Abstract

In this research, a unique freeform microlens array was designed and fabricated for a compact compound-eye camera to achieve a large field of view. This microlens array has a field of view of 48°×48°, with a thickness of only 1.6 mm. The freeform microlens array resides on a flat substrate, and thus can be directly mounted to a commercial 2D image sensor. Freeform surfaces were used to design the microlens profiles, thus allowing the microlenses to steer and focus incident rays simultaneously. The profiles of the freeform microlenses were represented using extended polynomials, the coefficients of which were optimized using ZEMAX. To reduce crosstalk among neighboring channels, a micro aperture array was machined using high-speed micromilling. The molded microlens array was assembled with the micro aperture array, an adjustable fixture, and a board-level image sensor to form a compact compound-eye camera system. The imaging tests using the compound-eye camera showed that the unique freeform microlens array was capable of forming proper images, as suggested by design. The measured field of view of ±23.5° also matches the initial design and is considerably larger compared with most similar camera designs using conventional microlens arrays. To achieve low manufacturing cost without sacrificing image quality, the freeform microlens array was fabricated using a combination of ultraprecision diamond broaching and a microinjection molding process.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011 (2)

S. Scheiding, A. Y. Yi, A. Gebhardt, R. Loose, L. Li, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Diamond milling or turning for the fabrication of micro lens arrays: comparing different diamond machining technologies,” Proc. SPIE 7927, 79270N (2011).

C. Yang, L. J. Su, C. N. Huang, H. X. Huang, J. M. Castro, and A. Y. Yi, “Effect of packing pressure on refractive index variation in injection molding of precision plastic optical lens,” Adv. Polym. Technol. 30, 51–61 (2011).

2010 (5)

2009 (4)

C. N. Huang, L. Li, and A. Y. Yi, “Design and fabrication of a micro Alvarez lens array with a variable focal length,” Microsys. Technol. 15, 559–563 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Yang, J. T. Makinen, M. Aikio, G. Jin, and Y. Wang, “Free-form lens design for wide-angle imaging with an equidistance projection scheme,” Optik 120, 74–78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Cheng, Y. Wang, H. Hua, and M. M. Talha, “Design of an optical see-through head-mounted display with a low f-number and large field of view using a freeform prism,” Appl. Opt. 48, 2655–2668 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Druart, N. Guérineau, R. Haïdar, S. Thétas, J. Taboury, S. Rommeluére, J. Primot, and M. Fendler, “Demonstration of an infrared microcamera inspired by Xenos peckii vision,” Appl. Opt. 48, 3368–3374 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

H. R. Fallah and A. Karimzadeh, “Design and simulation of a high-resolution superposition compound eye,” J. Mod. Opt. 54, 67–76 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. W. Duparré and F. C. Wippermann, “Micro-optical artificial compound eyes,” Bioinspir. Biomim. 1, R1–R6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

2003 (1)

W. Gao, T. Araki, S. Kiyono, Y. Okazaki, and M. Yamanaka, “Precision nano-fabrication and evaluation of a large area sinusoidal grid surface for a surface encoder,” Precis. Eng. 27, 289–298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Aikio, M.

B. Yang, J. T. Makinen, M. Aikio, G. Jin, and Y. Wang, “Free-form lens design for wide-angle imaging with an equidistance projection scheme,” Optik 120, 74–78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Araki, T.

W. Gao, T. Araki, S. Kiyono, Y. Okazaki, and M. Yamanaka, “Precision nano-fabrication and evaluation of a large area sinusoidal grid surface for a surface encoder,” Precis. Eng. 27, 289–298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brady, D.

Bräuer, A.

Brückner, A.

Carriere, J.

Castro, J. M.

C. Yang, L. J. Su, C. N. Huang, H. X. Huang, J. M. Castro, and A. Y. Yi, “Effect of packing pressure on refractive index variation in injection molding of precision plastic optical lens,” Adv. Polym. Technol. 30, 51–61 (2011).

Chen, C.

Cheng, D.

Collins, S. A.

L. Li, S. A. Collins, and A. Y. Yi, “Optical effects of surface finish by ultraprecision single point diamond machining,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 132, 021002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dannberg, P.

Druart, G.

Duparré, J.

Duparré, J. W.

J. W. Duparré and F. C. Wippermann, “Micro-optical artificial compound eyes,” Bioinspir. Biomim. 1, R1–R6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eberhardt, R.

S. Scheiding, A. Y. Yi, A. Gebhardt, R. Loose, L. Li, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Diamond milling or turning for the fabrication of micro lens arrays: comparing different diamond machining technologies,” Proc. SPIE 7927, 79270N (2011).

Eisner, M.

Fallah, H. R.

H. R. Fallah and A. Karimzadeh, “Design and simulation of a high-resolution superposition compound eye,” J. Mod. Opt. 54, 67–76 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fendler, M.

Gao, W.

W. Gao, T. Araki, S. Kiyono, Y. Okazaki, and M. Yamanaka, “Precision nano-fabrication and evaluation of a large area sinusoidal grid surface for a surface encoder,” Precis. Eng. 27, 289–298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gebhardt, A.

S. Scheiding, A. Y. Yi, A. Gebhardt, R. Loose, L. Li, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Diamond milling or turning for the fabrication of micro lens arrays: comparing different diamond machining technologies,” Proc. SPIE 7927, 79270N (2011).

Gibbons, R.

Guérineau, N.

Haïdar, R.

Hua, H.

Huang, C. N.

C. Yang, L. J. Su, C. N. Huang, H. X. Huang, J. M. Castro, and A. Y. Yi, “Effect of packing pressure on refractive index variation in injection molding of precision plastic optical lens,” Adv. Polym. Technol. 30, 51–61 (2011).

C. N. Huang, L. Li, and A. Y. Yi, “Design and fabrication of a micro Alvarez lens array with a variable focal length,” Microsys. Technol. 15, 559–563 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. N. Huang, “Investigation of injection molding process for high precision polymer lens manufacturing,” Ph.D. dissertation, Ohio State University (2008, Columbus, Ohio).

Huang, H. X.

C. Yang, L. J. Su, C. N. Huang, H. X. Huang, J. M. Castro, and A. Y. Yi, “Effect of packing pressure on refractive index variation in injection molding of precision plastic optical lens,” Adv. Polym. Technol. 30, 51–61 (2011).

Ichioka, Y.

Ishida, K.

Jin, G.

B. Yang, J. T. Makinen, M. Aikio, G. Jin, and Y. Wang, “Free-form lens design for wide-angle imaging with an equidistance projection scheme,” Optik 120, 74–78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Karimzadeh, A.

H. R. Fallah and A. Karimzadeh, “Design and simulation of a high-resolution superposition compound eye,” J. Mod. Opt. 54, 67–76 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kiyono, S.

W. Gao, T. Araki, S. Kiyono, Y. Okazaki, and M. Yamanaka, “Precision nano-fabrication and evaluation of a large area sinusoidal grid surface for a surface encoder,” Precis. Eng. 27, 289–298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kolste, R. T.

Kondou, N.

Kumagai, T.

Leitel, R.

Li, H.

Li, L.

S. Scheiding, A. Y. Yi, A. Gebhardt, R. Loose, L. Li, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Diamond milling or turning for the fabrication of micro lens arrays: comparing different diamond machining technologies,” Proc. SPIE 7927, 79270N (2011).

L. Li, S. A. Collins, and A. Y. Yi, “Optical effects of surface finish by ultraprecision single point diamond machining,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 132, 021002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Li and A. Y. Yi, “Design and fabrication of a freeform prism array for 3D microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 2613–2620 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Li and A. Y. Yi, “Development of a 3D artificial compound eye,” Opt. Express 18, 18125–18137 (2010).

C. N. Huang, L. Li, and A. Y. Yi, “Design and fabrication of a micro Alvarez lens array with a variable focal length,” Microsys. Technol. 15, 559–563 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Yi and L. Li, “Design and fabrication of a microlens array using slow tool servo,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1707–1709 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Loose, R.

S. Scheiding, A. Y. Yi, A. Gebhardt, R. Loose, L. Li, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Diamond milling or turning for the fabrication of micro lens arrays: comparing different diamond machining technologies,” Proc. SPIE 7927, 79270N (2011).

Makinen, J. T.

B. Yang, J. T. Makinen, M. Aikio, G. Jin, and Y. Wang, “Free-form lens design for wide-angle imaging with an equidistance projection scheme,” Optik 120, 74–78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mattes, A.

Miyatake, S.

Miyazaki, D.

Morimoto, T.

Okazaki, Y.

W. Gao, T. Araki, S. Kiyono, Y. Okazaki, and M. Yamanaka, “Precision nano-fabrication and evaluation of a large area sinusoidal grid surface for a surface encoder,” Precis. Eng. 27, 289–298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pitsianis, N.

Prather, D.

Primot, J.

Pshenay-Severin, E.

Reimann, A.

Risse, S.

S. Scheiding, A. Y. Yi, A. Gebhardt, R. Loose, L. Li, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Diamond milling or turning for the fabrication of micro lens arrays: comparing different diamond machining technologies,” Proc. SPIE 7927, 79270N (2011).

Rommeluére, S.

Scharf, T.

Scheiding, S.

S. Scheiding, A. Y. Yi, A. Gebhardt, R. Loose, L. Li, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Diamond milling or turning for the fabrication of micro lens arrays: comparing different diamond machining technologies,” Proc. SPIE 7927, 79270N (2011).

Schreiber, P.

Schulz, T.

Shankar, M.

Su, L. J.

C. Yang, L. J. Su, C. N. Huang, H. X. Huang, J. M. Castro, and A. Y. Yi, “Effect of packing pressure on refractive index variation in injection molding of precision plastic optical lens,” Adv. Polym. Technol. 30, 51–61 (2011).

Taboury, J.

Talha, M. M.

Tanida, J.

Thétas, S.

Tünnermann, A.

Völkel, R.

Wang, Y.

D. Cheng, Y. Wang, H. Hua, and M. M. Talha, “Design of an optical see-through head-mounted display with a low f-number and large field of view using a freeform prism,” Appl. Opt. 48, 2655–2668 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Yang, J. T. Makinen, M. Aikio, G. Jin, and Y. Wang, “Free-form lens design for wide-angle imaging with an equidistance projection scheme,” Optik 120, 74–78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Willett, R.

Wippermann, F.

Wippermann, F. C.

J. W. Duparré and F. C. Wippermann, “Micro-optical artificial compound eyes,” Bioinspir. Biomim. 1, R1–R6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

Yamada, K.

Yamanaka, M.

W. Gao, T. Araki, S. Kiyono, Y. Okazaki, and M. Yamanaka, “Precision nano-fabrication and evaluation of a large area sinusoidal grid surface for a surface encoder,” Precis. Eng. 27, 289–298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, B.

B. Yang, J. T. Makinen, M. Aikio, G. Jin, and Y. Wang, “Free-form lens design for wide-angle imaging with an equidistance projection scheme,” Optik 120, 74–78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

C. Yang, L. J. Su, C. N. Huang, H. X. Huang, J. M. Castro, and A. Y. Yi, “Effect of packing pressure on refractive index variation in injection molding of precision plastic optical lens,” Adv. Polym. Technol. 30, 51–61 (2011).

Yi, A. Y.

C. Yang, L. J. Su, C. N. Huang, H. X. Huang, J. M. Castro, and A. Y. Yi, “Effect of packing pressure on refractive index variation in injection molding of precision plastic optical lens,” Adv. Polym. Technol. 30, 51–61 (2011).

S. Scheiding, A. Y. Yi, A. Gebhardt, R. Loose, L. Li, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Diamond milling or turning for the fabrication of micro lens arrays: comparing different diamond machining technologies,” Proc. SPIE 7927, 79270N (2011).

L. Li, S. A. Collins, and A. Y. Yi, “Optical effects of surface finish by ultraprecision single point diamond machining,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 132, 021002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Li and A. Y. Yi, “Design and fabrication of a freeform prism array for 3D microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 2613–2620 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Li and A. Y. Yi, “Development of a 3D artificial compound eye,” Opt. Express 18, 18125–18137 (2010).

C. N. Huang, L. Li, and A. Y. Yi, “Design and fabrication of a micro Alvarez lens array with a variable focal length,” Microsys. Technol. 15, 559–563 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Yi and L. Li, “Design and fabrication of a microlens array using slow tool servo,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1707–1709 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Z.

Adv. Polym. Technol. (1)

C. Yang, L. J. Su, C. N. Huang, H. X. Huang, J. M. Castro, and A. Y. Yi, “Effect of packing pressure on refractive index variation in injection molding of precision plastic optical lens,” Adv. Polym. Technol. 30, 51–61 (2011).

Appl. Opt. (6)

Bioinspir. Biomim. (1)

J. W. Duparré and F. C. Wippermann, “Micro-optical artificial compound eyes,” Bioinspir. Biomim. 1, R1–R6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. (1)

L. Li, S. A. Collins, and A. Y. Yi, “Optical effects of surface finish by ultraprecision single point diamond machining,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 132, 021002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

H. R. Fallah and A. Karimzadeh, “Design and simulation of a high-resolution superposition compound eye,” J. Mod. Opt. 54, 67–76 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Microsys. Technol. (1)

C. N. Huang, L. Li, and A. Y. Yi, “Design and fabrication of a micro Alvarez lens array with a variable focal length,” Microsys. Technol. 15, 559–563 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optik (1)

B. Yang, J. T. Makinen, M. Aikio, G. Jin, and Y. Wang, “Free-form lens design for wide-angle imaging with an equidistance projection scheme,” Optik 120, 74–78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Precis. Eng. (1)

W. Gao, T. Araki, S. Kiyono, Y. Okazaki, and M. Yamanaka, “Precision nano-fabrication and evaluation of a large area sinusoidal grid surface for a surface encoder,” Precis. Eng. 27, 289–298 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Scheiding, A. Y. Yi, A. Gebhardt, R. Loose, L. Li, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Diamond milling or turning for the fabrication of micro lens arrays: comparing different diamond machining technologies,” Proc. SPIE 7927, 79270N (2011).

Other (2)

C. N. Huang, “Investigation of injection molding process for high precision polymer lens manufacturing,” Ph.D. dissertation, Ohio State University (2008, Columbus, Ohio).

ZEMAX, Optical Design Program User’s Manual, ZEMAX Development Corporation (2009).

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