Abstract

We measure the diffuse reflection spectrum of solid samples such as explosives (TNT, RDX, PETN), fertilizers (ammonium nitrate, urea), and paints (automotive and military grade) at a stand-off distance of 5 m using a mid-infrared supercontinuum light source with 3.9 W average output power. The output spectrum extends from 750–4300 nm, and it is generated by nonlinear spectral broadening in a 9 m long fluoride fiber pumped by high peak power pulses from a dual-stage erbium-ytterbium fiber amplifier operating at 1543 nm. The samples are distinguished using unique spectral signatures that are attributed to the molecular vibrations of the constituents. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) calculations demonstrate the feasibility of increasing the stand-off distance from 5 to ∼150  m, with a corresponding drop in SNR from 28 to 10 dB.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011 (2)

T. Poli, O. Chiantore, M. Nervo, A. Piccirillo, “Mid-IR fiber-optic reflectance spectroscopy for identifying the finish on wooden furniture,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 400, 1161–1171 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Canal, A. Saleem, R. J. Green, D. A. Hutchins, “Remote identification of chemicals concealed behind clothing using near infrared spectroscopy,” Anal. Meth. 3, 84–91 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

S. V. Ingale, P. U. Sastry, A. K. Patra, R. Tewari, P. B. Wagh, S. C. Gupta, “Micro structural investigations of TNT and PETN incorporated silica xerogels,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 54, 238–242 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (7)

A. Banas, K. Banas, M. Bahou, H. O. Moser, L. Wen, P. Yang, Z. J. Li, M. Cholewa, S. K. Lim, Ch. H. Lim, “Post-blast detection of traces of explosives by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Vibrat. Spectrosc. 51, 168–176 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Hobro, B. Lendl, “Stand-off Raman spectroscopy,” Trends Anal. Chem. 28, 1235–1242 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Gottfried, F. C. D. Lucia, C. A. Munson, A. W. Miziolek, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of explosives residues: a review of recent advances, challenges and future prospects,” Anal. Bionanal. Chem. 395, 283–300 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Wallin, A. Pettersson, H. Ostmark, A. Hobro, “Laser based standoff detection of explosives: a critical review,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 395, 259–274 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Anbalagan, S. Mukundakumari, K. S. Murugesan, S. Gunasekaran, “Infrared, optical absorption, and EPR spectroscopc studies on natural gypsum,” Vibrat. Spectrosc. 50, 226–230 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, D. A. Harris, B. Xu, P. J. Wrzesinski, V. V. Lozovoy, M. Dantus, “Standoff and arms-length detection of chemicals with single-beam coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 48, B17–B22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

2006 (3)

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

J. T. Rayner, D. W. Toomey, P. M. Onaka, A. J. Denault, W. E. Stahlberger, W. D. Vacca, M. C. Cushing, S. Wang, “A medium-resolution 0.8–5.5 micron spectrograph and imager for the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 115, 362–382 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Leona, J. Winter, “Fiber optics reflectance spectroscopy: a unique tool for the investigation of Japanese paintings,” Studies Conser. 46, 153–162 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1997 (2)

J. Janni, B. D. Gilbert, R. W. Field, J. I. Steinfeld, “Infrared absorption of explosive molecule vapors,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 53, 1375–1381 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. V. D. Meer, W. Bakker, “CCSM: cross correlogram spectral matching,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 18, 1197–1201 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

1990 (1)

T. H. Demetriades-Shah, M. D. Steven, J. A. Clark, “High resolution derivatives spectra in remote sensing,” Remote Sens. Environ. 33, 55–64, 1990.
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

M. P. Fuller, P. R. Griffiths, “Diffuse reflectance measurements by infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 50, 1906–1910 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

A. Savitzky, M. J. E. Golay, “Smoothing and differentiation of data by simplified least squares procedures,” Anal. Chem. 36, 1627–1639 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

J. E. Stewart, “Infrared absorption spectra of urea, thiourea, and some thiourea‐alkali halide complexes,” J. Chem. Phys. 26, 248–255 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I.

I. Schneider, G. Nau, T. V. V. King, I. Aggarwal, “Fiber optic near-infrared reflectance sensor for detection of organics in soils,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 87–89 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Aleksoff, C.

Alexander, V. V.

Allen, M. G.

Anbalagan, G.

G. Anbalagan, S. Mukundakumari, K. S. Murugesan, S. Gunasekaran, “Infrared, optical absorption, and EPR spectroscopc studies on natural gypsum,” Vibrat. Spectrosc. 50, 226–230 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Angel, S. M.

Averett, L. A.

Bahou, M.

A. Banas, K. Banas, M. Bahou, H. O. Moser, L. Wen, P. Yang, Z. J. Li, M. Cholewa, S. K. Lim, Ch. H. Lim, “Post-blast detection of traces of explosives by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Vibrat. Spectrosc. 51, 168–176 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bakker, W.

F. V. D. Meer, W. Bakker, “CCSM: cross correlogram spectral matching,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 18, 1197–1201 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Banas, A.

A. Banas, K. Banas, M. Bahou, H. O. Moser, L. Wen, P. Yang, Z. J. Li, M. Cholewa, S. K. Lim, Ch. H. Lim, “Post-blast detection of traces of explosives by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Vibrat. Spectrosc. 51, 168–176 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Banas, K.

A. Banas, K. Banas, M. Bahou, H. O. Moser, L. Wen, P. Yang, Z. J. Li, M. Cholewa, S. K. Lim, Ch. H. Lim, “Post-blast detection of traces of explosives by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Vibrat. Spectrosc. 51, 168–176 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Blake, T. A.

Canal, C. M.

C. M. Canal, A. Saleem, R. J. Green, D. A. Hutchins, “Remote identification of chemicals concealed behind clothing using near infrared spectroscopy,” Anal. Meth. 3, 84–91 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Carleton, K. L.

Carter, J. C.

Chaudhari, C.

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chiantore, O.

T. Poli, O. Chiantore, M. Nervo, A. Piccirillo, “Mid-IR fiber-optic reflectance spectroscopy for identifying the finish on wooden furniture,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 400, 1161–1171 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cholewa, M.

A. Banas, K. Banas, M. Bahou, H. O. Moser, L. Wen, P. Yang, Z. J. Li, M. Cholewa, S. K. Lim, Ch. H. Lim, “Post-blast detection of traces of explosives by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Vibrat. Spectrosc. 51, 168–176 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Clark, J. A.

T. H. Demetriades-Shah, M. D. Steven, J. A. Clark, “High resolution derivatives spectra in remote sensing,” Remote Sens. Environ. 33, 55–64, 1990.
[CrossRef]

Comanescu, G.

Cushing, M. C.

J. T. Rayner, D. W. Toomey, P. M. Onaka, A. J. Denault, W. E. Stahlberger, W. D. Vacca, M. C. Cushing, S. Wang, “A medium-resolution 0.8–5.5 micron spectrograph and imager for the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 115, 362–382 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Daniel, R. G.

P. J. Kaste, R. G. Daniel, R. A. Pesce-Rodriguez, M. A. Schroeder, J. A. Escarsega, “Hydrogen plasma removal of military paints: chemical characterization of samples,” Report no. A128453, Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, 1998.

Dantus, M.

Davidson, D.

Davis, S. J.

Demetriades-Shah, T. H.

T. H. Demetriades-Shah, M. D. Steven, J. A. Clark, “High resolution derivatives spectra in remote sensing,” Remote Sens. Environ. 33, 55–64, 1990.
[CrossRef]

Denault, A. J.

J. T. Rayner, D. W. Toomey, P. M. Onaka, A. J. Denault, W. E. Stahlberger, W. D. Vacca, M. C. Cushing, S. Wang, “A medium-resolution 0.8–5.5 micron spectrograph and imager for the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 115, 362–382 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Escarsega, J. A.

P. J. Kaste, R. G. Daniel, R. A. Pesce-Rodriguez, M. A. Schroeder, J. A. Escarsega, “Hydrogen plasma removal of military paints: chemical characterization of samples,” Report no. A128453, Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, 1998.

Field, R. W.

J. Janni, B. D. Gilbert, R. W. Field, J. I. Steinfeld, “Infrared absorption of explosive molecule vapors,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 53, 1375–1381 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, M. J.

Fuller, M. P.

M. P. Fuller, P. R. Griffiths, “Diffuse reflectance measurements by infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 50, 1906–1910 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Furstenberg, R.

R. Furstenberg, C. Kendziora, M. Papantonakis, S. V. Stepnowski, J. Stepnowski, V. Nguyen, M. Rake, R. A. McGill, “Stand-off detection of trace explosives via resonant infrared photothermal imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 224103(2008).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, N. B.

Gassman, P. L.

Gilbert, B. D.

J. Janni, B. D. Gilbert, R. W. Field, J. I. Steinfeld, “Infrared absorption of explosive molecule vapors,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 53, 1375–1381 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Golay, M. J. E.

A. Savitzky, M. J. E. Golay, “Smoothing and differentiation of data by simplified least squares procedures,” Anal. Chem. 36, 1627–1639 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Gottfried, J. L.

J. L. Gottfried, F. C. D. Lucia, C. A. Munson, A. W. Miziolek, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of explosives residues: a review of recent advances, challenges and future prospects,” Anal. Bionanal. Chem. 395, 283–300 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Green, R. J.

C. M. Canal, A. Saleem, R. J. Green, D. A. Hutchins, “Remote identification of chemicals concealed behind clothing using near infrared spectroscopy,” Anal. Meth. 3, 84–91 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Griffiths, P. R.

Grun, J.

Gunasekaran, S.

G. Anbalagan, S. Mukundakumari, K. S. Murugesan, S. Gunasekaran, “Infrared, optical absorption, and EPR spectroscopc studies on natural gypsum,” Vibrat. Spectrosc. 50, 226–230 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, S. C.

S. V. Ingale, P. U. Sastry, A. K. Patra, R. Tewari, P. B. Wagh, S. C. Gupta, “Micro structural investigations of TNT and PETN incorporated silica xerogels,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 54, 238–242 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Harris, D. A.

Hobro, A.

S. Wallin, A. Pettersson, H. Ostmark, A. Hobro, “Laser based standoff detection of explosives: a critical review,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 395, 259–274 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hobro, A. J.

A. J. Hobro, B. Lendl, “Stand-off Raman spectroscopy,” Trends Anal. Chem. 28, 1235–1242 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hutchins, D. A.

C. M. Canal, A. Saleem, R. J. Green, D. A. Hutchins, “Remote identification of chemicals concealed behind clothing using near infrared spectroscopy,” Anal. Meth. 3, 84–91 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ingale, S. V.

S. V. Ingale, P. U. Sastry, A. K. Patra, R. Tewari, P. B. Wagh, S. C. Gupta, “Micro structural investigations of TNT and PETN incorporated silica xerogels,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 54, 238–242 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Islam, M. N.

Janni, J.

J. Janni, B. D. Gilbert, R. W. Field, J. I. Steinfeld, “Infrared absorption of explosive molecule vapors,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 53, 1375–1381 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kaste, P. J.

P. J. Kaste, R. G. Daniel, R. A. Pesce-Rodriguez, M. A. Schroeder, J. A. Escarsega, “Hydrogen plasma removal of military paints: chemical characterization of samples,” Report no. A128453, Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, 1998.

Kendziora, C.

R. Furstenberg, C. Kendziora, M. Papantonakis, S. V. Stepnowski, J. Stepnowski, V. Nguyen, M. Rake, R. A. McGill, “Stand-off detection of trace explosives via resonant infrared photothermal imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 224103(2008).
[CrossRef]

Kessler, W. J.

King, T. V. V.

I. Schneider, G. Nau, T. V. V. King, I. Aggarwal, “Fiber optic near-infrared reflectance sensor for detection of organics in soils,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 87–89 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kito, C.

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Klooster, A.

Kulkarni, O. P.

Kumar, M.

Lawrence-Snyder, M.

Lendl, B.

A. J. Hobro, B. Lendl, “Stand-off Raman spectroscopy,” Trends Anal. Chem. 28, 1235–1242 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leona, M.

M. Leona, J. Winter, “Fiber optics reflectance spectroscopy: a unique tool for the investigation of Japanese paintings,” Studies Conser. 46, 153–162 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

Li, Z. J.

A. Banas, K. Banas, M. Bahou, H. O. Moser, L. Wen, P. Yang, Z. J. Li, M. Cholewa, S. K. Lim, Ch. H. Lim, “Post-blast detection of traces of explosives by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Vibrat. Spectrosc. 51, 168–176 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liao, M.

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lim, Ch. H.

A. Banas, K. Banas, M. Bahou, H. O. Moser, L. Wen, P. Yang, Z. J. Li, M. Cholewa, S. K. Lim, Ch. H. Lim, “Post-blast detection of traces of explosives by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Vibrat. Spectrosc. 51, 168–176 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lim, S. K.

A. Banas, K. Banas, M. Bahou, H. O. Moser, L. Wen, P. Yang, Z. J. Li, M. Cholewa, S. K. Lim, Ch. H. Lim, “Post-blast detection of traces of explosives by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Vibrat. Spectrosc. 51, 168–176 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lozovoy, V. V.

Lucia, F. C. D.

J. L. Gottfried, F. C. D. Lucia, C. A. Munson, A. W. Miziolek, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of explosives residues: a review of recent advances, challenges and future prospects,” Anal. Bionanal. Chem. 395, 283–300 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ma, X.

Manka, C. K.

Mannoun, O. M.

B. I. Vasil’ev, O. M. Mannoun, “IR differential-absorption LIDARs for ecological monitoring of the environment,” Quantum Electron. 36, 801–820 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mazé, G.

McGill, R. A.

R. Furstenberg, C. Kendziora, M. Papantonakis, S. V. Stepnowski, J. Stepnowski, V. Nguyen, M. Rake, R. A. McGill, “Stand-off detection of trace explosives via resonant infrared photothermal imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 224103(2008).
[CrossRef]

Meer, F. V. D.

F. V. D. Meer, W. Bakker, “CCSM: cross correlogram spectral matching,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 18, 1197–1201 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miziolek, A. W.

J. L. Gottfried, F. C. D. Lucia, C. A. Munson, A. W. Miziolek, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of explosives residues: a review of recent advances, challenges and future prospects,” Anal. Bionanal. Chem. 395, 283–300 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moser, H. O.

A. Banas, K. Banas, M. Bahou, H. O. Moser, L. Wen, P. Yang, Z. J. Li, M. Cholewa, S. K. Lim, Ch. H. Lim, “Post-blast detection of traces of explosives by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Vibrat. Spectrosc. 51, 168–176 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mukundakumari, S.

G. Anbalagan, S. Mukundakumari, K. S. Murugesan, S. Gunasekaran, “Infrared, optical absorption, and EPR spectroscopc studies on natural gypsum,” Vibrat. Spectrosc. 50, 226–230 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Munson, C. A.

J. L. Gottfried, F. C. D. Lucia, C. A. Munson, A. W. Miziolek, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of explosives residues: a review of recent advances, challenges and future prospects,” Anal. Bionanal. Chem. 395, 283–300 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Murugesan, K. S.

G. Anbalagan, S. Mukundakumari, K. S. Murugesan, S. Gunasekaran, “Infrared, optical absorption, and EPR spectroscopc studies on natural gypsum,” Vibrat. Spectrosc. 50, 226–230 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nau, G.

I. Schneider, G. Nau, T. V. V. King, I. Aggarwal, “Fiber optic near-infrared reflectance sensor for detection of organics in soils,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 87–89 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nervo, M.

T. Poli, O. Chiantore, M. Nervo, A. Piccirillo, “Mid-IR fiber-optic reflectance spectroscopy for identifying the finish on wooden furniture,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 400, 1161–1171 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, V.

R. Furstenberg, C. Kendziora, M. Papantonakis, S. V. Stepnowski, J. Stepnowski, V. Nguyen, M. Rake, R. A. McGill, “Stand-off detection of trace explosives via resonant infrared photothermal imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 224103(2008).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, S.

Ohishi, Y.

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Onaka, P. M.

J. T. Rayner, D. W. Toomey, P. M. Onaka, A. J. Denault, W. E. Stahlberger, W. D. Vacca, M. C. Cushing, S. Wang, “A medium-resolution 0.8–5.5 micron spectrograph and imager for the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 115, 362–382 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ostmark, H.

S. Wallin, A. Pettersson, H. Ostmark, A. Hobro, “Laser based standoff detection of explosives: a critical review,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 395, 259–274 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Otis, C. E.

Palombo, D. A.

Papantonakis, M.

R. Furstenberg, C. Kendziora, M. Papantonakis, S. V. Stepnowski, J. Stepnowski, V. Nguyen, M. Rake, R. A. McGill, “Stand-off detection of trace explosives via resonant infrared photothermal imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 224103(2008).
[CrossRef]

Patra, A. K.

S. V. Ingale, P. U. Sastry, A. K. Patra, R. Tewari, P. B. Wagh, S. C. Gupta, “Micro structural investigations of TNT and PETN incorporated silica xerogels,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 54, 238–242 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pesce-Rodriguez, R. A.

P. J. Kaste, R. G. Daniel, R. A. Pesce-Rodriguez, M. A. Schroeder, J. A. Escarsega, “Hydrogen plasma removal of military paints: chemical characterization of samples,” Report no. A128453, Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, 1998.

Pettersson, A.

S. Wallin, A. Pettersson, H. Ostmark, A. Hobro, “Laser based standoff detection of explosives: a critical review,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 395, 259–274 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Piccirillo, A.

T. Poli, O. Chiantore, M. Nervo, A. Piccirillo, “Mid-IR fiber-optic reflectance spectroscopy for identifying the finish on wooden furniture,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 400, 1161–1171 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Poli, T.

T. Poli, O. Chiantore, M. Nervo, A. Piccirillo, “Mid-IR fiber-optic reflectance spectroscopy for identifying the finish on wooden furniture,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 400, 1161–1171 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Poulain, M.

Qin, G.

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rake, M.

R. Furstenberg, C. Kendziora, M. Papantonakis, S. V. Stepnowski, J. Stepnowski, V. Nguyen, M. Rake, R. A. McGill, “Stand-off detection of trace explosives via resonant infrared photothermal imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 224103(2008).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, J. T.

J. T. Rayner, D. W. Toomey, P. M. Onaka, A. J. Denault, W. E. Stahlberger, W. D. Vacca, M. C. Cushing, S. Wang, “A medium-resolution 0.8–5.5 micron spectrograph and imager for the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 115, 362–382 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, J. G.

Saleem, A.

C. M. Canal, A. Saleem, R. J. Green, D. A. Hutchins, “Remote identification of chemicals concealed behind clothing using near infrared spectroscopy,” Anal. Meth. 3, 84–91 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sastry, P. U.

S. V. Ingale, P. U. Sastry, A. K. Patra, R. Tewari, P. B. Wagh, S. C. Gupta, “Micro structural investigations of TNT and PETN incorporated silica xerogels,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 54, 238–242 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sausa, R. C.

Savitzky, A.

A. Savitzky, M. J. E. Golay, “Smoothing and differentiation of data by simplified least squares procedures,” Anal. Chem. 36, 1627–1639 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Scaffidi, J.

Schneider, I.

I. Schneider, G. Nau, T. V. V. King, I. Aggarwal, “Fiber optic near-infrared reflectance sensor for detection of organics in soils,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 87–89 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, M. A.

P. J. Kaste, R. G. Daniel, R. A. Pesce-Rodriguez, M. A. Schroeder, J. A. Escarsega, “Hydrogen plasma removal of military paints: chemical characterization of samples,” Report no. A128453, Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, 1998.

Shaver, J. M.

Singh, G.

Sonnenfroh, D. M.

Stahlberger, W. E.

J. T. Rayner, D. W. Toomey, P. M. Onaka, A. J. Denault, W. E. Stahlberger, W. D. Vacca, M. C. Cushing, S. Wang, “A medium-resolution 0.8–5.5 micron spectrograph and imager for the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 115, 362–382 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Steinfeld, J. I.

J. Janni, B. D. Gilbert, R. W. Field, J. I. Steinfeld, “Infrared absorption of explosive molecule vapors,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 53, 1375–1381 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stepnowski, J.

R. Furstenberg, C. Kendziora, M. Papantonakis, S. V. Stepnowski, J. Stepnowski, V. Nguyen, M. Rake, R. A. McGill, “Stand-off detection of trace explosives via resonant infrared photothermal imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 224103(2008).
[CrossRef]

Stepnowski, S. V.

R. Furstenberg, C. Kendziora, M. Papantonakis, S. V. Stepnowski, J. Stepnowski, V. Nguyen, M. Rake, R. A. McGill, “Stand-off detection of trace explosives via resonant infrared photothermal imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 224103(2008).
[CrossRef]

Steven, M. D.

T. H. Demetriades-Shah, M. D. Steven, J. A. Clark, “High resolution derivatives spectra in remote sensing,” Remote Sens. Environ. 33, 55–64, 1990.
[CrossRef]

Stewart, J. E.

J. E. Stewart, “Infrared absorption spectra of urea, thiourea, and some thiourea‐alkali halide complexes,” J. Chem. Phys. 26, 248–255 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Swayambunathan, V.

Terry, F. L.

Tewari, R.

S. V. Ingale, P. U. Sastry, A. K. Patra, R. Tewari, P. B. Wagh, S. C. Gupta, “Micro structural investigations of TNT and PETN incorporated silica xerogels,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 54, 238–242 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Toomey, D. W.

J. T. Rayner, D. W. Toomey, P. M. Onaka, A. J. Denault, W. E. Stahlberger, W. D. Vacca, M. C. Cushing, S. Wang, “A medium-resolution 0.8–5.5 micron spectrograph and imager for the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 115, 362–382 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vacca, W. D.

J. T. Rayner, D. W. Toomey, P. M. Onaka, A. J. Denault, W. E. Stahlberger, W. D. Vacca, M. C. Cushing, S. Wang, “A medium-resolution 0.8–5.5 micron spectrograph and imager for the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 115, 362–382 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vasil’ev, B. I.

B. I. Vasil’ev, O. M. Mannoun, “IR differential-absorption LIDARs for ecological monitoring of the environment,” Quantum Electron. 36, 801–820 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wagh, P. B.

S. V. Ingale, P. U. Sastry, A. K. Patra, R. Tewari, P. B. Wagh, S. C. Gupta, “Micro structural investigations of TNT and PETN incorporated silica xerogels,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 54, 238–242 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wallin, S.

S. Wallin, A. Pettersson, H. Ostmark, A. Hobro, “Laser based standoff detection of explosives: a critical review,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 395, 259–274 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

J. T. Rayner, D. W. Toomey, P. M. Onaka, A. J. Denault, W. E. Stahlberger, W. D. Vacca, M. C. Cushing, S. Wang, “A medium-resolution 0.8–5.5 micron spectrograph and imager for the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 115, 362–382 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wen, L.

A. Banas, K. Banas, M. Bahou, H. O. Moser, L. Wen, P. Yang, Z. J. Li, M. Cholewa, S. K. Lim, Ch. H. Lim, “Post-blast detection of traces of explosives by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Vibrat. Spectrosc. 51, 168–176 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Whipple, R. E.

Windig, W.

Winter, J.

M. Leona, J. Winter, “Fiber optics reflectance spectroscopy: a unique tool for the investigation of Japanese paintings,” Studies Conser. 46, 153–162 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wrzesinski, P. J.

Xia, C.

Xu, B.

Yan, X.

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

A. Banas, K. Banas, M. Bahou, H. O. Moser, L. Wen, P. Yang, Z. J. Li, M. Cholewa, S. K. Lim, Ch. H. Lim, “Post-blast detection of traces of explosives by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Vibrat. Spectrosc. 51, 168–176 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zabetakis, D.

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (2)

T. Poli, O. Chiantore, M. Nervo, A. Piccirillo, “Mid-IR fiber-optic reflectance spectroscopy for identifying the finish on wooden furniture,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 400, 1161–1171 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Wallin, A. Pettersson, H. Ostmark, A. Hobro, “Laser based standoff detection of explosives: a critical review,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 395, 259–274 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Bionanal. Chem. (1)

J. L. Gottfried, F. C. D. Lucia, C. A. Munson, A. W. Miziolek, “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of explosives residues: a review of recent advances, challenges and future prospects,” Anal. Bionanal. Chem. 395, 283–300 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (2)

M. P. Fuller, P. R. Griffiths, “Diffuse reflectance measurements by infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 50, 1906–1910 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. Savitzky, M. J. E. Golay, “Smoothing and differentiation of data by simplified least squares procedures,” Anal. Chem. 36, 1627–1639 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Meth. (1)

C. M. Canal, A. Saleem, R. J. Green, D. A. Hutchins, “Remote identification of chemicals concealed behind clothing using near infrared spectroscopy,” Anal. Meth. 3, 84–91 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Furstenberg, C. Kendziora, M. Papantonakis, S. V. Stepnowski, J. Stepnowski, V. Nguyen, M. Rake, R. A. McGill, “Stand-off detection of trace explosives via resonant infrared photothermal imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 224103(2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (4)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

I. Schneider, G. Nau, T. V. V. King, I. Aggarwal, “Fiber optic near-infrared reflectance sensor for detection of organics in soils,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 87–89 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sensing (1)

F. V. D. Meer, W. Bakker, “CCSM: cross correlogram spectral matching,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 18, 1197–1201 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

J. E. Stewart, “Infrared absorption spectra of urea, thiourea, and some thiourea‐alkali halide complexes,” J. Chem. Phys. 26, 248–255 (1957).
[CrossRef]

J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. (1)

S. V. Ingale, P. U. Sastry, A. K. Patra, R. Tewari, P. B. Wagh, S. C. Gupta, “Micro structural investigations of TNT and PETN incorporated silica xerogels,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 54, 238–242 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (1)

J. T. Rayner, D. W. Toomey, P. M. Onaka, A. J. Denault, W. E. Stahlberger, W. D. Vacca, M. C. Cushing, S. Wang, “A medium-resolution 0.8–5.5 micron spectrograph and imager for the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 115, 362–382 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electron. (1)

B. I. Vasil’ev, O. M. Mannoun, “IR differential-absorption LIDARs for ecological monitoring of the environment,” Quantum Electron. 36, 801–820 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (1)

T. H. Demetriades-Shah, M. D. Steven, J. A. Clark, “High resolution derivatives spectra in remote sensing,” Remote Sens. Environ. 33, 55–64, 1990.
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta Part A (1)

J. Janni, B. D. Gilbert, R. W. Field, J. I. Steinfeld, “Infrared absorption of explosive molecule vapors,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 53, 1375–1381 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Studies Conser. (1)

M. Leona, J. Winter, “Fiber optics reflectance spectroscopy: a unique tool for the investigation of Japanese paintings,” Studies Conser. 46, 153–162 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Trends Anal. Chem. (1)

A. J. Hobro, B. Lendl, “Stand-off Raman spectroscopy,” Trends Anal. Chem. 28, 1235–1242 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vibrat. Spectrosc. (2)

G. Anbalagan, S. Mukundakumari, K. S. Murugesan, S. Gunasekaran, “Infrared, optical absorption, and EPR spectroscopc studies on natural gypsum,” Vibrat. Spectrosc. 50, 226–230 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Banas, K. Banas, M. Bahou, H. O. Moser, L. Wen, P. Yang, Z. J. Li, M. Cholewa, S. K. Lim, Ch. H. Lim, “Post-blast detection of traces of explosives by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Vibrat. Spectrosc. 51, 168–176 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Pigment Database—Cobalt Chromite Green Spinel, http://coolcolors.lbl.gov/LBNL-Pigment-Database/paints/G05.html .

P. J. Kaste, R. G. Daniel, R. A. Pesce-Rodriguez, M. A. Schroeder, J. A. Escarsega, “Hydrogen plasma removal of military paints: chemical characterization of samples,” Report no. A128453, Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, 1998.

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