Abstract

A three-parameter optical sensor based on a tilted fiber Bragg grating is proposed. Through the monitoring of the wavelength shift of the core mode resonance and the ghost mode resonance, it is possible to discriminate strain and temperature. In addition, the refractive index can be determined by calculating the normalized transmission spectrum area. With the current approach, resolutions of up to 5.7×104, 4με, and 3.1°C were achieved, for refractive index, strain, and temperature, respectively. The developed sensor can be an important tool in several areas of engineering, namely, biomedical, biological, and environmental sensing.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. Serker, Z. Wu, and S. Li, “A nonphysics-based approach for vibration-based structural health monitoring under changing environmental conditions,” Struct. Health Monit. 9, 145–158(2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Topliss, S. James, F. Davis, S. Higson, and R. Tatam, “Optical fiber long period grating based selective vapour sensing of volatile organic compounds,” Sens. Actuators B 143, 629–634 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Darwish, D. Caballero, M. Moreno, A. Errachid, and J. Samitier, “Multi-analytic grating coupler biosensor for differential binding analysis,” Sens. Actuators B 144, 413–417(2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Kanellos, G. Papaioannou, D. Tsiokos, C. Mitrogiannis, G. Nianios, and N. Pleros, “Two dimensional polymer-embedded quasi-distributed FBG pressure sensor for biomedical applications,” Opt. Express 18, 179–186 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. Tan, Z. Huang, and X. Huang, “Rapid determination of surfactant critical micelle concentration in aqueous solutions using fiber-optic refractive index sensing,” Anal. Biochem. 401, 144–147 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Buggy, E. Chehura, S. James, and R. Tatam, “Optical fiber grating refractometers for resin cure monitoring,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 9, S60–S65 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Z. Meng, S. Yao, H. Yao, Y. Liang, T. Liu, Y. Li, G. Wang, and S. Lan, “Measurement of the refractive index of human teeth by optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034010(2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. E. Chehura, S. James, and R. Tatam, “Temperature and strain discrimination using a single tilted fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Commun. 275, 344–347 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Park, B. Jang, Y. Lee, C. Kim, and C. Park, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using a reverse index fiber Bragg grating sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 035703(2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Choi, G. Mudhana, K. Park, U.-C. Paek, and B. Lee, “Cross-talk free and ultra-compact fiber optic sensor for simultaneous measurements of temperature and refractive index,” Opt. Express 18, 141–149 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, “Tilted short-period fibre-Bragg-grating-induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765–770 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Men, P. Lu, and Q. Chen, “Intelligent multiparameter sensing with fiber Bragg gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 071110 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Ohira, P. Dasgupta, and K. Schug, “Fiber optic sensor for simultaneous determination of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and relative humidity,” Anal. Chem. 81, 4183–4191(2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Xu, Y.-G. Liu, Z. Wang, and B. Tai, “Simultaneous force and temperature measurement using long-period grating written on the joint of a microstructured optical fiber and a single mode fiber,” Appl. Opt. 49, 492–496 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. T. Erdogan and J. Sipe, “Tilted fiber phase gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 296–313 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2010

N. Serker, Z. Wu, and S. Li, “A nonphysics-based approach for vibration-based structural health monitoring under changing environmental conditions,” Struct. Health Monit. 9, 145–158(2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Topliss, S. James, F. Davis, S. Higson, and R. Tatam, “Optical fiber long period grating based selective vapour sensing of volatile organic compounds,” Sens. Actuators B 143, 629–634 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Darwish, D. Caballero, M. Moreno, A. Errachid, and J. Samitier, “Multi-analytic grating coupler biosensor for differential binding analysis,” Sens. Actuators B 144, 413–417(2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Kanellos, G. Papaioannou, D. Tsiokos, C. Mitrogiannis, G. Nianios, and N. Pleros, “Two dimensional polymer-embedded quasi-distributed FBG pressure sensor for biomedical applications,” Opt. Express 18, 179–186 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Tan, Z. Huang, and X. Huang, “Rapid determination of surfactant critical micelle concentration in aqueous solutions using fiber-optic refractive index sensing,” Anal. Biochem. 401, 144–147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Park, B. Jang, Y. Lee, C. Kim, and C. Park, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using a reverse index fiber Bragg grating sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 035703(2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, G. Mudhana, K. Park, U.-C. Paek, and B. Lee, “Cross-talk free and ultra-compact fiber optic sensor for simultaneous measurements of temperature and refractive index,” Opt. Express 18, 141–149 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Xu, Y.-G. Liu, Z. Wang, and B. Tai, “Simultaneous force and temperature measurement using long-period grating written on the joint of a microstructured optical fiber and a single mode fiber,” Appl. Opt. 49, 492–496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

S. Ohira, P. Dasgupta, and K. Schug, “Fiber optic sensor for simultaneous determination of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and relative humidity,” Anal. Chem. 81, 4183–4191(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Meng, S. Yao, H. Yao, Y. Liang, T. Liu, Y. Li, G. Wang, and S. Lan, “Measurement of the refractive index of human teeth by optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034010(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

L. Men, P. Lu, and Q. Chen, “Intelligent multiparameter sensing with fiber Bragg gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 071110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

E. Chehura, S. James, and R. Tatam, “Temperature and strain discrimination using a single tilted fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Commun. 275, 344–347 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Buggy, E. Chehura, S. James, and R. Tatam, “Optical fiber grating refractometers for resin cure monitoring,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 9, S60–S65 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2001

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, “Tilted short-period fibre-Bragg-grating-induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765–770 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996

Buggy, S.

S. Buggy, E. Chehura, S. James, and R. Tatam, “Optical fiber grating refractometers for resin cure monitoring,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 9, S60–S65 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Caballero, D.

N. Darwish, D. Caballero, M. Moreno, A. Errachid, and J. Samitier, “Multi-analytic grating coupler biosensor for differential binding analysis,” Sens. Actuators B 144, 413–417(2010).
[CrossRef]

Chehura, E.

S. Buggy, E. Chehura, S. James, and R. Tatam, “Optical fiber grating refractometers for resin cure monitoring,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 9, S60–S65 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Chehura, S. James, and R. Tatam, “Temperature and strain discrimination using a single tilted fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Commun. 275, 344–347 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

L. Men, P. Lu, and Q. Chen, “Intelligent multiparameter sensing with fiber Bragg gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 071110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H.

Darwish, N.

N. Darwish, D. Caballero, M. Moreno, A. Errachid, and J. Samitier, “Multi-analytic grating coupler biosensor for differential binding analysis,” Sens. Actuators B 144, 413–417(2010).
[CrossRef]

Dasgupta, P.

S. Ohira, P. Dasgupta, and K. Schug, “Fiber optic sensor for simultaneous determination of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and relative humidity,” Anal. Chem. 81, 4183–4191(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, F.

S. Topliss, S. James, F. Davis, S. Higson, and R. Tatam, “Optical fiber long period grating based selective vapour sensing of volatile organic compounds,” Sens. Actuators B 143, 629–634 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

Errachid, A.

N. Darwish, D. Caballero, M. Moreno, A. Errachid, and J. Samitier, “Multi-analytic grating coupler biosensor for differential binding analysis,” Sens. Actuators B 144, 413–417(2010).
[CrossRef]

Ferdinand, P.

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, “Tilted short-period fibre-Bragg-grating-induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765–770 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Higson, S.

S. Topliss, S. James, F. Davis, S. Higson, and R. Tatam, “Optical fiber long period grating based selective vapour sensing of volatile organic compounds,” Sens. Actuators B 143, 629–634 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X.

C. Tan, Z. Huang, and X. Huang, “Rapid determination of surfactant critical micelle concentration in aqueous solutions using fiber-optic refractive index sensing,” Anal. Biochem. 401, 144–147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Z.

C. Tan, Z. Huang, and X. Huang, “Rapid determination of surfactant critical micelle concentration in aqueous solutions using fiber-optic refractive index sensing,” Anal. Biochem. 401, 144–147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

James, S.

S. Topliss, S. James, F. Davis, S. Higson, and R. Tatam, “Optical fiber long period grating based selective vapour sensing of volatile organic compounds,” Sens. Actuators B 143, 629–634 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Buggy, E. Chehura, S. James, and R. Tatam, “Optical fiber grating refractometers for resin cure monitoring,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 9, S60–S65 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Chehura, S. James, and R. Tatam, “Temperature and strain discrimination using a single tilted fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Commun. 275, 344–347 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jang, B.

S. Park, B. Jang, Y. Lee, C. Kim, and C. Park, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using a reverse index fiber Bragg grating sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 035703(2010).
[CrossRef]

Kanellos, G.

Kim, C.

S. Park, B. Jang, Y. Lee, C. Kim, and C. Park, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using a reverse index fiber Bragg grating sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 035703(2010).
[CrossRef]

Laffont, G.

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, “Tilted short-period fibre-Bragg-grating-induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765–770 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lan, S.

Z. Meng, S. Yao, H. Yao, Y. Liang, T. Liu, Y. Li, G. Wang, and S. Lan, “Measurement of the refractive index of human teeth by optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034010(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, B.

Lee, Y.

S. Park, B. Jang, Y. Lee, C. Kim, and C. Park, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using a reverse index fiber Bragg grating sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 035703(2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

N. Serker, Z. Wu, and S. Li, “A nonphysics-based approach for vibration-based structural health monitoring under changing environmental conditions,” Struct. Health Monit. 9, 145–158(2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Z. Meng, S. Yao, H. Yao, Y. Liang, T. Liu, Y. Li, G. Wang, and S. Lan, “Measurement of the refractive index of human teeth by optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034010(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, Y.

Z. Meng, S. Yao, H. Yao, Y. Liang, T. Liu, Y. Li, G. Wang, and S. Lan, “Measurement of the refractive index of human teeth by optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034010(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, T.

Z. Meng, S. Yao, H. Yao, Y. Liang, T. Liu, Y. Li, G. Wang, and S. Lan, “Measurement of the refractive index of human teeth by optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034010(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.-G.

Lu, P.

L. Men, P. Lu, and Q. Chen, “Intelligent multiparameter sensing with fiber Bragg gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 071110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Men, L.

L. Men, P. Lu, and Q. Chen, “Intelligent multiparameter sensing with fiber Bragg gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 071110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meng, Z.

Z. Meng, S. Yao, H. Yao, Y. Liang, T. Liu, Y. Li, G. Wang, and S. Lan, “Measurement of the refractive index of human teeth by optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034010(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitrogiannis, C.

Moreno, M.

N. Darwish, D. Caballero, M. Moreno, A. Errachid, and J. Samitier, “Multi-analytic grating coupler biosensor for differential binding analysis,” Sens. Actuators B 144, 413–417(2010).
[CrossRef]

Mudhana, G.

Nianios, G.

Ohira, S.

S. Ohira, P. Dasgupta, and K. Schug, “Fiber optic sensor for simultaneous determination of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and relative humidity,” Anal. Chem. 81, 4183–4191(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paek, U.-C.

Papaioannou, G.

Park, C.

S. Park, B. Jang, Y. Lee, C. Kim, and C. Park, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using a reverse index fiber Bragg grating sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 035703(2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, K.

Park, S.

S. Park, B. Jang, Y. Lee, C. Kim, and C. Park, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using a reverse index fiber Bragg grating sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 035703(2010).
[CrossRef]

Pleros, N.

Samitier, J.

N. Darwish, D. Caballero, M. Moreno, A. Errachid, and J. Samitier, “Multi-analytic grating coupler biosensor for differential binding analysis,” Sens. Actuators B 144, 413–417(2010).
[CrossRef]

Schug, K.

S. Ohira, P. Dasgupta, and K. Schug, “Fiber optic sensor for simultaneous determination of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and relative humidity,” Anal. Chem. 81, 4183–4191(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serker, N.

N. Serker, Z. Wu, and S. Li, “A nonphysics-based approach for vibration-based structural health monitoring under changing environmental conditions,” Struct. Health Monit. 9, 145–158(2010).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J.

Tai, B.

Tan, C.

C. Tan, Z. Huang, and X. Huang, “Rapid determination of surfactant critical micelle concentration in aqueous solutions using fiber-optic refractive index sensing,” Anal. Biochem. 401, 144–147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tatam, R.

S. Topliss, S. James, F. Davis, S. Higson, and R. Tatam, “Optical fiber long period grating based selective vapour sensing of volatile organic compounds,” Sens. Actuators B 143, 629–634 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Buggy, E. Chehura, S. James, and R. Tatam, “Optical fiber grating refractometers for resin cure monitoring,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 9, S60–S65 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Chehura, S. James, and R. Tatam, “Temperature and strain discrimination using a single tilted fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Commun. 275, 344–347 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Topliss, S.

S. Topliss, S. James, F. Davis, S. Higson, and R. Tatam, “Optical fiber long period grating based selective vapour sensing of volatile organic compounds,” Sens. Actuators B 143, 629–634 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsiokos, D.

Wang, G.

Z. Meng, S. Yao, H. Yao, Y. Liang, T. Liu, Y. Li, G. Wang, and S. Lan, “Measurement of the refractive index of human teeth by optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034010(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

Wu, Z.

N. Serker, Z. Wu, and S. Li, “A nonphysics-based approach for vibration-based structural health monitoring under changing environmental conditions,” Struct. Health Monit. 9, 145–158(2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

Yao, H.

Z. Meng, S. Yao, H. Yao, Y. Liang, T. Liu, Y. Li, G. Wang, and S. Lan, “Measurement of the refractive index of human teeth by optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034010(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, S.

Z. Meng, S. Yao, H. Yao, Y. Liang, T. Liu, Y. Li, G. Wang, and S. Lan, “Measurement of the refractive index of human teeth by optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034010(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Biochem.

C. Tan, Z. Huang, and X. Huang, “Rapid determination of surfactant critical micelle concentration in aqueous solutions using fiber-optic refractive index sensing,” Anal. Biochem. 401, 144–147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem.

S. Ohira, P. Dasgupta, and K. Schug, “Fiber optic sensor for simultaneous determination of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and relative humidity,” Anal. Chem. 81, 4183–4191(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

L. Men, P. Lu, and Q. Chen, “Intelligent multiparameter sensing with fiber Bragg gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 071110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

Z. Meng, S. Yao, H. Yao, Y. Liang, T. Liu, Y. Li, G. Wang, and S. Lan, “Measurement of the refractive index of human teeth by optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 034010(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt.

S. Buggy, E. Chehura, S. James, and R. Tatam, “Optical fiber grating refractometers for resin cure monitoring,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 9, S60–S65 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Meas. Sci. Technol.

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, “Tilted short-period fibre-Bragg-grating-induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765–770 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, B. Jang, Y. Lee, C. Kim, and C. Park, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using a reverse index fiber Bragg grating sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 035703(2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

E. Chehura, S. James, and R. Tatam, “Temperature and strain discrimination using a single tilted fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Commun. 275, 344–347 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Sens. Actuators B

S. Topliss, S. James, F. Davis, S. Higson, and R. Tatam, “Optical fiber long period grating based selective vapour sensing of volatile organic compounds,” Sens. Actuators B 143, 629–634 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Darwish, D. Caballero, M. Moreno, A. Errachid, and J. Samitier, “Multi-analytic grating coupler biosensor for differential binding analysis,” Sens. Actuators B 144, 413–417(2010).
[CrossRef]

Struct. Health Monit.

N. Serker, Z. Wu, and S. Li, “A nonphysics-based approach for vibration-based structural health monitoring under changing environmental conditions,” Struct. Health Monit. 9, 145–158(2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of a TFBG where θ is the tilt angle and Λ g is the grating period.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission spectrum of a TFBG with 15 mm of length and an 8 ° tilt angle.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup for the sensor characterization.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission spectrum of the 8 ° TFBG for three glycerin solutions with different RIs.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variation of the normalized area of the transmission spectra as a function of the RI.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Normalized area as a function of RI of the Cargille oil.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Transmission spectrum of the 8 ° TFBG for three different strain values.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Strain sensitivity of the TFBG and normalized area of the spectrum.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Transmission spectra of the TFBG for three different temperatures.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Characterization of the TFBG to RI at two different temperatures.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Temperature sensitivity of the core mode and the ghost mode.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Simultaneous Measurements of Temperature, Strain, and RI and Deviation between Experimental and Theoretical Values

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

λ B = 2 n eff Λ cos θ ,
λ clad i = ( n eff , core i + n eff , clad i ) Λ cos θ ,
Area = λ i λ f T linear ( λ ) d λ ,
RI = 0.1854 Area norm + 1.5379.
Δ RI = ( RI Area norm ) 2 Δ Area norm 2 + ( RI m ) 2 Δ m 2 .
Δ λ B = k core , ε Δ ε + k core , T Δ T ,
Δ λ clad i = k clad , ε i Δ ε + k clad , T i Δ T ,
k core , ε = 2 n eff cos θ Λ ε + 2 Λ cos θ n eff ε , k core , T = 2 Λ cos θ n eff T + 2 n eff cos θ Λ T , k clad , ε i = ( n eff , core i + n eff , clad i ) cos θ Λ ε + Λ cos θ ( n eff , core i + n eff , clad i ) ε , k clad , T i = Λ cos θ ( n eff , core i + n eff , clad i ) T + n eff , core i + n eff , clad i cos θ Λ T .
( Δ λ core Δ λ clad i ) = ( k core , ε k core , T k clad , ε i k clad , T i ) ( Δ ε Δ T ) .
( Δ ε Δ T ) = ( 0.0010 0.0085 0.0010 0.0098 ) 1 ( Δ λ core Δ λ clad i ) .

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