temporal tracking of reflected secondary speckles pattern,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 061707 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. Beiderman, R. Blumenberg, N. Rabani, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Demonstration of remote optical measurement configuration that correlates to glucose concentration in blood,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 858–870 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Beiderman, A. D. Amsel, Y. Tzadka, D. Fixler, V. Mico, J. Garcia, M. Teichera, and Z. Zalevsky, “A microscope configuration for nanometer 3-D movement monitoring accuracy,” Micron 42, 366–375 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. W. Ng, “The optical mouse as a two-dimensional displacement sensor,” Sensor. Actuat. A Phys. 107, 21–25 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. W. Ng and K. T. Ang, “The optical mouse for vibratory motion sensing,” Sensor. Actuat. A Phys. 116, 205–208 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Palacin, I. Valgañon, and R. Pernia, “The optical mouse for indoor mobile robot odometry measurement,” Sensor. Actuat. A Phys. 126, 141–147 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. T. W. Ng, T. L. Cheong, and J. Sheridan, “Digital readout manometer using an optical mouse,” Eur. J. Phys. 28, N11–N16 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  25. T. W. Ng and M. Carnea, “Optical mouse digital speckle correlation,” Opt. Commun. 280, 435–437 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  26. G. Da Costa, “Optical remote sensing of heartbeats,” Opt. Commun. 117, 395–398 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  27. R. Berkow, The Merck Manual of Medical Information(Merck, 1997).
  28. D. Kleppner and R. Kolenkow, An Introduction to Mechanics (McGraw-Hill, 1973), Chapter 6.

2011 (2)

Y. Beiderman, R. Blumenberg, N. Rabani, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Demonstration of remote optical measurement configuration that correlates to glucose concentration in blood,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 858–870 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Beiderman, A. D. Amsel, Y. Tzadka, D. Fixler, V. Mico, J. Garcia, M. Teichera, and Z. Zalevsky, “A microscope configuration for nanometer 3-D movement monitoring accuracy,” Micron 42, 366–375 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

Y. Beiderman, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Optical technique for classification, recognition and identification of obscured objects,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4274–4282 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Beiderman, I. Horovitz, N. Burshtein, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Remote estimation of blood pulse pressure via temporal tracking of reflected secondary speckles pattern,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 061707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2007 (3)

C. Takano and Y. Ohta, “Heart rate measurement based on a time-lapse image,” Med. Eng. Phys. 29, 853–857 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ng, T. L. Cheong, and J. Sheridan, “Digital readout manometer using an optical mouse,” Eur. J. Phys. 28, N11–N16 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ng and M. Carnea, “Optical mouse digital speckle correlation,” Opt. Commun. 280, 435–437 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. Palacin, I. Valgañon, and R. Pernia, “The optical mouse for indoor mobile robot odometry measurement,” Sensor. Actuat. A Phys. 126, 141–147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

T. W. Ng and K. T. Ang, “The optical mouse for vibratory motion sensing,” Sensor. Actuat. A Phys. 116, 205–208 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

T. W. Ng, “The optical mouse as a two-dimensional displacement sensor,” Sensor. Actuat. A Phys. 107, 21–25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. Yapp, “Who’s bugging you? How are you protecting your information?,” Information Security Technical Report 5, 23–33 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

H. D. Hong and M. Fox, “Noninvasive detection of cardiovascular pulsations by optical Doppler techniques,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 382–390 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

G. Da Costa, “Optical remote sensing of heartbeats,” Opt. Commun. 117, 395–398 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

S. S. Ul’yanov, V. P. Ryabukho, and V. V. Tuchin, “Speckle interferometry for biotissue vibration measurement,” Opt. Eng. 33, 908–914 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

K. J. Fleckenstein, “The Mosso plethysmograph in 19th century physiology,” Med. Instrum. 18, 330–331 (1984).

1982 (1)

H. M. Pedersen, “Intensity correlation metrology: a comparative study,” Opt. Acta 29, 105–118 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Amsel, A. D.

Y. Beiderman, A. D. Amsel, Y. Tzadka, D. Fixler, V. Mico, J. Garcia, M. Teichera, and Z. Zalevsky, “A microscope configuration for nanometer 3-D movement monitoring accuracy,” Micron 42, 366–375 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ang, K. T.

T. W. Ng and K. T. Ang, “The optical mouse for vibratory motion sensing,” Sensor. Actuat. A Phys. 116, 205–208 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beiderman, Y.

Y. Beiderman, A. D. Amsel, Y. Tzadka, D. Fixler, V. Mico, J. Garcia, M. Teichera, and Z. Zalevsky, “A microscope configuration for nanometer 3-D movement monitoring accuracy,” Micron 42, 366–375 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Beiderman, R. Blumenberg, N. Rabani, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Demonstration of remote optical measurement configuration that correlates to glucose concentration in blood,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 858–870 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Beiderman, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Optical technique for classification, recognition and identification of obscured objects,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4274–4282 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Beiderman, I. Horovitz, N. Burshtein, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Remote estimation of blood pulse pressure via temporal tracking of reflected secondary speckles pattern,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 061707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zalevsky, Y. Beiderman, I. Margalit, S. Gingold, M. Teicher, V. Mico, and J. Garcia, “Simultaneous remote extraction of multiple speech sources and heart beats from secondary speckles pattern,” Opt. Express 17, 21566–21580 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Berkow, R.

R. Berkow, The Merck Manual of Medical Information(Merck, 1997).

Blumenberg, R.

Burshtein, N.

Y. Beiderman, I. Horovitz, N. Burshtein, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Remote estimation of blood pulse pressure via temporal tracking of reflected secondary speckles pattern,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 061707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Carnea, M.

T. W. Ng and M. Carnea, “Optical mouse digital speckle correlation,” Opt. Commun. 280, 435–437 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, T. L.

T. W. Ng, T. L. Cheong, and J. Sheridan, “Digital readout manometer using an optical mouse,” Eur. J. Phys. 28, N11–N16 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Da Costa, G.

G. Da Costa, “Optical remote sensing of heartbeats,” Opt. Commun. 117, 395–398 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dainty, J. C.

J. C. Dainty, Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1989).

Erts, R.

R. Erts, U. Rubins, and J. Spigulis, “Monitoring of blood pulsation using non-contact technique,” in IFMBE Proceedings 25/VII, O. Dössel and W. C. Schlegel, eds. (Springer, 2009), pp. 754–756.

Fixler, D.

Y. Beiderman, A. D. Amsel, Y. Tzadka, D. Fixler, V. Mico, J. Garcia, M. Teichera, and Z. Zalevsky, “A microscope configuration for nanometer 3-D movement monitoring accuracy,” Micron 42, 366–375 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fleckenstein, K. J.

K. J. Fleckenstein, “The Mosso plethysmograph in 19th century physiology,” Med. Instrum. 18, 330–331 (1984).

Fox, M.

H. D. Hong and M. Fox, “Noninvasive detection of cardiovascular pulsations by optical Doppler techniques,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 382–390 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, J.

Y. Beiderman, R. Blumenberg, N. Rabani, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Demonstration of remote optical measurement configuration that correlates to glucose concentration in blood,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 858–870 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Beiderman, A. D. Amsel, Y. Tzadka, D. Fixler, V. Mico, J. Garcia, M. Teichera, and Z. Zalevsky, “A microscope configuration for nanometer 3-D movement monitoring accuracy,” Micron 42, 366–375 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Beiderman, I. Horovitz, N. Burshtein, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Remote estimation of blood pulse pressure via temporal tracking of reflected secondary speckles pattern,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 061707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Beiderman, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Optical technique for classification, recognition and identification of obscured objects,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4274–4282 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zalevsky, Y. Beiderman, I. Margalit, S. Gingold, M. Teicher, V. Mico, and J. Garcia, “Simultaneous remote extraction of multiple speech sources and heart beats from secondary speckles pattern,” Opt. Express 17, 21566–21580 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zalevsky, and J. Garcia, “Motion detection system and method,” Israeli patent application no. 184868, (July 2007); WO/2009/013738 international application no. PCT/IL2008/001008 (July 2008).

Gingold, S.

Hasan, L.

L. Hasan, N. Yu, and J. Paradiso, “The Termenova: A hybrid free-gesture interface,” presented at the 2002 Conference on New Instrumentations for Musical Expression (NIME-02), Dublin, Ireland, 24–26May 2002.

Hong, H. D.

H. D. Hong and M. Fox, “Noninvasive detection of cardiovascular pulsations by optical Doppler techniques,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 382–390 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Horovitz, I.

Y. Beiderman, I. Horovitz, N. Burshtein, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Remote estimation of blood pulse pressure via temporal tracking of reflected secondary speckles pattern,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 061707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kleppner, D.

D. Kleppner and R. Kolenkow, An Introduction to Mechanics (McGraw-Hill, 1973), Chapter 6.

Kolenkow, R.

D. Kleppner and R. Kolenkow, An Introduction to Mechanics (McGraw-Hill, 1973), Chapter 6.

Margalit, I.

Maton, A.

A. Maton, Human Biology and Health (Prentice-Hall, 1993).

Mico, V.

Y. Beiderman, R. Blumenberg, N. Rabani, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Demonstration of remote optical measurement configuration that correlates to glucose concentration in blood,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 858–870 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Beiderman, A. D. Amsel, Y. Tzadka, D. Fixler, V. Mico, J. Garcia, M. Teichera, and Z. Zalevsky, “A microscope configuration for nanometer 3-D movement monitoring accuracy,” Micron 42, 366–375 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Beiderman, I. Horovitz, N. Burshtein, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Remote estimation of blood pulse pressure via temporal tracking of reflected secondary speckles pattern,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 061707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Beiderman, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Optical technique for classification, recognition and identification of obscured objects,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4274–4282 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zalevsky, Y. Beiderman, I. Margalit, S. Gingold, M. Teicher, V. Mico, and J. Garcia, “Simultaneous remote extraction of multiple speech sources and heart beats from secondary speckles pattern,” Opt. Express 17, 21566–21580 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ng, T. W.

T. W. Ng, T. L. Cheong, and J. Sheridan, “Digital readout manometer using an optical mouse,” Eur. J. Phys. 28, N11–N16 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ng and M. Carnea, “Optical mouse digital speckle correlation,” Opt. Commun. 280, 435–437 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ng and K. T. Ang, “The optical mouse for vibratory motion sensing,” Sensor. Actuat. A Phys. 116, 205–208 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ng, “The optical mouse as a two-dimensional displacement sensor,” Sensor. Actuat. A Phys. 107, 21–25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ohta, Y.

C. Takano and Y. Ohta, “Heart rate measurement based on a time-lapse image,” Med. Eng. Phys. 29, 853–857 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Palacin, J.

J. Palacin, I. Valgañon, and R. Pernia, “The optical mouse for indoor mobile robot odometry measurement,” Sensor. Actuat. A Phys. 126, 141–147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Paradiso, J.

L. Hasan, N. Yu, and J. Paradiso, “The Termenova: A hybrid free-gesture interface,” presented at the 2002 Conference on New Instrumentations for Musical Expression (NIME-02), Dublin, Ireland, 24–26May 2002.

Pedersen, H. M.

H. M. Pedersen, “Intensity correlation metrology: a comparative study,” Opt. Acta 29, 105–118 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Pernia, R.

J. Palacin, I. Valgañon, and R. Pernia, “The optical mouse for indoor mobile robot odometry measurement,” Sensor. Actuat. A Phys. 126, 141–147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rabani, N.

Rubins, U.

R. Erts, U. Rubins, and J. Spigulis, “Monitoring of blood pulsation using non-contact technique,” in IFMBE Proceedings 25/VII, O. Dössel and W. C. Schlegel, eds. (Springer, 2009), pp. 754–756.

Ryabukho, V. P.

S. S. Ul’yanov, V. P. Ryabukho, and V. V. Tuchin, “Speckle interferometry for biotissue vibration measurement,” Opt. Eng. 33, 908–914 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sheridan, J.

T. W. Ng, T. L. Cheong, and J. Sheridan, “Digital readout manometer using an optical mouse,” Eur. J. Phys. 28, N11–N16 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sirohi, R. S.

R. S. Sirohi, Speckle Metrology (Marcel Dekker, 1993).

Spigulis, J.

J. Spigulis, “Optical noninvasive monitoring of skin blood pulsations,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1850–1857 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Erts, U. Rubins, and J. Spigulis, “Monitoring of blood pulsation using non-contact technique,” in IFMBE Proceedings 25/VII, O. Dössel and W. C. Schlegel, eds. (Springer, 2009), pp. 754–756.

Takano, C.

C. Takano and Y. Ohta, “Heart rate measurement based on a time-lapse image,” Med. Eng. Phys. 29, 853–857 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Teicher, M.

Y. Beiderman, R. Blumenberg, N. Rabani, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Demonstration of remote optical measurement configuration that correlates to glucose concentration in blood,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 858–870 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Beiderman, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Optical technique for classification, recognition and identification of obscured objects,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4274–4282 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Beiderman, I. Horovitz, N. Burshtein, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Remote estimation of blood pulse pressure via temporal tracking of reflected secondary speckles pattern,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 061707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zalevsky, Y. Beiderman, I. Margalit, S. Gingold, M. Teicher, V. Mico, and J. Garcia, “Simultaneous remote extraction of multiple speech sources and heart beats from secondary speckles pattern,” Opt. Express 17, 21566–21580 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Teichera, M.

Y. Beiderman, A. D. Amsel, Y. Tzadka, D. Fixler, V. Mico, J. Garcia, M. Teichera, and Z. Zalevsky, “A microscope configuration for nanometer 3-D movement monitoring accuracy,” Micron 42, 366–375 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tuchin, V. V.

S. S. Ul’yanov, V. P. Ryabukho, and V. V. Tuchin, “Speckle interferometry for biotissue vibration measurement,” Opt. Eng. 33, 908–914 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tzadka, Y.

Y. Beiderman, A. D. Amsel, Y. Tzadka, D. Fixler, V. Mico, J. Garcia, M. Teichera, and Z. Zalevsky, “A microscope configuration for nanometer 3-D movement monitoring accuracy,” Micron 42, 366–375 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ul’yanov, S. S.

S. S. Ul’yanov, V. P. Ryabukho, and V. V. Tuchin, “Speckle interferometry for biotissue vibration measurement,” Opt. Eng. 33, 908–914 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Valgañon, I.

J. Palacin, I. Valgañon, and R. Pernia, “The optical mouse for indoor mobile robot odometry measurement,” Sensor. Actuat. A Phys. 126, 141–147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Webster, J. G.

J. G. Webster, Medical Instrumentation Application and Design, 4th ed. (Wiley, 2009).

Yapp, P.

P. Yapp, “Who’s bugging you? How are you protecting your information?,” Information Security Technical Report 5, 23–33 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yu, N.

L. Hasan, N. Yu, and J. Paradiso, “The Termenova: A hybrid free-gesture interface,” presented at the 2002 Conference on New Instrumentations for Musical Expression (NIME-02), Dublin, Ireland, 24–26May 2002.

Zalevsky, Z.

Y. Beiderman, A. D. Amsel, Y. Tzadka, D. Fixler, V. Mico, J. Garcia, M. Teichera, and Z. Zalevsky, “A microscope configuration for nanometer 3-D movement monitoring accuracy,” Micron 42, 366–375 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Beiderman, R. Blumenberg, N. Rabani, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Demonstration of remote optical measurement configuration that correlates to glucose concentration in blood,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 858–870 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Beiderman, I. Horovitz, N. Burshtein, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Remote estimation of blood pulse pressure via temporal tracking of reflected secondary speckles pattern,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 061707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Beiderman, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Optical technique for classification, recognition and identification of obscured objects,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4274–4282 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zalevsky, Y. Beiderman, I. Margalit, S. Gingold, M. Teicher, V. Mico, and J. Garcia, “Simultaneous remote extraction of multiple speech sources and heart beats from secondary speckles pattern,” Opt. Express 17, 21566–21580 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zalevsky, and J. Garcia, “Motion detection system and method,” Israeli patent application no. 184868, (July 2007); WO/2009/013738 international application no. PCT/IL2008/001008 (July 2008).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Eur. J. Phys. (1)

T. W. Ng, T. L. Cheong, and J. Sheridan, “Digital readout manometer using an optical mouse,” Eur. J. Phys. 28, N11–N16 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Information Security Technical Report (1)

P. Yapp, “Who’s bugging you? How are you protecting your information?,” Information Security Technical Report 5, 23–33 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

H. D. Hong and M. Fox, “Noninvasive detection of cardiovascular pulsations by optical Doppler techniques,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 382–390 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Beiderman, I. Horovitz, N. Burshtein, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Remote estimation of blood pulse pressure via temporal tracking of reflected secondary speckles pattern,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 061707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Med. Eng. Phys. (1)

C. Takano and Y. Ohta, “Heart rate measurement based on a time-lapse image,” Med. Eng. Phys. 29, 853–857 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Med. Instrum. (1)

K. J. Fleckenstein, “The Mosso plethysmograph in 19th century physiology,” Med. Instrum. 18, 330–331 (1984).

Micron (1)

Y. Beiderman, A. D. Amsel, Y. Tzadka, D. Fixler, V. Mico, J. Garcia, M. Teichera, and Z. Zalevsky, “A microscope configuration for nanometer 3-D movement monitoring accuracy,” Micron 42, 366–375 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

H. M. Pedersen, “Intensity correlation metrology: a comparative study,” Opt. Acta 29, 105–118 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

Y. Beiderman, M. Teicher, J. Garcia, V. Mico, and Z. Zalevsky, “Optical technique for classification, recognition and identification of obscured objects,” Opt. Commun. 283, 4274–4282 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ng and M. Carnea, “Optical mouse digital speckle correlation,” Opt. Commun. 280, 435–437 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Da Costa, “Optical remote sensing of heartbeats,” Opt. Commun. 117, 395–398 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

S. S. Ul’yanov, V. P. Ryabukho, and V. V. Tuchin, “Speckle interferometry for biotissue vibration measurement,” Opt. Eng. 33, 908–914 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Sensor. Actuat. A Phys. (3)

T. W. Ng, “The optical mouse as a two-dimensional displacement sensor,” Sensor. Actuat. A Phys. 107, 21–25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ng and K. T. Ang, “The optical mouse for vibratory motion sensing,” Sensor. Actuat. A Phys. 116, 205–208 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Palacin, I. Valgañon, and R. Pernia, “The optical mouse for indoor mobile robot odometry measurement,” Sensor. Actuat. A Phys. 126, 141–147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

R. Berkow, The Merck Manual of Medical Information(Merck, 1997).

D. Kleppner and R. Kolenkow, An Introduction to Mechanics (McGraw-Hill, 1973), Chapter 6.

J. C. Dainty, Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1989).

R. S. Sirohi, Speckle Metrology (Marcel Dekker, 1993).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The physical device made of the mouse and its modification: (a) the sketch of the proposed system, (b) the modified Logitech MX1100 laser mouse device.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The calibration results. The measurements were made of the oscillating steel ball of the pendulum: (a) x coordinate time domain, (b) x coordinate frequency domain, (c) x coordinate frequency domain after filtering, and (d) the instantaneous energy of the signal.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The measurement results corresponding to a heart rate of 84 beats/min. The measurements were made of actual wrist-detected heartbeats: (a) x axis time domain, (b) y axis time domain, (c) x axis frequency domain (without filtering), and (d) the instantaneous energy of the signal.

Equations (2)

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E[n]=x[n]2+y[n]2
T2πlg.

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