Abstract

The droplet sizing accuracy of the laser technique, based on the ratio of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and scattered light (Mie) intensities from droplets, is examined. We develop an analytical model of the ratio of fluorescent to scattered light intensities of droplets, which shows that the LIF/Mie technique is susceptible to sizing errors that depend on the mean droplet size and the spread of the droplet size distribution. The sizing uncertainty due to the oscillations of the scattered light intensity as a function of droplet size is first quantified. Then, a new data processing method is proposed that can improve the sizing uncertainty of the technique for the sprays that were examined in this study by more than 5% by accounting for the size spread of the measured droplets, while improvements of 25% are possible when accounting for the mean droplet size. The sizing accuracy of the technique is evaluated in terms of the refractive index of liquid, scattering angle, and dye concentration in the liquid. It is found that the proposed approach leads to sizing uncertainty of less than 14% when combined with light collection at forward scattering angles close to 60° and the lowest fluorescent dye concentration in the liquid for all refractive indices.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. A. Dobbins, L. Crocco, and I. Glassman, “Measurement of mean particle sizes of sprays from diffractively scattered light,” AIAA J. 1, 1882–1886 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. A. Hamidi and J. Swithenbank, “Treatment of multiple-scattering of light in laser diffraction measurement techniques in dense sprays and particle fields,” J. Inst. Energy 59, 101–105 (1986).
  3. L. G. Dodge, “Calibration of the Malvern particle sizer,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2415–2419 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. Cossali and Y. Hardalupas, “Comparison between laser diffraction and phase Doppler-velocimeter techniques in high turbidity, small diameter sprays,” Exp. Fluids 13, 414–422(1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Maeda, Y. Akasaka, and T. Kawaguchi, “Improvements of the interferometric technique for simultaneous measurement of droplet size and velocity vector field and its application to a transient spray,” Exp. Fluids 33, 125–134 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. R. Glover, S. M. Skippon, and R. D. Boyle, “Interferometric laser imaging for droplet sizing: a method for droplet-size measurement in sparse spray systems,” Appl. Opt. 34, 8409–8421 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Maeda, T. Kawaguchi, and K. Hishida, “Novel interferometric measurement of size and velocity distributions of spherical particles in fluid flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, L13–L18 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Hardalupas, S. Sahu, A. M. K. P. Taylor, and K. Zarogoulidis, “Simultaneous planar measurement of droplet velocity and size with gas phase velocities in a spray by combined ILIDS and PIV techniques,” Exp. Fluids 49, 417–434 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Durst and M. Zare, “Laser Doppler measurements in two-phase flows,” in The Accuracy of Flow Measurements by Laser Doppler Methods: Proceedings of the LDA Symposium (Copenhagen, 1975), pp. 403–429.
  10. K. Bauckhage and H. Flogel, “Simultaneous measurement of droplet size and velocity in nozzle sprays,” presented at the 2nd International Symposium of Laser Techniques to Fluids Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 2–5 July 1984.
  11. W. D. Bachalo and M. J. Houser, “Phase Doppler spray analyzer for simultaneous measurements of drop size and velocity distributions,” Opt. Eng. 23, 583–590 (1984).
  12. Y. Hardalupas and A. M. K. P. Taylor, “Phase validation criteria of size measurements for the phase Doppler technique,” Exp. Fluids 17, 253–258 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Hardalupas and A. M. K. P. Taylor, “The identification of LDA seeding particles by the phase-Doppler technique,” Exp. Fluids 6, 137–140 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. V. Sankar, K. E. Maher, and D. M. Robart, “Rapid characterization of fuel atomizers using an optical patternator,” J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 121, 409–414 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. N. Yeh, H. Kosaka, and T. Kamimoto, “A fluorescence/scattering imaging technique for instantaneous 2-D measurements of particle size distribution in a transient spray,” in Proceedings of the 3rd Congress on Optical Particle Sizing(1993), pp. 355–361.
  16. T. Kamimoto, “Diagnostics of transient sprays by means of laser sheet techniques,” in COMODIA 94 (1994), pp. 33–41.
  17. B. D. Stojkovic and V. Sick, “Evolution and impingement of an automotive fuel spray investigated with simultaneous Mie/LIF techniques,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 75–83 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. C. Jermy and D. A. Greenhalgh, “Planar dropsizing by elastic and fluorescence scattering in sprays too dense for phase Doppler measurement,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 703–710 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Park, H. Cho, I. Yoon, and K. Min, “Measurement of droplet size distribution of gasoline direct injection spray by droplet generator and planar image technique,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 859–864 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. L. Zimmer, R. Domann, Y. Hardalupas, and Y. Ikeda, “Simultaneous laser-induced fluorescence and Mie scattering for droplet cluster measurements,” AIAA J. 41, 2170–2178 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. H. Jin, “An experimental study of the spray from an air-assisted direct fuel injector,” J. Automob. Eng. 222, 1883–1894(2008).
    [CrossRef]
  22. L. Zimmer and Y. Ikeda, “Planar droplet sizing for the characterization of droplet clusters in an industrial gun-type burner,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 20, 199–208 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. Domann and Y. Hardalupas, “Planar droplet sizing for quantification of spray unsteadiness,” presented at the 18th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization & Spray Systems, Zaragoza, Spain, 9–11 September 2002.
  24. M. M. Zaller, R. C. Anderson, Y. R. Hicks, and R. J. Locke, “Comparison of techniques for non-intrusive fuel drop size measurements in a subscale gas turbine combustor,” NASATM-1999-208909 (1999).
  25. K. Jung, H. Koh, and Y. Yoon, “Assessment of planar liquid-laser-induced fluorescence measurements for spray mass distributions of like-doublet injectors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1387–1395 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  26. I. Duwel, J. Schorr, P. Peuser, P. Zeller, J. Wolfrum, and C. Schulz, “Spray diagnostics using an all-solid-state Nd:YAlO3 laser and fluorescence tracers in commercial gasoline and diesel fuels,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 249–254 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  27. G. Charalampous, Y. Hardalupas, and A. M. K. P. Taylor, “Optimisation of the droplet sizing accuracy of the combined scattering (mie)/laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technique,” presented at the 12th International Symposium of Laser Techniques to Fluids Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 12–15 July 2004.
  28. R. Domann and Y. Hardalupas, “A study of parameters that influence the accuracy of the planar droplet sizing (PDS) technique,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 18, 3–11 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  29. P. Le Gal, “Laser sheet dropsizing of dense sprays,” Opt. Laser Technol. 31, 75–83 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  30. B. Frackowiak and C. Tropea, “Numerical analysis of diameter influence on droplet fluorescence,” Appl. Opt. 49, 2363–2370 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. G. Charalampous and Y. Hardalupas, “Numerical evaluation of droplet sizing based on the ratio of the fluorescent and scattered light intensities (LIF/Mie technique),” Appl. Opt. 50, 1197–1209 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. R. Domann and Y. Hardalupas, “Quantitative measurement of planar droplet Sauter mean diameter in sprays using planar droplet sizing,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 20, 209–218 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  33. D. Stepowski, O. Werquin, C. Roze, and T. Girasole, “Account for extinction and multiple scattering in planar droplet sizing of dense sprays,” presented at the 13th International Symposium of Laser Techniques to Fluids Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 26–29 June 2006.
  34. E. Berrocal, I. Meglinski, and M. Jermy, “New model for light propagation in highly inhomogeneous polydisperse turbid media with applications in spray diagnostics,” Opt. Express 13, 9181–9195 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. V. Sick and B. Stojkovic, “Attenuation effects on imaging diagnostics of hollow-cone sprays,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2435–2442 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  36. L. Araneo and R. Payri, “Experimental quantification of the planar droplet sizing. Technique error for micro-metric mono-dispersed spherical particles,” in 22nd Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems (2008), paper ILASS08-7-9.
  37. E. Berrocal, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, M. Linne, and M. Alden, “Application of structured illumination for multiple scattering suppression in planar laser imaging of dense sprays,” Opt. Express 16, 17870–17881 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. E. Kristensson, E. Berrocal, R. Wellander, M. Ritcher, M. Aldén, and M. Linne, “Structured illumination for 3D Mie imaging and 2D attenuation measurements in optically dense sprays,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 33, 855–861 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  39. S. Bakic, C. Heinisch, N. Damaschke, T. Tschudi, and C. Tropea, “Time integrated detection of femtosecond laser pulses scattered by small droplets,” Appl. Opt. 47, 523–530(2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. E. Babinsky and P. E. Sojka, “Modeling drop size distributions,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 28, 303–329 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  41. L. Bayvel and Z. Orzechowski, Liquid Atomization (Taylor & Francis, 1993).
  42. A. H. Lefebvre, Atomization and Sprays (Hemisphere, 1989).
  43. P. Rosin and E. Rammler, “Laws governing the fineness of powdered coal,” J. Inst. Fuel 7, 29–36 (1933).
  44. W. Weibull, “A statistical theory of the strength of materials,” Proc. R. Swed. Inst. Eng. Res. 151, 1–45 (1939).
  45. A. Malarski, B. Schurer, I. Schmitz, L. Zigan, A. Flugel, and A. Leipertz, “Laser sheet dropsizing based on two-dimensional Raman and Mie scattering,” Appl. Opt. 48, 1853–1860(2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

E. Kristensson, E. Berrocal, R. Wellander, M. Ritcher, M. Aldén, and M. Linne, “Structured illumination for 3D Mie imaging and 2D attenuation measurements in optically dense sprays,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 33, 855–861 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Charalampous and Y. Hardalupas, “Numerical evaluation of droplet sizing based on the ratio of the fluorescent and scattered light intensities (LIF/Mie technique),” Appl. Opt. 50, 1197–1209 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

B. Frackowiak and C. Tropea, “Numerical analysis of diameter influence on droplet fluorescence,” Appl. Opt. 49, 2363–2370 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hardalupas, S. Sahu, A. M. K. P. Taylor, and K. Zarogoulidis, “Simultaneous planar measurement of droplet velocity and size with gas phase velocities in a spray by combined ILIDS and PIV techniques,” Exp. Fluids 49, 417–434 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (4)

S. Bakic, C. Heinisch, N. Damaschke, T. Tschudi, and C. Tropea, “Time integrated detection of femtosecond laser pulses scattered by small droplets,” Appl. Opt. 47, 523–530(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Berrocal, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, M. Linne, and M. Alden, “Application of structured illumination for multiple scattering suppression in planar laser imaging of dense sprays,” Opt. Express 16, 17870–17881 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Jin, “An experimental study of the spray from an air-assisted direct fuel injector,” J. Automob. Eng. 222, 1883–1894(2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Araneo and R. Payri, “Experimental quantification of the planar droplet sizing. Technique error for micro-metric mono-dispersed spherical particles,” in 22nd Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems (2008), paper ILASS08-7-9.

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

I. Duwel, J. Schorr, P. Peuser, P. Zeller, J. Wolfrum, and C. Schulz, “Spray diagnostics using an all-solid-state Nd:YAlO3 laser and fluorescence tracers in commercial gasoline and diesel fuels,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 249–254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

L. Zimmer, R. Domann, Y. Hardalupas, and Y. Ikeda, “Simultaneous laser-induced fluorescence and Mie scattering for droplet cluster measurements,” AIAA J. 41, 2170–2178 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Zimmer and Y. Ikeda, “Planar droplet sizing for the characterization of droplet clusters in an industrial gun-type burner,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 20, 199–208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Jung, H. Koh, and Y. Yoon, “Assessment of planar liquid-laser-induced fluorescence measurements for spray mass distributions of like-doublet injectors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1387–1395 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Domann and Y. Hardalupas, “Quantitative measurement of planar droplet Sauter mean diameter in sprays using planar droplet sizing,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 20, 209–218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

M. Maeda, Y. Akasaka, and T. Kawaguchi, “Improvements of the interferometric technique for simultaneous measurement of droplet size and velocity vector field and its application to a transient spray,” Exp. Fluids 33, 125–134 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Babinsky and P. E. Sojka, “Modeling drop size distributions,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 28, 303–329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, H. Cho, I. Yoon, and K. Min, “Measurement of droplet size distribution of gasoline direct injection spray by droplet generator and planar image technique,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 859–864 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

B. D. Stojkovic and V. Sick, “Evolution and impingement of an automotive fuel spray investigated with simultaneous Mie/LIF techniques,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 75–83 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Domann and Y. Hardalupas, “A study of parameters that influence the accuracy of the planar droplet sizing (PDS) technique,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 18, 3–11 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Sick and B. Stojkovic, “Attenuation effects on imaging diagnostics of hollow-cone sprays,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2435–2442 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

M. C. Jermy and D. A. Greenhalgh, “Planar dropsizing by elastic and fluorescence scattering in sprays too dense for phase Doppler measurement,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 703–710 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Maeda, T. Kawaguchi, and K. Hishida, “Novel interferometric measurement of size and velocity distributions of spherical particles in fluid flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, L13–L18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

S. V. Sankar, K. E. Maher, and D. M. Robart, “Rapid characterization of fuel atomizers using an optical patternator,” J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 121, 409–414 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Le Gal, “Laser sheet dropsizing of dense sprays,” Opt. Laser Technol. 31, 75–83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Zaller, R. C. Anderson, Y. R. Hicks, and R. J. Locke, “Comparison of techniques for non-intrusive fuel drop size measurements in a subscale gas turbine combustor,” NASATM-1999-208909 (1999).

1995 (1)

1994 (2)

T. Kamimoto, “Diagnostics of transient sprays by means of laser sheet techniques,” in COMODIA 94 (1994), pp. 33–41.

Y. Hardalupas and A. M. K. P. Taylor, “Phase validation criteria of size measurements for the phase Doppler technique,” Exp. Fluids 17, 253–258 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

L. Bayvel and Z. Orzechowski, Liquid Atomization (Taylor & Francis, 1993).

1992 (1)

E. Cossali and Y. Hardalupas, “Comparison between laser diffraction and phase Doppler-velocimeter techniques in high turbidity, small diameter sprays,” Exp. Fluids 13, 414–422(1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

A. H. Lefebvre, Atomization and Sprays (Hemisphere, 1989).

1988 (1)

Y. Hardalupas and A. M. K. P. Taylor, “The identification of LDA seeding particles by the phase-Doppler technique,” Exp. Fluids 6, 137–140 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

A. A. Hamidi and J. Swithenbank, “Treatment of multiple-scattering of light in laser diffraction measurement techniques in dense sprays and particle fields,” J. Inst. Energy 59, 101–105 (1986).

1984 (2)

L. G. Dodge, “Calibration of the Malvern particle sizer,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2415–2419 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. D. Bachalo and M. J. Houser, “Phase Doppler spray analyzer for simultaneous measurements of drop size and velocity distributions,” Opt. Eng. 23, 583–590 (1984).

1975 (1)

F. Durst and M. Zare, “Laser Doppler measurements in two-phase flows,” in The Accuracy of Flow Measurements by Laser Doppler Methods: Proceedings of the LDA Symposium (Copenhagen, 1975), pp. 403–429.

1963 (1)

R. A. Dobbins, L. Crocco, and I. Glassman, “Measurement of mean particle sizes of sprays from diffractively scattered light,” AIAA J. 1, 1882–1886 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1939 (1)

W. Weibull, “A statistical theory of the strength of materials,” Proc. R. Swed. Inst. Eng. Res. 151, 1–45 (1939).

1933 (1)

P. Rosin and E. Rammler, “Laws governing the fineness of powdered coal,” J. Inst. Fuel 7, 29–36 (1933).

Akasaka, Y.

M. Maeda, Y. Akasaka, and T. Kawaguchi, “Improvements of the interferometric technique for simultaneous measurement of droplet size and velocity vector field and its application to a transient spray,” Exp. Fluids 33, 125–134 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Alden, M.

Aldén, M.

E. Kristensson, E. Berrocal, R. Wellander, M. Ritcher, M. Aldén, and M. Linne, “Structured illumination for 3D Mie imaging and 2D attenuation measurements in optically dense sprays,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 33, 855–861 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, R. C.

M. M. Zaller, R. C. Anderson, Y. R. Hicks, and R. J. Locke, “Comparison of techniques for non-intrusive fuel drop size measurements in a subscale gas turbine combustor,” NASATM-1999-208909 (1999).

Araneo, L.

L. Araneo and R. Payri, “Experimental quantification of the planar droplet sizing. Technique error for micro-metric mono-dispersed spherical particles,” in 22nd Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems (2008), paper ILASS08-7-9.

Babinsky, E.

E. Babinsky and P. E. Sojka, “Modeling drop size distributions,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 28, 303–329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bachalo, W. D.

W. D. Bachalo and M. J. Houser, “Phase Doppler spray analyzer for simultaneous measurements of drop size and velocity distributions,” Opt. Eng. 23, 583–590 (1984).

Bakic, S.

Bauckhage, K.

K. Bauckhage and H. Flogel, “Simultaneous measurement of droplet size and velocity in nozzle sprays,” presented at the 2nd International Symposium of Laser Techniques to Fluids Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 2–5 July 1984.

Bayvel, L.

L. Bayvel and Z. Orzechowski, Liquid Atomization (Taylor & Francis, 1993).

Berrocal, E.

Boyle, R. D.

Charalampous, G.

G. Charalampous and Y. Hardalupas, “Numerical evaluation of droplet sizing based on the ratio of the fluorescent and scattered light intensities (LIF/Mie technique),” Appl. Opt. 50, 1197–1209 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Charalampous, Y. Hardalupas, and A. M. K. P. Taylor, “Optimisation of the droplet sizing accuracy of the combined scattering (mie)/laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technique,” presented at the 12th International Symposium of Laser Techniques to Fluids Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 12–15 July 2004.

Cho, H.

S. Park, H. Cho, I. Yoon, and K. Min, “Measurement of droplet size distribution of gasoline direct injection spray by droplet generator and planar image technique,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 859–864 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cossali, E.

E. Cossali and Y. Hardalupas, “Comparison between laser diffraction and phase Doppler-velocimeter techniques in high turbidity, small diameter sprays,” Exp. Fluids 13, 414–422(1992).
[CrossRef]

Crocco, L.

R. A. Dobbins, L. Crocco, and I. Glassman, “Measurement of mean particle sizes of sprays from diffractively scattered light,” AIAA J. 1, 1882–1886 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Damaschke, N.

Dobbins, R. A.

R. A. Dobbins, L. Crocco, and I. Glassman, “Measurement of mean particle sizes of sprays from diffractively scattered light,” AIAA J. 1, 1882–1886 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Dodge, L. G.

Domann, R.

R. Domann and Y. Hardalupas, “Planar droplet sizing for quantification of spray unsteadiness,” presented at the 18th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization & Spray Systems, Zaragoza, Spain, 9–11 September 2002.

R. Domann and Y. Hardalupas, “Quantitative measurement of planar droplet Sauter mean diameter in sprays using planar droplet sizing,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 20, 209–218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Zimmer, R. Domann, Y. Hardalupas, and Y. Ikeda, “Simultaneous laser-induced fluorescence and Mie scattering for droplet cluster measurements,” AIAA J. 41, 2170–2178 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Domann and Y. Hardalupas, “A study of parameters that influence the accuracy of the planar droplet sizing (PDS) technique,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 18, 3–11 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Durst, F.

F. Durst and M. Zare, “Laser Doppler measurements in two-phase flows,” in The Accuracy of Flow Measurements by Laser Doppler Methods: Proceedings of the LDA Symposium (Copenhagen, 1975), pp. 403–429.

Duwel, I.

I. Duwel, J. Schorr, P. Peuser, P. Zeller, J. Wolfrum, and C. Schulz, “Spray diagnostics using an all-solid-state Nd:YAlO3 laser and fluorescence tracers in commercial gasoline and diesel fuels,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 249–254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Flogel, H.

K. Bauckhage and H. Flogel, “Simultaneous measurement of droplet size and velocity in nozzle sprays,” presented at the 2nd International Symposium of Laser Techniques to Fluids Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 2–5 July 1984.

Flugel, A.

Frackowiak, B.

Girasole, T.

D. Stepowski, O. Werquin, C. Roze, and T. Girasole, “Account for extinction and multiple scattering in planar droplet sizing of dense sprays,” presented at the 13th International Symposium of Laser Techniques to Fluids Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 26–29 June 2006.

Glassman, I.

R. A. Dobbins, L. Crocco, and I. Glassman, “Measurement of mean particle sizes of sprays from diffractively scattered light,” AIAA J. 1, 1882–1886 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Glover, A. R.

Greenhalgh, D. A.

M. C. Jermy and D. A. Greenhalgh, “Planar dropsizing by elastic and fluorescence scattering in sprays too dense for phase Doppler measurement,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 703–710 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hamidi, A. A.

A. A. Hamidi and J. Swithenbank, “Treatment of multiple-scattering of light in laser diffraction measurement techniques in dense sprays and particle fields,” J. Inst. Energy 59, 101–105 (1986).

Hardalupas, Y.

R. Domann and Y. Hardalupas, “Planar droplet sizing for quantification of spray unsteadiness,” presented at the 18th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization & Spray Systems, Zaragoza, Spain, 9–11 September 2002.

G. Charalampous and Y. Hardalupas, “Numerical evaluation of droplet sizing based on the ratio of the fluorescent and scattered light intensities (LIF/Mie technique),” Appl. Opt. 50, 1197–1209 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hardalupas, S. Sahu, A. M. K. P. Taylor, and K. Zarogoulidis, “Simultaneous planar measurement of droplet velocity and size with gas phase velocities in a spray by combined ILIDS and PIV techniques,” Exp. Fluids 49, 417–434 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Domann and Y. Hardalupas, “Quantitative measurement of planar droplet Sauter mean diameter in sprays using planar droplet sizing,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 20, 209–218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Zimmer, R. Domann, Y. Hardalupas, and Y. Ikeda, “Simultaneous laser-induced fluorescence and Mie scattering for droplet cluster measurements,” AIAA J. 41, 2170–2178 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Domann and Y. Hardalupas, “A study of parameters that influence the accuracy of the planar droplet sizing (PDS) technique,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 18, 3–11 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hardalupas and A. M. K. P. Taylor, “Phase validation criteria of size measurements for the phase Doppler technique,” Exp. Fluids 17, 253–258 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Cossali and Y. Hardalupas, “Comparison between laser diffraction and phase Doppler-velocimeter techniques in high turbidity, small diameter sprays,” Exp. Fluids 13, 414–422(1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hardalupas and A. M. K. P. Taylor, “The identification of LDA seeding particles by the phase-Doppler technique,” Exp. Fluids 6, 137–140 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Charalampous, Y. Hardalupas, and A. M. K. P. Taylor, “Optimisation of the droplet sizing accuracy of the combined scattering (mie)/laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technique,” presented at the 12th International Symposium of Laser Techniques to Fluids Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 12–15 July 2004.

Heinisch, C.

Hicks, Y. R.

M. M. Zaller, R. C. Anderson, Y. R. Hicks, and R. J. Locke, “Comparison of techniques for non-intrusive fuel drop size measurements in a subscale gas turbine combustor,” NASATM-1999-208909 (1999).

Hishida, K.

M. Maeda, T. Kawaguchi, and K. Hishida, “Novel interferometric measurement of size and velocity distributions of spherical particles in fluid flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, L13–L18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Houser, M. J.

W. D. Bachalo and M. J. Houser, “Phase Doppler spray analyzer for simultaneous measurements of drop size and velocity distributions,” Opt. Eng. 23, 583–590 (1984).

Ikeda, Y.

L. Zimmer and Y. Ikeda, “Planar droplet sizing for the characterization of droplet clusters in an industrial gun-type burner,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 20, 199–208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Zimmer, R. Domann, Y. Hardalupas, and Y. Ikeda, “Simultaneous laser-induced fluorescence and Mie scattering for droplet cluster measurements,” AIAA J. 41, 2170–2178 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jermy, M.

Jermy, M. C.

M. C. Jermy and D. A. Greenhalgh, “Planar dropsizing by elastic and fluorescence scattering in sprays too dense for phase Doppler measurement,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 703–710 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jin, S. H.

S. H. Jin, “An experimental study of the spray from an air-assisted direct fuel injector,” J. Automob. Eng. 222, 1883–1894(2008).
[CrossRef]

Jung, K.

K. Jung, H. Koh, and Y. Yoon, “Assessment of planar liquid-laser-induced fluorescence measurements for spray mass distributions of like-doublet injectors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1387–1395 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kamimoto, T.

T. Kamimoto, “Diagnostics of transient sprays by means of laser sheet techniques,” in COMODIA 94 (1994), pp. 33–41.

C. N. Yeh, H. Kosaka, and T. Kamimoto, “A fluorescence/scattering imaging technique for instantaneous 2-D measurements of particle size distribution in a transient spray,” in Proceedings of the 3rd Congress on Optical Particle Sizing(1993), pp. 355–361.

Kawaguchi, T.

M. Maeda, Y. Akasaka, and T. Kawaguchi, “Improvements of the interferometric technique for simultaneous measurement of droplet size and velocity vector field and its application to a transient spray,” Exp. Fluids 33, 125–134 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Maeda, T. Kawaguchi, and K. Hishida, “Novel interferometric measurement of size and velocity distributions of spherical particles in fluid flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, L13–L18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Koh, H.

K. Jung, H. Koh, and Y. Yoon, “Assessment of planar liquid-laser-induced fluorescence measurements for spray mass distributions of like-doublet injectors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1387–1395 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kosaka, H.

C. N. Yeh, H. Kosaka, and T. Kamimoto, “A fluorescence/scattering imaging technique for instantaneous 2-D measurements of particle size distribution in a transient spray,” in Proceedings of the 3rd Congress on Optical Particle Sizing(1993), pp. 355–361.

Kristensson, E.

E. Kristensson, E. Berrocal, R. Wellander, M. Ritcher, M. Aldén, and M. Linne, “Structured illumination for 3D Mie imaging and 2D attenuation measurements in optically dense sprays,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 33, 855–861 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Berrocal, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, M. Linne, and M. Alden, “Application of structured illumination for multiple scattering suppression in planar laser imaging of dense sprays,” Opt. Express 16, 17870–17881 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le Gal, P.

P. Le Gal, “Laser sheet dropsizing of dense sprays,” Opt. Laser Technol. 31, 75–83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lefebvre, A. H.

A. H. Lefebvre, Atomization and Sprays (Hemisphere, 1989).

Leipertz, A.

Linne, M.

E. Kristensson, E. Berrocal, R. Wellander, M. Ritcher, M. Aldén, and M. Linne, “Structured illumination for 3D Mie imaging and 2D attenuation measurements in optically dense sprays,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 33, 855–861 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Berrocal, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, M. Linne, and M. Alden, “Application of structured illumination for multiple scattering suppression in planar laser imaging of dense sprays,” Opt. Express 16, 17870–17881 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Locke, R. J.

M. M. Zaller, R. C. Anderson, Y. R. Hicks, and R. J. Locke, “Comparison of techniques for non-intrusive fuel drop size measurements in a subscale gas turbine combustor,” NASATM-1999-208909 (1999).

Maeda, M.

M. Maeda, Y. Akasaka, and T. Kawaguchi, “Improvements of the interferometric technique for simultaneous measurement of droplet size and velocity vector field and its application to a transient spray,” Exp. Fluids 33, 125–134 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Maeda, T. Kawaguchi, and K. Hishida, “Novel interferometric measurement of size and velocity distributions of spherical particles in fluid flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, L13–L18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maher, K. E.

S. V. Sankar, K. E. Maher, and D. M. Robart, “Rapid characterization of fuel atomizers using an optical patternator,” J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 121, 409–414 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Malarski, A.

Meglinski, I.

Min, K.

S. Park, H. Cho, I. Yoon, and K. Min, “Measurement of droplet size distribution of gasoline direct injection spray by droplet generator and planar image technique,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 859–864 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Orzechowski, Z.

L. Bayvel and Z. Orzechowski, Liquid Atomization (Taylor & Francis, 1993).

Park, S.

S. Park, H. Cho, I. Yoon, and K. Min, “Measurement of droplet size distribution of gasoline direct injection spray by droplet generator and planar image technique,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 859–864 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Payri, R.

L. Araneo and R. Payri, “Experimental quantification of the planar droplet sizing. Technique error for micro-metric mono-dispersed spherical particles,” in 22nd Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems (2008), paper ILASS08-7-9.

Peuser, P.

I. Duwel, J. Schorr, P. Peuser, P. Zeller, J. Wolfrum, and C. Schulz, “Spray diagnostics using an all-solid-state Nd:YAlO3 laser and fluorescence tracers in commercial gasoline and diesel fuels,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 249–254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rammler, E.

P. Rosin and E. Rammler, “Laws governing the fineness of powdered coal,” J. Inst. Fuel 7, 29–36 (1933).

Richter, M.

Ritcher, M.

E. Kristensson, E. Berrocal, R. Wellander, M. Ritcher, M. Aldén, and M. Linne, “Structured illumination for 3D Mie imaging and 2D attenuation measurements in optically dense sprays,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 33, 855–861 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Robart, D. M.

S. V. Sankar, K. E. Maher, and D. M. Robart, “Rapid characterization of fuel atomizers using an optical patternator,” J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 121, 409–414 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rosin, P.

P. Rosin and E. Rammler, “Laws governing the fineness of powdered coal,” J. Inst. Fuel 7, 29–36 (1933).

Roze, C.

D. Stepowski, O. Werquin, C. Roze, and T. Girasole, “Account for extinction and multiple scattering in planar droplet sizing of dense sprays,” presented at the 13th International Symposium of Laser Techniques to Fluids Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 26–29 June 2006.

Sahu, S.

Y. Hardalupas, S. Sahu, A. M. K. P. Taylor, and K. Zarogoulidis, “Simultaneous planar measurement of droplet velocity and size with gas phase velocities in a spray by combined ILIDS and PIV techniques,” Exp. Fluids 49, 417–434 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sankar, S. V.

S. V. Sankar, K. E. Maher, and D. M. Robart, “Rapid characterization of fuel atomizers using an optical patternator,” J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 121, 409–414 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmitz, I.

Schorr, J.

I. Duwel, J. Schorr, P. Peuser, P. Zeller, J. Wolfrum, and C. Schulz, “Spray diagnostics using an all-solid-state Nd:YAlO3 laser and fluorescence tracers in commercial gasoline and diesel fuels,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 249–254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, C.

I. Duwel, J. Schorr, P. Peuser, P. Zeller, J. Wolfrum, and C. Schulz, “Spray diagnostics using an all-solid-state Nd:YAlO3 laser and fluorescence tracers in commercial gasoline and diesel fuels,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 249–254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schurer, B.

Sick, V.

B. D. Stojkovic and V. Sick, “Evolution and impingement of an automotive fuel spray investigated with simultaneous Mie/LIF techniques,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 75–83 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Sick and B. Stojkovic, “Attenuation effects on imaging diagnostics of hollow-cone sprays,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2435–2442 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Skippon, S. M.

Sojka, P. E.

E. Babinsky and P. E. Sojka, “Modeling drop size distributions,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 28, 303–329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stepowski, D.

D. Stepowski, O. Werquin, C. Roze, and T. Girasole, “Account for extinction and multiple scattering in planar droplet sizing of dense sprays,” presented at the 13th International Symposium of Laser Techniques to Fluids Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 26–29 June 2006.

Stojkovic, B.

Stojkovic, B. D.

B. D. Stojkovic and V. Sick, “Evolution and impingement of an automotive fuel spray investigated with simultaneous Mie/LIF techniques,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 75–83 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Swithenbank, J.

A. A. Hamidi and J. Swithenbank, “Treatment of multiple-scattering of light in laser diffraction measurement techniques in dense sprays and particle fields,” J. Inst. Energy 59, 101–105 (1986).

Taylor, A. M. K. P.

Y. Hardalupas, S. Sahu, A. M. K. P. Taylor, and K. Zarogoulidis, “Simultaneous planar measurement of droplet velocity and size with gas phase velocities in a spray by combined ILIDS and PIV techniques,” Exp. Fluids 49, 417–434 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hardalupas and A. M. K. P. Taylor, “Phase validation criteria of size measurements for the phase Doppler technique,” Exp. Fluids 17, 253–258 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hardalupas and A. M. K. P. Taylor, “The identification of LDA seeding particles by the phase-Doppler technique,” Exp. Fluids 6, 137–140 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Charalampous, Y. Hardalupas, and A. M. K. P. Taylor, “Optimisation of the droplet sizing accuracy of the combined scattering (mie)/laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technique,” presented at the 12th International Symposium of Laser Techniques to Fluids Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 12–15 July 2004.

Tropea, C.

Tschudi, T.

Weibull, W.

W. Weibull, “A statistical theory of the strength of materials,” Proc. R. Swed. Inst. Eng. Res. 151, 1–45 (1939).

Wellander, R.

E. Kristensson, E. Berrocal, R. Wellander, M. Ritcher, M. Aldén, and M. Linne, “Structured illumination for 3D Mie imaging and 2D attenuation measurements in optically dense sprays,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 33, 855–861 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Werquin, O.

D. Stepowski, O. Werquin, C. Roze, and T. Girasole, “Account for extinction and multiple scattering in planar droplet sizing of dense sprays,” presented at the 13th International Symposium of Laser Techniques to Fluids Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 26–29 June 2006.

Wolfrum, J.

I. Duwel, J. Schorr, P. Peuser, P. Zeller, J. Wolfrum, and C. Schulz, “Spray diagnostics using an all-solid-state Nd:YAlO3 laser and fluorescence tracers in commercial gasoline and diesel fuels,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 249–254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, C. N.

C. N. Yeh, H. Kosaka, and T. Kamimoto, “A fluorescence/scattering imaging technique for instantaneous 2-D measurements of particle size distribution in a transient spray,” in Proceedings of the 3rd Congress on Optical Particle Sizing(1993), pp. 355–361.

Yoon, I.

S. Park, H. Cho, I. Yoon, and K. Min, “Measurement of droplet size distribution of gasoline direct injection spray by droplet generator and planar image technique,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 859–864 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, Y.

K. Jung, H. Koh, and Y. Yoon, “Assessment of planar liquid-laser-induced fluorescence measurements for spray mass distributions of like-doublet injectors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1387–1395 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zaller, M. M.

M. M. Zaller, R. C. Anderson, Y. R. Hicks, and R. J. Locke, “Comparison of techniques for non-intrusive fuel drop size measurements in a subscale gas turbine combustor,” NASATM-1999-208909 (1999).

Zare, M.

F. Durst and M. Zare, “Laser Doppler measurements in two-phase flows,” in The Accuracy of Flow Measurements by Laser Doppler Methods: Proceedings of the LDA Symposium (Copenhagen, 1975), pp. 403–429.

Zarogoulidis, K.

Y. Hardalupas, S. Sahu, A. M. K. P. Taylor, and K. Zarogoulidis, “Simultaneous planar measurement of droplet velocity and size with gas phase velocities in a spray by combined ILIDS and PIV techniques,” Exp. Fluids 49, 417–434 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zeller, P.

I. Duwel, J. Schorr, P. Peuser, P. Zeller, J. Wolfrum, and C. Schulz, “Spray diagnostics using an all-solid-state Nd:YAlO3 laser and fluorescence tracers in commercial gasoline and diesel fuels,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 249–254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zigan, L.

Zimmer, L.

L. Zimmer, R. Domann, Y. Hardalupas, and Y. Ikeda, “Simultaneous laser-induced fluorescence and Mie scattering for droplet cluster measurements,” AIAA J. 41, 2170–2178 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Zimmer and Y. Ikeda, “Planar droplet sizing for the characterization of droplet clusters in an industrial gun-type burner,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 20, 199–208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

AIAA J. (2)

L. Zimmer, R. Domann, Y. Hardalupas, and Y. Ikeda, “Simultaneous laser-induced fluorescence and Mie scattering for droplet cluster measurements,” AIAA J. 41, 2170–2178 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Dobbins, L. Crocco, and I. Glassman, “Measurement of mean particle sizes of sprays from diffractively scattered light,” AIAA J. 1, 1882–1886 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (7)

Appl. Phys. B (3)

B. D. Stojkovic and V. Sick, “Evolution and impingement of an automotive fuel spray investigated with simultaneous Mie/LIF techniques,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 75–83 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Jermy and D. A. Greenhalgh, “Planar dropsizing by elastic and fluorescence scattering in sprays too dense for phase Doppler measurement,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 703–710 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Duwel, J. Schorr, P. Peuser, P. Zeller, J. Wolfrum, and C. Schulz, “Spray diagnostics using an all-solid-state Nd:YAlO3 laser and fluorescence tracers in commercial gasoline and diesel fuels,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 249–254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Fluids (5)

Y. Hardalupas, S. Sahu, A. M. K. P. Taylor, and K. Zarogoulidis, “Simultaneous planar measurement of droplet velocity and size with gas phase velocities in a spray by combined ILIDS and PIV techniques,” Exp. Fluids 49, 417–434 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hardalupas and A. M. K. P. Taylor, “Phase validation criteria of size measurements for the phase Doppler technique,” Exp. Fluids 17, 253–258 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hardalupas and A. M. K. P. Taylor, “The identification of LDA seeding particles by the phase-Doppler technique,” Exp. Fluids 6, 137–140 (1988).
[CrossRef]

E. Cossali and Y. Hardalupas, “Comparison between laser diffraction and phase Doppler-velocimeter techniques in high turbidity, small diameter sprays,” Exp. Fluids 13, 414–422(1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Maeda, Y. Akasaka, and T. Kawaguchi, “Improvements of the interferometric technique for simultaneous measurement of droplet size and velocity vector field and its application to a transient spray,” Exp. Fluids 33, 125–134 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Automob. Eng. (1)

S. H. Jin, “An experimental study of the spray from an air-assisted direct fuel injector,” J. Automob. Eng. 222, 1883–1894(2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power (1)

S. V. Sankar, K. E. Maher, and D. M. Robart, “Rapid characterization of fuel atomizers using an optical patternator,” J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 121, 409–414 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Inst. Energy (1)

A. A. Hamidi and J. Swithenbank, “Treatment of multiple-scattering of light in laser diffraction measurement techniques in dense sprays and particle fields,” J. Inst. Energy 59, 101–105 (1986).

J. Inst. Fuel (1)

P. Rosin and E. Rammler, “Laws governing the fineness of powdered coal,” J. Inst. Fuel 7, 29–36 (1933).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (3)

K. Jung, H. Koh, and Y. Yoon, “Assessment of planar liquid-laser-induced fluorescence measurements for spray mass distributions of like-doublet injectors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1387–1395 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Maeda, T. Kawaguchi, and K. Hishida, “Novel interferometric measurement of size and velocity distributions of spherical particles in fluid flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, L13–L18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, H. Cho, I. Yoon, and K. Min, “Measurement of droplet size distribution of gasoline direct injection spray by droplet generator and planar image technique,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 859–864 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

W. D. Bachalo and M. J. Houser, “Phase Doppler spray analyzer for simultaneous measurements of drop size and velocity distributions,” Opt. Eng. 23, 583–590 (1984).

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

P. Le Gal, “Laser sheet dropsizing of dense sprays,” Opt. Laser Technol. 31, 75–83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Part. Part. Syst. Charact. (3)

R. Domann and Y. Hardalupas, “A study of parameters that influence the accuracy of the planar droplet sizing (PDS) technique,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 18, 3–11 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Domann and Y. Hardalupas, “Quantitative measurement of planar droplet Sauter mean diameter in sprays using planar droplet sizing,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 20, 209–218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Zimmer and Y. Ikeda, “Planar droplet sizing for the characterization of droplet clusters in an industrial gun-type burner,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 20, 199–208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Combust. Inst. (1)

E. Kristensson, E. Berrocal, R. Wellander, M. Ritcher, M. Aldén, and M. Linne, “Structured illumination for 3D Mie imaging and 2D attenuation measurements in optically dense sprays,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 33, 855–861 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Swed. Inst. Eng. Res. (1)

W. Weibull, “A statistical theory of the strength of materials,” Proc. R. Swed. Inst. Eng. Res. 151, 1–45 (1939).

Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. (1)

E. Babinsky and P. E. Sojka, “Modeling drop size distributions,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 28, 303–329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (11)

L. Bayvel and Z. Orzechowski, Liquid Atomization (Taylor & Francis, 1993).

A. H. Lefebvre, Atomization and Sprays (Hemisphere, 1989).

D. Stepowski, O. Werquin, C. Roze, and T. Girasole, “Account for extinction and multiple scattering in planar droplet sizing of dense sprays,” presented at the 13th International Symposium of Laser Techniques to Fluids Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 26–29 June 2006.

L. Araneo and R. Payri, “Experimental quantification of the planar droplet sizing. Technique error for micro-metric mono-dispersed spherical particles,” in 22nd Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems (2008), paper ILASS08-7-9.

R. Domann and Y. Hardalupas, “Planar droplet sizing for quantification of spray unsteadiness,” presented at the 18th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization & Spray Systems, Zaragoza, Spain, 9–11 September 2002.

M. M. Zaller, R. C. Anderson, Y. R. Hicks, and R. J. Locke, “Comparison of techniques for non-intrusive fuel drop size measurements in a subscale gas turbine combustor,” NASATM-1999-208909 (1999).

G. Charalampous, Y. Hardalupas, and A. M. K. P. Taylor, “Optimisation of the droplet sizing accuracy of the combined scattering (mie)/laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technique,” presented at the 12th International Symposium of Laser Techniques to Fluids Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 12–15 July 2004.

F. Durst and M. Zare, “Laser Doppler measurements in two-phase flows,” in The Accuracy of Flow Measurements by Laser Doppler Methods: Proceedings of the LDA Symposium (Copenhagen, 1975), pp. 403–429.

K. Bauckhage and H. Flogel, “Simultaneous measurement of droplet size and velocity in nozzle sprays,” presented at the 2nd International Symposium of Laser Techniques to Fluids Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 2–5 July 1984.

C. N. Yeh, H. Kosaka, and T. Kamimoto, “A fluorescence/scattering imaging technique for instantaneous 2-D measurements of particle size distribution in a transient spray,” in Proceedings of the 3rd Congress on Optical Particle Sizing(1993), pp. 355–361.

T. Kamimoto, “Diagnostics of transient sprays by means of laser sheet techniques,” in COMODIA 94 (1994), pp. 33–41.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Processing of the spatial distributions of the LIF and scattered light (Mie) intensities on a cross section of a spray in order to determine the spatial distribution of the SMD.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Contours of Δ P v = P v ( Δ = 0.7 ) P v ( Δ = 1.9 ) , indicative of the uncertainty of the calibration parameter K, as a function of exponents b f and b s of Eqs. (6, 7), respectively. The size spread of the measured droplet size distributions can typically range between Δ = 1.9 and Δ = 0.7 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependency of the calibration parameter K on the SMD and the span factor Δ of a polydispersed spray droplet size distribution, for exponents of Eqs. (6, 7) b f = 2.95 and b s = 2 . The change in K with the SMD for a constant droplet size spread is due to the size parameter P w of Eq. (12), while the change of K for constant SMD is due to the size spread Δ of the droplet size distributions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Contours of sizing error, defined by Eq. (23), of the LIF/Mie technique, when sizing monodispersed droplets of diameter D. Calibration is performed with droplets of diameter D 0 , as a function of the size parameter P w and log ( D / D 0 ) .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Contours of sizing error, defined by Eq. (25), of the LIF/Mie technique when sizing polydispersed droplets for calibration with monodispersed droplets of D 0 = 100 μm , when b f = 3.0 and b s = 1.9 . Sizing error presented as a function of the SMD and size spread Δ of the measured droplet size distributions.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Contours of sizing error, defined by Eq. (27), of the LIF/Mie technique when sizing polydispersed droplets for calibration with polydispersed droplets of SMD 0 = 100 μm and Δ = 1.3 , when b f = 3.0 and b s = 1.9 . Sizing error presented as a function of the SMD and size spread Δ of the measured droplet size distributions.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Contours of values of estimated size spread of the droplet size distribution Δ est that minimizes the sizing error of the LIF/Mie technique when measuring polydispersed droplets as a function of exponents b f and b s of Eqs. (6, 7), respectively.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Contours of maximum sizing error of the LIF/Mie technique for sizing polydispersed droplets as a function of exponents b f and b s of Eqs. (6, 7), respectively. This is based on the proposed novel processing method, based on Eq. (28) and the optimal value of size spread Δ of the measured droplet size distribution, reported in Fig. 7.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Contours of reduction of the maximum sizing error of the conventional processing approach of the LIF/Mie technique for sizing polydispersed droplets as a function of exponents b f and b s of Eqs. (6, 7), respectively. The reduction is only due to the optimized estimate of size spread Δ of the measured droplet size distribution, as reported in Fig. 7, in comparison to the conventional processing approach.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Demonstration of the approximation of scattered light intensity oscillations with droplet diameter by introducing uniform noise around the main trend determined by the power law fit of the scattered light intensity calculated by Mie theory.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Contours of maximum sizing error of the LIF/Mie technique for fluorescent dye concentration of c = 0.001 g / l ( b f = 2.97 ) as a function of scattering angle and refractive index.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Contours of maximum sizing error of the LIF/Mie technique for fluorescent dye concentration of c = 0.010 g / l ( b f = 2.95 ) as a function of scattering angle and refractive index.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Contours of maximum sizing error of the LIF/Mie technique for fluorescent dye concentration of c = 0.100 g / l ( b f = 2.77 ) as a function of scattering angle and refractive index.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Contours of sizing accuracy improvements of the LIF/Mie technique with the new proposed processing of the LIF/Mie intensity ratio. Example for fluorescent dye concentration of c = 0.001 g / l ( b f = 2.97 ), considering droplet SMDs in the region of 25 75 μm and calibration performed with 100 μm monodispersed droplets.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Contours of sizing accuracy improvements of the LIF/Mie technique with the new proposed processing of the LIF/Mie intensity ratio. Example for fluorescent dye concentration of c = 0.100 g / l ( b f = 2.77 ), considering droplet SMDs in the region of 25 75 μm and calibration performed with 100 μm monodispersed droplets.

Equations (32)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I s ( D ) = a s D 2 ,
I f ( D ) = a f D 3 .
SMD = D = 0 D 3 d N ( D ) D = 0 D 2 d N ( D ) ,
SMD = D = 0 D 3 d N ( D ) D = 0 D 2 d N ( D ) = D = 0 1 a f · I f ( D ) · d N ( D ) D = 0 1 a s · I s ( D ) · d N ( D ) = 1 K · D = 0 I f ( D ) · d N ( D ) D = 0 I s ( D ) · d N ( D ) .
K = a f a s .
I s ( D ) = a s D b s ,
I f ( D ) = a f D b f ,
K = 1 SMD · D = 0 I f ( D ) · d N ( D ) D = 0 I s ( D ) · d N ( D ) .
K = 1 SMD · D = 0 a f · D b f · d N ( D ) D = 0 a s · D b s · d N ( D ) = 1 SMD · a f a s · D = 0 D b f · d N ( D ) D = 0 D b s · d N ( D ) .
D = 0 I f ( D ) · d N ( D ) D = 0 I s ( D ) · d N ( D ) = a f · D b f a s · D b s .
K ( D ) = a f a s · D b f b s 1 .
P w = b f b s 1.
Q = 1 exp [ ( D X ) q ] ,
SMD = X Γ ( 1 1 q ) ,
Δ = D 0.9 D 0.1 D 0.5 ,
Δ = 3.222 1 q 0.152 1 q .
D = 0 I f ( D ) · d N ( D ) D = 0 I s ( d ) · d N ( D ) = a f a s SMD b f b s Γ ( 1 1 q ) b f Γ ( 1 + b f 3 q ) Γ ( 1 1 q ) b s Γ ( 1 + b s 3 q ) .
K = a f a s · SMD b f b s 1 · Γ ( 1 1 q ) b f Γ ( 1 + b f 3 q ) Γ ( 1 1 q ) b s Γ ( 1 + b s 3 q ) ,
SMD b f b s 1 ,
P v = Γ ( 1 1 q ) b f Γ ( 1 + b f 3 q ) Γ ( 1 1 q ) b s Γ ( 1 + b s 3 q ) ,
Δ P v = P v ( Δ = 0.7 ) P v ( Δ = 1.9 ) ,
D eval = 1 K 0 · I f I s = ( D D 0 ) P w · D .
err D = D eval D D = ( D D 0 ) P w 1.
SMD eval = ( SMD D 0 ) P w · SMD · P V ,
err SMD = SMD eval SMD SMD = ( SMD D 0 ) P w P V 1.
SMD eval = ( SMD SMD 0 ) P w · SMD · P V P V 0 ,
err SMD = SMD eval SMD SMD = ( SMD SMD 0 ) P w P V P V 0 1.
SMD = ( a s a f · 1 P V · D = 0 I f ( D ) · d N ( D ) D = 0 I s ( D ) · d N ( D ) ) 1 P w + 1 = ( 1 K · 1 P V · D = 0 I f ( D ) · d N ( D ) D = 0 I s ( D ) · d N ( D ) ) 1 P w + 1 ,
K 0 = 1 D 0 P w + 1 I f ( D 0 ) I s ( D 0 ) = a f a s ,
K 0 = 1 SMD 0 P w + 1 1 P V 0 D = 0 I f · d N ( D ) D = 0 I s · d N ( D ) = a f a s .
err SMD = SMD eval SMD SMD = ( P V P V , est ) 1 P w + 1 1.
max | err SMD   eq   25 | max | err SMD   eq   31 | , Δ [ 0.7 1.9 ] .

Metrics