Retinal fundus images are widely used in the diagnosis and treatment of various eye diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. A computer-aided retinal fundus image analysis could provide an immediate detection and characterization of retinal features prior to specialist inspection. This paper proposes an approach to automatically localize the main features in fundus images, such as blood vessels, optic disc, and fovea by exploiting the spatial and geometric relations that govern their distribution within the fundus image. The blood vessels are segmented by scale-space analysis. The average thickness of these blood vessels is then computed using the vessels centerlines and orientations from a Hessian matrix. The optic disc is localized using the circular Hough transform, the parabolic Hough transform fitting, and the localization of the fovea. The proposed method can be extended to establish a foveal coordinate system to facilitate grading lesions based on the spatial relationships between lesions and landmark features. The proposed method was evaluated on publicly available image databases, and the results have demonstrated a significant improvement over the current state-of-the-art methods.
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