Abstract

A method for producing uniformly thinned (etched) optical fibers is described, which can also be employed to etch optical fibers containing a Bragg grating (FBG) uniformly for evanescent-field-based sensing and other applications. Through a simple modification of this method, the fabrication of phase-shifted FBGs based on uneven etching is also shown. The critical role of how a fiber is secured is shown, and the success of the method is illustrated, by differential interference contrast microscopy images of uniformly etched FBGs. An etched FBG sensor for the monitoring of the refractive index of different glycerin solutions is demonstrated.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. O. S. Wolfbeis, “Fiber-optic chemical sensors and biosensors,” Anal. Chem. 76, 3269–3284 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Orellana and D. Haigh, “New trends in fiber-optic chemical and biological sensors,” Current Anal. Chem. 4, 273–295 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, “High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1253–1255 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, “Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1149–1151 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Refractive index sensor based on microstructured fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1250–1252 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. X. F. Huang, Z. M. Chen, L. Y. Shao, K. F. Cen, D. R. Sheng, J. Chen, and H. Zhou, “Design and characteristics of refractive index sensor based on thinned and microstructure fiber Bragg grating,” Appl. Opt. 47, 504–511 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 1–3 (2005).
  8. A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Nonuniform thinned fiber Bragg gratings for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurements,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1495–1497 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, M. Giordano, and A. Cutolo, “Thinned and micro-structured fibre Bragg gratings: towards new all-fibre high-sensitivity chemical sensors,” J Opt. A 7, 734–741 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Jing, Z. Yun, L. Su-shan, L. Xiao-wen, X. Fei, and L. Yan-qing, “Fiber-optic pressure sensor based on tunable liquid crystal technology,” IEEE Photonics J. 2, 292–298 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. R. Lyons and H. P. Lee, “Demonstration of an etched cladding fiber Bragg grating filter with reduced tuning force requirement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1626–1628 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Price, K. Smith, B. L. Ipson, T. L. Lowder, S. M. Schultz, A. R. Hawkins, and R. H. Selfridge, “D-fiber Bragg gratings for sensors,” Proceedings of the 8th Joint Conference on Information Sciences, 1–3, 1373–1376 (2005).
  13. M. Lomer, A. Quintela, M. Lopez-Amo, J. Zubia, and J. M. Lopez-Higuera, “A quasi-distributed level sensor based on a bent side-polished plastic optical fibre cable,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 2261–2267 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. Shen, S. Zheng, and X. Zhang, “Response of side-polished FBG to external refractive index,” Acta Photonica Sin. 34, 1036–1038 (2005).
  15. A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, G. V. Persiano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, “Refractive index measurements by fiber Bragg grating sensor,” in Sensors, 2003 (Proc. IEEE, 2003), pp. 101–105.
  16. J. P. Laine, B. E. Little, and H. A. Haus, “Etch-eroded fiber coupler for whispering-gallery-mode excitation in high-Qsilica microspheres,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1429–1430 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Z. Y. Zhao, S. A. Zhang, Y. S. Yu, Z. C. Zhuo, J. Zhang, W. Zheng, and Y. S. Zhang, “Fabrication of tunable sampled nonlinearly chirped fiber Bragg gratings with a simple method,” Opt. Quant. Electron. 36, 499–506 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Pluta, “Nomarski’s DIC microscopy: a review,” Proc. SPIE 1846, 10–25 (1994)
  19. B. P. Kouskousis, “Microscopic characterisation of fibre Bragg gratings,” PhD (Victoria University, Melbourne, 2009).
  20. N. M. Dragomir, C. Rollinson, S. A. Wade, A. J. Stevenson, S. F. Collins, G. W. Baxter, P. M. Farrell, and A. Roberts, “Nondestructive imaging of a type I optical fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Lett. 28, 789–791 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Z. Brodzeli, H. K. Bal, F. Sidiroglou, N. Dragomir, and F. Ladouceur, “Fabrication of phase-shifted fibre Bragg gratings with non-uniform etching, in Proc. ACOLS/ACOFT 2009 (2009), 185–186.
  22. C. Martinez and P. Ferdinand, “Analysis of phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings written with phase plates,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3223–3228 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2010

F. Jing, Z. Yun, L. Su-shan, L. Xiao-wen, X. Fei, and L. Yan-qing, “Fiber-optic pressure sensor based on tunable liquid crystal technology,” IEEE Photonics J. 2, 292–298 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

M. Lomer, A. Quintela, M. Lopez-Amo, J. Zubia, and J. M. Lopez-Higuera, “A quasi-distributed level sensor based on a bent side-polished plastic optical fibre cable,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 2261–2267 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

L. Shen, S. Zheng, and X. Zhang, “Response of side-polished FBG to external refractive index,” Acta Photonica Sin. 34, 1036–1038 (2005).

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 1–3 (2005).

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Nonuniform thinned fiber Bragg gratings for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurements,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1495–1497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, M. Giordano, and A. Cutolo, “Thinned and micro-structured fibre Bragg gratings: towards new all-fibre high-sensitivity chemical sensors,” J Opt. A 7, 734–741 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, “High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1253–1255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Refractive index sensor based on microstructured fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1250–1252 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

O. S. Wolfbeis, “Fiber-optic chemical sensors and biosensors,” Anal. Chem. 76, 3269–3284 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, “Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1149–1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Zhao, S. A. Zhang, Y. S. Yu, Z. C. Zhuo, J. Zhang, W. Zheng, and Y. S. Zhang, “Fabrication of tunable sampled nonlinearly chirped fiber Bragg gratings with a simple method,” Opt. Quant. Electron. 36, 499–506 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

1999

C. Martinez and P. Ferdinand, “Analysis of phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings written with phase plates,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3223–3228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Laine, B. E. Little, and H. A. Haus, “Etch-eroded fiber coupler for whispering-gallery-mode excitation in high-Qsilica microspheres,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1429–1430 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Lyons and H. P. Lee, “Demonstration of an etched cladding fiber Bragg grating filter with reduced tuning force requirement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1626–1628 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. Pluta, “Nomarski’s DIC microscopy: a review,” Proc. SPIE 1846, 10–25 (1994)

Bal, H. K.

Z. Brodzeli, H. K. Bal, F. Sidiroglou, N. Dragomir, and F. Ladouceur, “Fabrication of phase-shifted fibre Bragg gratings with non-uniform etching, in Proc. ACOLS/ACOFT 2009 (2009), 185–186.

Baxter, G. W.

Bernini, R.

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, “Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1149–1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, G. V. Persiano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, “Refractive index measurements by fiber Bragg grating sensor,” in Sensors, 2003 (Proc. IEEE, 2003), pp. 101–105.

Brodzeli, Z.

Z. Brodzeli, H. K. Bal, F. Sidiroglou, N. Dragomir, and F. Ladouceur, “Fabrication of phase-shifted fibre Bragg gratings with non-uniform etching, in Proc. ACOLS/ACOFT 2009 (2009), 185–186.

Campopiano, S.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, M. Giordano, and A. Cutolo, “Thinned and micro-structured fibre Bragg gratings: towards new all-fibre high-sensitivity chemical sensors,” J Opt. A 7, 734–741 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Refractive index sensor based on microstructured fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1250–1252 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Nonuniform thinned fiber Bragg gratings for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurements,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1495–1497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cen, K. F.

Chen, J.

Chen, Z. M.

Chryssis, A. N.

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, “High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1253–1255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Collins, S. F.

Cusano, A.

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Refractive index sensor based on microstructured fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1250–1252 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Nonuniform thinned fiber Bragg gratings for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurements,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1495–1497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, M. Giordano, and A. Cutolo, “Thinned and micro-structured fibre Bragg gratings: towards new all-fibre high-sensitivity chemical sensors,” J Opt. A 7, 734–741 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, “Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1149–1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, G. V. Persiano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, “Refractive index measurements by fiber Bragg grating sensor,” in Sensors, 2003 (Proc. IEEE, 2003), pp. 101–105.

Cutolo, A.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, M. Giordano, and A. Cutolo, “Thinned and micro-structured fibre Bragg gratings: towards new all-fibre high-sensitivity chemical sensors,” J Opt. A 7, 734–741 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Refractive index sensor based on microstructured fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1250–1252 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Nonuniform thinned fiber Bragg gratings for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurements,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1495–1497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, “Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1149–1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, G. V. Persiano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, “Refractive index measurements by fiber Bragg grating sensor,” in Sensors, 2003 (Proc. IEEE, 2003), pp. 101–105.

Dagenais, M.

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, “High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1253–1255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dragomir, N.

Z. Brodzeli, H. K. Bal, F. Sidiroglou, N. Dragomir, and F. Ladouceur, “Fabrication of phase-shifted fibre Bragg gratings with non-uniform etching, in Proc. ACOLS/ACOFT 2009 (2009), 185–186.

Dragomir, N. M.

Farrell, P. M.

Fei, X.

F. Jing, Z. Yun, L. Su-shan, L. Xiao-wen, X. Fei, and L. Yan-qing, “Fiber-optic pressure sensor based on tunable liquid crystal technology,” IEEE Photonics J. 2, 292–298 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ferdinand, P.

Giordano, M.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, M. Giordano, and A. Cutolo, “Thinned and micro-structured fibre Bragg gratings: towards new all-fibre high-sensitivity chemical sensors,” J Opt. A 7, 734–741 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Refractive index sensor based on microstructured fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1250–1252 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Nonuniform thinned fiber Bragg gratings for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurements,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1495–1497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, “Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1149–1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, G. V. Persiano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, “Refractive index measurements by fiber Bragg grating sensor,” in Sensors, 2003 (Proc. IEEE, 2003), pp. 101–105.

Haigh, D.

G. Orellana and D. Haigh, “New trends in fiber-optic chemical and biological sensors,” Current Anal. Chem. 4, 273–295 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

J. P. Laine, B. E. Little, and H. A. Haus, “Etch-eroded fiber coupler for whispering-gallery-mode excitation in high-Qsilica microspheres,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1429–1430 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hawkins, A. R.

K. Price, K. Smith, B. L. Ipson, T. L. Lowder, S. M. Schultz, A. R. Hawkins, and R. H. Selfridge, “D-fiber Bragg gratings for sensors,” Proceedings of the 8th Joint Conference on Information Sciences, 1–3, 1373–1376 (2005).

Huang, X. F.

Huang, Y.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 1–3 (2005).

Iadicicco, A.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, M. Giordano, and A. Cutolo, “Thinned and micro-structured fibre Bragg gratings: towards new all-fibre high-sensitivity chemical sensors,” J Opt. A 7, 734–741 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Refractive index sensor based on microstructured fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1250–1252 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and A. Cusano, “Nonuniform thinned fiber Bragg gratings for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurements,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1495–1497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, “Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1149–1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, G. V. Persiano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, “Refractive index measurements by fiber Bragg grating sensor,” in Sensors, 2003 (Proc. IEEE, 2003), pp. 101–105.

Ipson, B. L.

K. Price, K. Smith, B. L. Ipson, T. L. Lowder, S. M. Schultz, A. R. Hawkins, and R. H. Selfridge, “D-fiber Bragg gratings for sensors,” Proceedings of the 8th Joint Conference on Information Sciences, 1–3, 1373–1376 (2005).

Jing, F.

F. Jing, Z. Yun, L. Su-shan, L. Xiao-wen, X. Fei, and L. Yan-qing, “Fiber-optic pressure sensor based on tunable liquid crystal technology,” IEEE Photonics J. 2, 292–298 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kouskousis, B. P.

B. P. Kouskousis, “Microscopic characterisation of fibre Bragg gratings,” PhD (Victoria University, Melbourne, 2009).

Ladouceur, F.

Z. Brodzeli, H. K. Bal, F. Sidiroglou, N. Dragomir, and F. Ladouceur, “Fabrication of phase-shifted fibre Bragg gratings with non-uniform etching, in Proc. ACOLS/ACOFT 2009 (2009), 185–186.

Laine, J. P.

J. P. Laine, B. E. Little, and H. A. Haus, “Etch-eroded fiber coupler for whispering-gallery-mode excitation in high-Qsilica microspheres,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1429–1430 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. P.

E. R. Lyons and H. P. Lee, “Demonstration of an etched cladding fiber Bragg grating filter with reduced tuning force requirement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1626–1628 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, R. K.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 1–3 (2005).

Lee, S. B.

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, “High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1253–1255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. M.

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, “High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1253–1255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liang, W.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 1–3 (2005).

Little, B. E.

J. P. Laine, B. E. Little, and H. A. Haus, “Etch-eroded fiber coupler for whispering-gallery-mode excitation in high-Qsilica microspheres,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1429–1430 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lomer, M.

M. Lomer, A. Quintela, M. Lopez-Amo, J. Zubia, and J. M. Lopez-Higuera, “A quasi-distributed level sensor based on a bent side-polished plastic optical fibre cable,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 2261–2267 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lopez-Amo, M.

M. Lomer, A. Quintela, M. Lopez-Amo, J. Zubia, and J. M. Lopez-Higuera, “A quasi-distributed level sensor based on a bent side-polished plastic optical fibre cable,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 2261–2267 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lopez-Higuera, J. M.

M. Lomer, A. Quintela, M. Lopez-Amo, J. Zubia, and J. M. Lopez-Higuera, “A quasi-distributed level sensor based on a bent side-polished plastic optical fibre cable,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 2261–2267 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lowder, T. L.

K. Price, K. Smith, B. L. Ipson, T. L. Lowder, S. M. Schultz, A. R. Hawkins, and R. H. Selfridge, “D-fiber Bragg gratings for sensors,” Proceedings of the 8th Joint Conference on Information Sciences, 1–3, 1373–1376 (2005).

Lyons, E. R.

E. R. Lyons and H. P. Lee, “Demonstration of an etched cladding fiber Bragg grating filter with reduced tuning force requirement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1626–1628 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, C.

Orellana, G.

G. Orellana and D. Haigh, “New trends in fiber-optic chemical and biological sensors,” Current Anal. Chem. 4, 273–295 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Persiano, G. V.

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, G. V. Persiano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, “Refractive index measurements by fiber Bragg grating sensor,” in Sensors, 2003 (Proc. IEEE, 2003), pp. 101–105.

Pluta, M.

M. Pluta, “Nomarski’s DIC microscopy: a review,” Proc. SPIE 1846, 10–25 (1994)

Price, K.

K. Price, K. Smith, B. L. Ipson, T. L. Lowder, S. M. Schultz, A. R. Hawkins, and R. H. Selfridge, “D-fiber Bragg gratings for sensors,” Proceedings of the 8th Joint Conference on Information Sciences, 1–3, 1373–1376 (2005).

Quintela, A.

M. Lomer, A. Quintela, M. Lopez-Amo, J. Zubia, and J. M. Lopez-Higuera, “A quasi-distributed level sensor based on a bent side-polished plastic optical fibre cable,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 2261–2267 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, A.

Rollinson, C.

Saini, S. S.

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, “High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1253–1255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S. M.

K. Price, K. Smith, B. L. Ipson, T. L. Lowder, S. M. Schultz, A. R. Hawkins, and R. H. Selfridge, “D-fiber Bragg gratings for sensors,” Proceedings of the 8th Joint Conference on Information Sciences, 1–3, 1373–1376 (2005).

Selfridge, R. H.

K. Price, K. Smith, B. L. Ipson, T. L. Lowder, S. M. Schultz, A. R. Hawkins, and R. H. Selfridge, “D-fiber Bragg gratings for sensors,” Proceedings of the 8th Joint Conference on Information Sciences, 1–3, 1373–1376 (2005).

Shao, L. Y.

Shen, L.

L. Shen, S. Zheng, and X. Zhang, “Response of side-polished FBG to external refractive index,” Acta Photonica Sin. 34, 1036–1038 (2005).

Sheng, D. R.

Sidiroglou, F.

Z. Brodzeli, H. K. Bal, F. Sidiroglou, N. Dragomir, and F. Ladouceur, “Fabrication of phase-shifted fibre Bragg gratings with non-uniform etching, in Proc. ACOLS/ACOFT 2009 (2009), 185–186.

Smith, K.

K. Price, K. Smith, B. L. Ipson, T. L. Lowder, S. M. Schultz, A. R. Hawkins, and R. H. Selfridge, “D-fiber Bragg gratings for sensors,” Proceedings of the 8th Joint Conference on Information Sciences, 1–3, 1373–1376 (2005).

Stevenson, A. J.

Su-shan, L.

F. Jing, Z. Yun, L. Su-shan, L. Xiao-wen, X. Fei, and L. Yan-qing, “Fiber-optic pressure sensor based on tunable liquid crystal technology,” IEEE Photonics J. 2, 292–298 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wade, S. A.

Wolfbeis, O. S.

O. S. Wolfbeis, “Fiber-optic chemical sensors and biosensors,” Anal. Chem. 76, 3269–3284 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xiao-wen, L.

F. Jing, Z. Yun, L. Su-shan, L. Xiao-wen, X. Fei, and L. Yan-qing, “Fiber-optic pressure sensor based on tunable liquid crystal technology,” IEEE Photonics J. 2, 292–298 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 1–3 (2005).

Yan-qing, L.

F. Jing, Z. Yun, L. Su-shan, L. Xiao-wen, X. Fei, and L. Yan-qing, “Fiber-optic pressure sensor based on tunable liquid crystal technology,” IEEE Photonics J. 2, 292–298 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 1–3 (2005).

Yu, Y. S.

Z. Y. Zhao, S. A. Zhang, Y. S. Yu, Z. C. Zhuo, J. Zhang, W. Zheng, and Y. S. Zhang, “Fabrication of tunable sampled nonlinearly chirped fiber Bragg gratings with a simple method,” Opt. Quant. Electron. 36, 499–506 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yun, Z.

F. Jing, Z. Yun, L. Su-shan, L. Xiao-wen, X. Fei, and L. Yan-qing, “Fiber-optic pressure sensor based on tunable liquid crystal technology,” IEEE Photonics J. 2, 292–298 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematics: (a) an FBG-containing optical fiber protected with Tygon tubing prior to etching, and (b) the specially constructed optical fiber mount that facilitated uniform etching.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Schematic representation of the optical characterization system used for monitoring the progress of optical fiber etching. (b) Evolution of λBragg as a function of time during the etching of a FBG-containing optical fiber.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectra of etched FBGs obtained with (a) too much fiber tension, (b) too much fiber tension (in a chirped grating), (c) insufficient fiber tension, and (d) appropriate tension.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Representation of an etched FBG-containing fiber.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

DIC images of the (a) unetched FBG containing fiber (GF1), (b) fully etched fiber, and (c) fully etched FBG-containing fiber.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Schematic of the FBG-containing fiber masked with a Teflon drop prior to etching and (b) a schematic of the same fiber after etching. Note that the central part of the FBG-containing fiber is still surrounded in part with a small portion of the glass cladding.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The reflection spectra of two FBGs before (dashed) and after the application of the nonuniform etching process (solid) (a) for partial etching and (b) for complete etching of the cladding.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Bragg wavelength shift of etched FBG with respect to surrounding RI when immersed in various glycerin concentrations.

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