Abstract

The x-ray reflectivity of an ultralightweight and low-cost x-ray optic using anisotropic wet etching of Si (110) wafers is evaluated at two energies, C Kα 0.28keV and Al Kα 1.49keV. The obtained reflectivities at both energies are not represented by a simple planar mirror model considering surface roughness. Hence, an geometrical occultation effect due to step structures upon the etched mirror surface is taken into account. Then, the reflectivities are represented by the theoretical model. The estimated surface roughness at C Kα (6nmrms) is significantly larger than 1nm at Al Kα. This can be explained by different coherent lengths at two energies.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. W. Frazer, “Microchannel plate x-ray optics,” in The Next Generation of X-Ray Observatories, M. J. L.Turner and M. G. Watson, eds., Leicester X-Ray Astronomy Group special report XRA97/02 (1997), p. 191.
  2. M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, A. J. Peacock, M. Beijersbergen, and S. Kraft, “Status of x-ray optics development for the XEUS mission,” Proc. SPIE 5488, 829-836 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijerbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, “X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 490, 276-289(2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, K. Mitsuda, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, Z. Yang, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micropore x-ray optics using anisotropic wet etching of (110) silicon wafers,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8932-8938 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, K. Mitsuda, T. Osawa, M. Suzuki, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micromachined x-ray collector for space astronomy,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 145-146, 201-206 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, and K. Mitsuda, “MEMS open the way to ultra-lightweight and lowcost x-ray optics” (SPIE, 2006), http://spie.org/x8595.xml.
  7. M. Koshiishi, Y. Ezoe, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, K. Mitsuda, M. Suzuki, T. Osawa, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “The first light of a single-stage MEMS x-ray optic,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668814 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. Mitsuishi, Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, N. Y. Yamasaki, K. Mitsuda, T. Shirata, T. Hayashi, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Evaluation of x-ray reflectivity of a MEMS x-ray optic,” in 2008 IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (2008), pp. 104-105.
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, K. Mitsuda, T. Osawa, M. Suzuki, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micromachined x-ray collector for space astronomy,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 145-146, 201-206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

M. Koshiishi, Y. Ezoe, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, K. Mitsuda, M. Suzuki, T. Osawa, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “The first light of a single-stage MEMS x-ray optic,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, A. J. Peacock, M. Beijersbergen, and S. Kraft, “Status of x-ray optics development for the XEUS mission,” Proc. SPIE 5488, 829-836 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijerbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, “X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 490, 276-289(2002).
[CrossRef]

Bavdaz, M.

M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, A. J. Peacock, M. Beijersbergen, and S. Kraft, “Status of x-ray optics development for the XEUS mission,” Proc. SPIE 5488, 829-836 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijerbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, “X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 490, 276-289(2002).
[CrossRef]

Beijerbergen, M. W.

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijerbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, “X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 490, 276-289(2002).
[CrossRef]

Beijersbergen, M.

M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, A. J. Peacock, M. Beijersbergen, and S. Kraft, “Status of x-ray optics development for the XEUS mission,” Proc. SPIE 5488, 829-836 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boutot, J.-P.

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijerbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, “X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 490, 276-289(2002).
[CrossRef]

Brunton, A. N.

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijerbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, “X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 490, 276-289(2002).
[CrossRef]

Ezoe, Y.

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, K. Mitsuda, T. Osawa, M. Suzuki, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micromachined x-ray collector for space astronomy,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 145-146, 201-206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Koshiishi, Y. Ezoe, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, K. Mitsuda, M. Suzuki, T. Osawa, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “The first light of a single-stage MEMS x-ray optic,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, K. Mitsuda, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, Z. Yang, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micropore x-ray optics using anisotropic wet etching of (110) silicon wafers,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8932-8938 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, and K. Mitsuda, “MEMS open the way to ultra-lightweight and lowcost x-ray optics” (SPIE, 2006), http://spie.org/x8595.xml.

I. Mitsuishi, Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, N. Y. Yamasaki, K. Mitsuda, T. Shirata, T. Hayashi, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Evaluation of x-ray reflectivity of a MEMS x-ray optic,” in 2008 IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (2008), pp. 104-105.
[CrossRef]

Fairbend, R.

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijerbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, “X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 490, 276-289(2002).
[CrossRef]

Flyckt, S.-O.

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijerbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, “X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 490, 276-289(2002).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, G. W.

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijerbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, “X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 490, 276-289(2002).
[CrossRef]

Frazer, G. W.

G. W. Frazer, “Microchannel plate x-ray optics,” in The Next Generation of X-Ray Observatories, M. J. L.Turner and M. G. Watson, eds., Leicester X-Ray Astronomy Group special report XRA97/02 (1997), p. 191.

Hayashi, T.

I. Mitsuishi, Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, N. Y. Yamasaki, K. Mitsuda, T. Shirata, T. Hayashi, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Evaluation of x-ray reflectivity of a MEMS x-ray optic,” in 2008 IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (2008), pp. 104-105.
[CrossRef]

Hoshino, A.

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, K. Mitsuda, T. Osawa, M. Suzuki, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micromachined x-ray collector for space astronomy,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 145-146, 201-206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Koshiishi, Y. Ezoe, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, K. Mitsuda, M. Suzuki, T. Osawa, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “The first light of a single-stage MEMS x-ray optic,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, K. Mitsuda, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, Z. Yang, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micropore x-ray optics using anisotropic wet etching of (110) silicon wafers,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8932-8938 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishisaki, Y.

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, K. Mitsuda, T. Osawa, M. Suzuki, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micromachined x-ray collector for space astronomy,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 145-146, 201-206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Koshiishi, Y. Ezoe, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, K. Mitsuda, M. Suzuki, T. Osawa, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “The first light of a single-stage MEMS x-ray optic,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, K. Mitsuda, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, Z. Yang, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micropore x-ray optics using anisotropic wet etching of (110) silicon wafers,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8932-8938 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koshiishi, M.

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, K. Mitsuda, T. Osawa, M. Suzuki, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micromachined x-ray collector for space astronomy,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 145-146, 201-206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Koshiishi, Y. Ezoe, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, K. Mitsuda, M. Suzuki, T. Osawa, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “The first light of a single-stage MEMS x-ray optic,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, K. Mitsuda, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, Z. Yang, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micropore x-ray optics using anisotropic wet etching of (110) silicon wafers,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8932-8938 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, and K. Mitsuda, “MEMS open the way to ultra-lightweight and lowcost x-ray optics” (SPIE, 2006), http://spie.org/x8595.xml.

I. Mitsuishi, Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, N. Y. Yamasaki, K. Mitsuda, T. Shirata, T. Hayashi, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Evaluation of x-ray reflectivity of a MEMS x-ray optic,” in 2008 IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (2008), pp. 104-105.
[CrossRef]

Kraft, S.

M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, A. J. Peacock, M. Beijersbergen, and S. Kraft, “Status of x-ray optics development for the XEUS mission,” Proc. SPIE 5488, 829-836 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lumb, D. H.

M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, A. J. Peacock, M. Beijersbergen, and S. Kraft, “Status of x-ray optics development for the XEUS mission,” Proc. SPIE 5488, 829-836 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, R.

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, K. Mitsuda, T. Osawa, M. Suzuki, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micromachined x-ray collector for space astronomy,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 145-146, 201-206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Koshiishi, Y. Ezoe, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, K. Mitsuda, M. Suzuki, T. Osawa, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “The first light of a single-stage MEMS x-ray optic,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, K. Mitsuda, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, Z. Yang, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micropore x-ray optics using anisotropic wet etching of (110) silicon wafers,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8932-8938 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Mitsuishi, Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, N. Y. Yamasaki, K. Mitsuda, T. Shirata, T. Hayashi, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Evaluation of x-ray reflectivity of a MEMS x-ray optic,” in 2008 IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (2008), pp. 104-105.
[CrossRef]

Maeda, Y.

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, K. Mitsuda, T. Osawa, M. Suzuki, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micromachined x-ray collector for space astronomy,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 145-146, 201-206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Koshiishi, Y. Ezoe, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, K. Mitsuda, M. Suzuki, T. Osawa, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “The first light of a single-stage MEMS x-ray optic,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Mitsuishi, Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, N. Y. Yamasaki, K. Mitsuda, T. Shirata, T. Hayashi, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Evaluation of x-ray reflectivity of a MEMS x-ray optic,” in 2008 IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (2008), pp. 104-105.
[CrossRef]

Mita, M.

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, K. Mitsuda, T. Osawa, M. Suzuki, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micromachined x-ray collector for space astronomy,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 145-146, 201-206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Koshiishi, Y. Ezoe, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, K. Mitsuda, M. Suzuki, T. Osawa, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “The first light of a single-stage MEMS x-ray optic,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, K. Mitsuda, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, Z. Yang, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micropore x-ray optics using anisotropic wet etching of (110) silicon wafers,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8932-8938 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Mitsuishi, Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, N. Y. Yamasaki, K. Mitsuda, T. Shirata, T. Hayashi, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Evaluation of x-ray reflectivity of a MEMS x-ray optic,” in 2008 IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (2008), pp. 104-105.
[CrossRef]

Mitsuda, K.

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, K. Mitsuda, T. Osawa, M. Suzuki, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micromachined x-ray collector for space astronomy,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 145-146, 201-206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Koshiishi, Y. Ezoe, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, K. Mitsuda, M. Suzuki, T. Osawa, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “The first light of a single-stage MEMS x-ray optic,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, K. Mitsuda, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, Z. Yang, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micropore x-ray optics using anisotropic wet etching of (110) silicon wafers,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8932-8938 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, and K. Mitsuda, “MEMS open the way to ultra-lightweight and lowcost x-ray optics” (SPIE, 2006), http://spie.org/x8595.xml.

I. Mitsuishi, Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, N. Y. Yamasaki, K. Mitsuda, T. Shirata, T. Hayashi, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Evaluation of x-ray reflectivity of a MEMS x-ray optic,” in 2008 IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (2008), pp. 104-105.
[CrossRef]

Mitsuishi, I.

I. Mitsuishi, Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, N. Y. Yamasaki, K. Mitsuda, T. Shirata, T. Hayashi, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Evaluation of x-ray reflectivity of a MEMS x-ray optic,” in 2008 IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (2008), pp. 104-105.
[CrossRef]

Osawa, T.

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, K. Mitsuda, T. Osawa, M. Suzuki, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micromachined x-ray collector for space astronomy,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 145-146, 201-206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Koshiishi, Y. Ezoe, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, K. Mitsuda, M. Suzuki, T. Osawa, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “The first light of a single-stage MEMS x-ray optic,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peacock, A.

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijerbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, “X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 490, 276-289(2002).
[CrossRef]

Peacock, A. J.

M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, A. J. Peacock, M. Beijersbergen, and S. Kraft, “Status of x-ray optics development for the XEUS mission,” Proc. SPIE 5488, 829-836 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Price, G. J.

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijerbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, “X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 490, 276-289(2002).
[CrossRef]

Shirata, T.

I. Mitsuishi, Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, N. Y. Yamasaki, K. Mitsuda, T. Shirata, T. Hayashi, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Evaluation of x-ray reflectivity of a MEMS x-ray optic,” in 2008 IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (2008), pp. 104-105.
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, M.

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, K. Mitsuda, T. Osawa, M. Suzuki, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micromachined x-ray collector for space astronomy,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 145-146, 201-206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Koshiishi, Y. Ezoe, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, K. Mitsuda, M. Suzuki, T. Osawa, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “The first light of a single-stage MEMS x-ray optic,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takano, T.

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, K. Mitsuda, T. Osawa, M. Suzuki, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micromachined x-ray collector for space astronomy,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 145-146, 201-206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Koshiishi, Y. Ezoe, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, K. Mitsuda, M. Suzuki, T. Osawa, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “The first light of a single-stage MEMS x-ray optic,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, K. Mitsuda, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, Z. Yang, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micropore x-ray optics using anisotropic wet etching of (110) silicon wafers,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8932-8938 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Mitsuishi, Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, N. Y. Yamasaki, K. Mitsuda, T. Shirata, T. Hayashi, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Evaluation of x-ray reflectivity of a MEMS x-ray optic,” in 2008 IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (2008), pp. 104-105.
[CrossRef]

Tomaselli, E.

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijerbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, “X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 490, 276-289(2002).
[CrossRef]

Yamasaki, N. Y.

I. Mitsuishi, Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, N. Y. Yamasaki, K. Mitsuda, T. Shirata, T. Hayashi, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Evaluation of x-ray reflectivity of a MEMS x-ray optic,” in 2008 IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (2008), pp. 104-105.
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Nucl. Instrum. Methods (1)

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijerbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, “X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 490, 276-289(2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

M. Koshiishi, Y. Ezoe, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, K. Mitsuda, M. Suzuki, T. Osawa, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “The first light of a single-stage MEMS x-ray optic,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, A. J. Peacock, M. Beijersbergen, and S. Kraft, “Status of x-ray optics development for the XEUS mission,” Proc. SPIE 5488, 829-836 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A, Phys. (1)

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, K. Mitsuda, T. Osawa, M. Suzuki, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Micromachined x-ray collector for space astronomy,” Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 145-146, 201-206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, and K. Mitsuda, “MEMS open the way to ultra-lightweight and lowcost x-ray optics” (SPIE, 2006), http://spie.org/x8595.xml.

G. W. Frazer, “Microchannel plate x-ray optics,” in The Next Generation of X-Ray Observatories, M. J. L.Turner and M. G. Watson, eds., Leicester X-Ray Astronomy Group special report XRA97/02 (1997), p. 191.

I. Mitsuishi, Y. Ezoe, M. Koshiishi, M. Mita, Y. Maeda, N. Y. Yamasaki, K. Mitsuda, T. Shirata, T. Hayashi, T. Takano, and R. Maeda, “Evaluation of x-ray reflectivity of a MEMS x-ray optic,” in 2008 IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (2008), pp. 104-105.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Concept of our test optic. Three panels show (a) horizontal, (b) cross-sectional, and (c) close-up cross-sectional views, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photographs of our test optic.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup at the ISAS 30 m beam line facility.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Obtained x-ray reflectivity of mirror chips, including the outermost chip, at the energy of C K α 0.28 keV . θ and θ 0 are the incident angle and the shadowing angle, respectively. Marks with error bars are data, while the dashed curve is model calculations. The dotted curve assumes the surface roughness of 6 nm and θ 0 of 0 ° . The dashed and solid curves assume different surface roughness and the same θ 0 of 12 arc min . The chip IDs are defined in Fig. 2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Same as Fig. 4 but at Al K α 1.49 keV . θ and θ 0 are the incident angle and the shadowing angle, respectively. The chip IDs are defined in Fig. 2.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Parameters of Our Test Optic a

Equations (3)

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Reflectivity = R ( λ , θ ) × exp [ ( 4 π σ sin θ ) λ ) ] ,
R shadow = 1 tan θ 0 tan θ ,
l coherent ( λ | Δ λ | ) λ ,

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