Abstract

The camera lens diaphragm is an important component in a noncontact optical imaging system and has a crucial influence on the images registered on the CCD camera. However, this influence has not been taken into account in the existing free-space photon transport models. To model the photon transport process more accurately, a generalized free-space photon transport model is proposed. It combines Lambertian source theory with analysis of the influence of the camera lens diaphragm to simulate photon transport process in free space. In addition, the radiance theorem is also adopted to establish the energy relationship between the virtual detector and the CCD camera. The accuracy and feasibility of the proposed model is validated with a Monte-Carlo-based free-space photon transport model and physical phantom experiment. A comparison study with our previous hybrid radiosity-radiance theorem based model demonstrates the improvement performance and potential of the proposed model for simulating photon transport process in free space.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. W. Rice, M. D. Cable, and M. B. Nelson, “In vivo imaging of light-emitting probes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 432–440 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Weissleder and V. Ntziachristos, “Shedding light onto live molecular targets,” Nat. Med. 9, 123–128 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, “Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313–320 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Tian, J. Bai, X. Yan, S. Bao, Y. Li, W. Liang, and X. Yang, “Multimodality molecular imaging,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 27, 48–57 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. B. Schulz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, “Non-contact optical tomography of turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1701–1703(2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Deliolanis, T. Lasser, D. Hyde, A. Soubert, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, “Free-space fluorescence molecular tomography utilizing 360° geometry projections,” Opt. Lett. 32, 382–384 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Ripoll, R. B. Schulz, and V. Ntziachristos, “Free-space propagation of diffuse light: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 103901 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. B. Schulz, J. Peter, W. Semmler, C. D’ Andrea, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, “Quantifiability and image quality in non-contact fluorescence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 5859, 58590Z (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  21. Y. Zhang, Applied Optics (Publishing House of Electronics Industry, 2008).
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    [CrossRef]
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  24. D. Qin, H. Zhao, Y. Tanikawa, and F. Gao, “Experimental determination of optical properties in turbid medium by TCSPC technique,” Proc. SPIE 6434, 64342E (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  25. H. K. Kim and A. H. Hielscher, “A PDE-constrained SQP algorithm for optical tomography based on the frequency-domain equation of radiative transfer,” Inverse Probl. 25, 015010(2009).
    [CrossRef]
  26. H. Li, J. Tian, F. Zhu, W. X. Cong, L. V. Wang, and G. Wang, “A Mouse Optical Simulation Environment (MOSE) to investigate bioluminescent phenomena in the living mouse with the Monte Carlo method,” Acad. Radiol. 11, 1029–1038(2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

X. Chen, X. Gao, X. Qu, J. Liang, L. Wang, D. Yang, A. Garofalakis, J. Ripoll, and J. Tian, “A study of photon propagation in free-space based on hybrid radiosity-radiance theorem,” Opt. Express 17, 16266–16280 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge and J. C. Schotland, “Optical tomography: Forward and inverse problems,” Inverse Probl. 25, 123010 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Kim and A. H. Hielscher, “A PDE-constrained SQP algorithm for optical tomography based on the frequency-domain equation of radiative transfer,” Inverse Probl. 25, 015010(2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

J. Tian, J. Bai, X. Yan, S. Bao, Y. Li, W. Liang, and X. Yang, “Multimodality molecular imaging,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 27, 48–57 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Fischer, S. A. Prahl, and D. D. Duncan, “Monte Carlo modeling of spatial coherence: free space diffraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 2571–2581 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

R. B. Schulz, J. Peter, W. Semmler, C. D’ Andrea, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, “Quantifiability and image quality in non-contact fluorescence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 5859, 58590Z (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, “Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313–320 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

J. Ripoll and V. Ntziachristos, “Imaging scattering media from a distance: theory and applications of non-contact optical tomography,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 18, 1403–1431 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, J. Tian, F. Zhu, W. X. Cong, L. V. Wang, and G. Wang, “A Mouse Optical Simulation Environment (MOSE) to investigate bioluminescent phenomena in the living mouse with the Monte Carlo method,” Acad. Radiol. 11, 1029–1038(2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

R. B. Schulz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, “Non-contact optical tomography of turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1701–1703(2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Ripoll, R. B. Schulz, and V. Ntziachristos, “Free-space propagation of diffuse light: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 103901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Weissleder and V. Ntziachristos, “Shedding light onto live molecular targets,” Nat. Med. 9, 123–128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Aggarwal and N. Ahuja, “A pupil-centric model of image formation,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 48, 195–214 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

B. W. Rice, M. D. Cable, and M. B. Nelson, “In vivo imaging of light-emitting probes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 432–440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S. R. Arridge, “Optical tomography in medical imaging,” Inverse Probl. 15, R41–R93 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

L. V. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Q. Zheng, “MCML-Monte Carlo modeling of photon transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, M.

M. Aggarwal and N. Ahuja, “A pupil-centric model of image formation,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 48, 195–214 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Aggarwal and N. Ahuja, “A new imaging model,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE, 2001), pp. 82–89.

Ahuja, N.

M. Aggarwal and N. Ahuja, “A pupil-centric model of image formation,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 48, 195–214 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Aggarwal and N. Ahuja, “A new imaging model,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE, 2001), pp. 82–89.

Arridge, S. R.

S. R. Arridge and J. C. Schotland, “Optical tomography: Forward and inverse problems,” Inverse Probl. 25, 123010 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Elaloufi, S. R. Arridge, R. Pierrat, and R. Carminati, “Light propagation in multilayered scattering media beyond the diffusive regime,” Appl. Opt. 46, 2528–2539 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge, “Optical tomography in medical imaging,” Inverse Probl. 15, R41–R93 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bai, J.

J. Tian, J. Bai, X. Yan, S. Bao, Y. Li, W. Liang, and X. Yang, “Multimodality molecular imaging,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 27, 48–57 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bao, S.

J. Tian, J. Bai, X. Yan, S. Bao, Y. Li, W. Liang, and X. Yang, “Multimodality molecular imaging,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 27, 48–57 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cable, M. D.

B. W. Rice, M. D. Cable, and M. B. Nelson, “In vivo imaging of light-emitting probes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 432–440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Carminati, R.

Chen, X.

Cong, W. X.

H. Li, J. Tian, F. Zhu, W. X. Cong, L. V. Wang, and G. Wang, “A Mouse Optical Simulation Environment (MOSE) to investigate bioluminescent phenomena in the living mouse with the Monte Carlo method,” Acad. Radiol. 11, 1029–1038(2004).
[CrossRef]

Cubeddu, R.

R. B. Schulz, J. Peter, W. Semmler, C. D’ Andrea, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, “Quantifiability and image quality in non-contact fluorescence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 5859, 58590Z (2005).
[CrossRef]

D’ Andrea, C.

R. B. Schulz, J. Peter, W. Semmler, C. D’ Andrea, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, “Quantifiability and image quality in non-contact fluorescence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 5859, 58590Z (2005).
[CrossRef]

Deliolanis, N.

Du, B.

B. Du and J. Wang, Electron Optics (Tsinghua University, 2002).

Duncan, D. D.

Economou, E. N.

Elaloufi, R.

Fischer, D. G.

Gao, F.

D. Qin, H. Zhao, Y. Tanikawa, and F. Gao, “Experimental determination of optical properties in turbid medium by TCSPC technique,” Proc. SPIE 6434, 64342E (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gao, X.

Garofalakis, A.

Hanrahan, P.

C. Kolb, D. Mitchell, and P. Hanrahan, “A realistic camera model for computer graphics,” in Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (ACM, 1995), pp. 317–324.

Hielscher, A. H.

H. K. Kim and A. H. Hielscher, “A PDE-constrained SQP algorithm for optical tomography based on the frequency-domain equation of radiative transfer,” Inverse Probl. 25, 015010(2009).
[CrossRef]

Hyde, D.

Jacques, S. L.

L. V. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Q. Zheng, “MCML-Monte Carlo modeling of photon transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. K.

H. K. Kim and A. H. Hielscher, “A PDE-constrained SQP algorithm for optical tomography based on the frequency-domain equation of radiative transfer,” Inverse Probl. 25, 015010(2009).
[CrossRef]

Kioussis, D.

Kolb, C.

C. Kolb, D. Mitchell, and P. Hanrahan, “A realistic camera model for computer graphics,” in Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (ACM, 1995), pp. 317–324.

Lasser, T.

Li, H.

H. Li, J. Tian, F. Zhu, W. X. Cong, L. V. Wang, and G. Wang, “A Mouse Optical Simulation Environment (MOSE) to investigate bioluminescent phenomena in the living mouse with the Monte Carlo method,” Acad. Radiol. 11, 1029–1038(2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Li, Y.

J. Tian, J. Bai, X. Yan, S. Bao, Y. Li, W. Liang, and X. Yang, “Multimodality molecular imaging,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 27, 48–57 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liang, J.

Liang, W.

J. Tian, J. Bai, X. Yan, S. Bao, Y. Li, W. Liang, and X. Yang, “Multimodality molecular imaging,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 27, 48–57 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Y.

Q. Tian, Y. Liao, and L. Sun, Engineering Optics (Tsinghua University, 2004).

Lu, B.

Mamalaki, C.

Meyer, H.

Mitchell, D.

C. Kolb, D. Mitchell, and P. Hanrahan, “A realistic camera model for computer graphics,” in Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (ACM, 1995), pp. 317–324.

Nelson, M. B.

B. W. Rice, M. D. Cable, and M. B. Nelson, “In vivo imaging of light-emitting probes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 432–440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ntziachristos, V.

H. Meyer, A. Garofalakis, G. Zacharakis, S. Psycharakis, C. Mamalaki, D. Kioussis, E. N. Economou, V. Ntziachristos, and J. Ripoll, “Noncontact optical imaging in mice with full angular coverage and automatic surface extraction,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3617–3627 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Deliolanis, T. Lasser, D. Hyde, A. Soubert, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, “Free-space fluorescence molecular tomography utilizing 360° geometry projections,” Opt. Lett. 32, 382–384 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, “Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313–320 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Ripoll and V. Ntziachristos, “Imaging scattering media from a distance: theory and applications of non-contact optical tomography,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 18, 1403–1431 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Ripoll, R. B. Schulz, and V. Ntziachristos, “Free-space propagation of diffuse light: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 103901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Weissleder and V. Ntziachristos, “Shedding light onto live molecular targets,” Nat. Med. 9, 123–128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Schulz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, “Non-contact optical tomography of turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1701–1703(2003).
[CrossRef]

Peter, J.

R. B. Schultz, J. Peter, and W. Semmler, “Comparison of non-contact and fiber-based fluorescence-mediated tomography,” Opt. Lett. 31, 769–771 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Schulz, J. Peter, W. Semmler, C. D’ Andrea, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, “Quantifiability and image quality in non-contact fluorescence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 5859, 58590Z (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pierrat, R.

Prahl, S. A.

Psycharakis, S.

Qin, D.

D. Qin, H. Zhao, Y. Tanikawa, and F. Gao, “Experimental determination of optical properties in turbid medium by TCSPC technique,” Proc. SPIE 6434, 64342E (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qu, X.

Ren, N.

Rice, B. W.

B. W. Rice, M. D. Cable, and M. B. Nelson, “In vivo imaging of light-emitting probes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 432–440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ripoll, J.

Schotland, J. C.

S. R. Arridge and J. C. Schotland, “Optical tomography: Forward and inverse problems,” Inverse Probl. 25, 123010 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, R. B.

Schulz, R. B.

R. B. Schulz, J. Peter, W. Semmler, C. D’ Andrea, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, “Quantifiability and image quality in non-contact fluorescence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 5859, 58590Z (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Schulz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, “Non-contact optical tomography of turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1701–1703(2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Ripoll, R. B. Schulz, and V. Ntziachristos, “Free-space propagation of diffuse light: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 103901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Semmler, W.

R. B. Schultz, J. Peter, and W. Semmler, “Comparison of non-contact and fiber-based fluorescence-mediated tomography,” Opt. Lett. 31, 769–771 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Schulz, J. Peter, W. Semmler, C. D’ Andrea, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, “Quantifiability and image quality in non-contact fluorescence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 5859, 58590Z (2005).
[CrossRef]

Soubert, A.

Sun, L.

Q. Tian, Y. Liao, and L. Sun, Engineering Optics (Tsinghua University, 2004).

Tanikawa, Y.

D. Qin, H. Zhao, Y. Tanikawa, and F. Gao, “Experimental determination of optical properties in turbid medium by TCSPC technique,” Proc. SPIE 6434, 64342E (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tian, J.

N. Ren, J. Liang, X. Qu, J. Li, B. Lu, and J. Tian, “GPU-based Monte Carlo simulation for light propagation in complex heterogeneous tissues,” Opt. Express 18, 6811–6823(2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, X. Gao, X. Qu, J. Liang, L. Wang, D. Yang, A. Garofalakis, J. Ripoll, and J. Tian, “A study of photon propagation in free-space based on hybrid radiosity-radiance theorem,” Opt. Express 17, 16266–16280 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Tian, J. Bai, X. Yan, S. Bao, Y. Li, W. Liang, and X. Yang, “Multimodality molecular imaging,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 27, 48–57 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, J. Tian, F. Zhu, W. X. Cong, L. V. Wang, and G. Wang, “A Mouse Optical Simulation Environment (MOSE) to investigate bioluminescent phenomena in the living mouse with the Monte Carlo method,” Acad. Radiol. 11, 1029–1038(2004).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Q.

Q. Tian, Y. Liao, and L. Sun, Engineering Optics (Tsinghua University, 2004).

Valentini, G.

R. B. Schulz, J. Peter, W. Semmler, C. D’ Andrea, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, “Quantifiability and image quality in non-contact fluorescence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 5859, 58590Z (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

H. Li, J. Tian, F. Zhu, W. X. Cong, L. V. Wang, and G. Wang, “A Mouse Optical Simulation Environment (MOSE) to investigate bioluminescent phenomena in the living mouse with the Monte Carlo method,” Acad. Radiol. 11, 1029–1038(2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

B. Du and J. Wang, Electron Optics (Tsinghua University, 2002).

Wang, L.

Wang, L. V.

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, “Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313–320 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, J. Tian, F. Zhu, W. X. Cong, L. V. Wang, and G. Wang, “A Mouse Optical Simulation Environment (MOSE) to investigate bioluminescent phenomena in the living mouse with the Monte Carlo method,” Acad. Radiol. 11, 1029–1038(2004).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Q. Zheng, “MCML-Monte Carlo modeling of photon transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weissleder, R.

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, “Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313–320 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Weissleder and V. Ntziachristos, “Shedding light onto live molecular targets,” Nat. Med. 9, 123–128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yan, X.

J. Tian, J. Bai, X. Yan, S. Bao, Y. Li, W. Liang, and X. Yang, “Multimodality molecular imaging,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 27, 48–57 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D.

Yang, X.

J. Tian, J. Bai, X. Yan, S. Bao, Y. Li, W. Liang, and X. Yang, “Multimodality molecular imaging,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 27, 48–57 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zacharakis, G.

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, Applied Optics (Publishing House of Electronics Industry, 2008).

Zhao, H.

D. Qin, H. Zhao, Y. Tanikawa, and F. Gao, “Experimental determination of optical properties in turbid medium by TCSPC technique,” Proc. SPIE 6434, 64342E (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, L. Q.

L. V. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Q. Zheng, “MCML-Monte Carlo modeling of photon transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, F.

H. Li, J. Tian, F. Zhu, W. X. Cong, L. V. Wang, and G. Wang, “A Mouse Optical Simulation Environment (MOSE) to investigate bioluminescent phenomena in the living mouse with the Monte Carlo method,” Acad. Radiol. 11, 1029–1038(2004).
[CrossRef]

Acad. Radiol. (1)

H. Li, J. Tian, F. Zhu, W. X. Cong, L. V. Wang, and G. Wang, “A Mouse Optical Simulation Environment (MOSE) to investigate bioluminescent phenomena in the living mouse with the Monte Carlo method,” Acad. Radiol. 11, 1029–1038(2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. (1)

L. V. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Q. Zheng, “MCML-Monte Carlo modeling of photon transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. (1)

J. Tian, J. Bai, X. Yan, S. Bao, Y. Li, W. Liang, and X. Yang, “Multimodality molecular imaging,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 27, 48–57 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Comput. Vision (1)

M. Aggarwal and N. Ahuja, “A pupil-centric model of image formation,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 48, 195–214 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Inverse Probl. (3)

S. R. Arridge, “Optical tomography in medical imaging,” Inverse Probl. 15, R41–R93 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge and J. C. Schotland, “Optical tomography: Forward and inverse problems,” Inverse Probl. 25, 123010 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Kim and A. H. Hielscher, “A PDE-constrained SQP algorithm for optical tomography based on the frequency-domain equation of radiative transfer,” Inverse Probl. 25, 015010(2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

B. W. Rice, M. D. Cable, and M. B. Nelson, “In vivo imaging of light-emitting probes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 432–440 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Mod. Phys. Lett. B (1)

J. Ripoll and V. Ntziachristos, “Imaging scattering media from a distance: theory and applications of non-contact optical tomography,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 18, 1403–1431 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, “Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313–320 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Med. (1)

R. Weissleder and V. Ntziachristos, “Shedding light onto live molecular targets,” Nat. Med. 9, 123–128 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Ripoll, R. B. Schulz, and V. Ntziachristos, “Free-space propagation of diffuse light: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 103901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

R. B. Schulz, J. Peter, W. Semmler, C. D’ Andrea, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, “Quantifiability and image quality in non-contact fluorescence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 5859, 58590Z (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Qin, H. Zhao, Y. Tanikawa, and F. Gao, “Experimental determination of optical properties in turbid medium by TCSPC technique,” Proc. SPIE 6434, 64342E (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

M. Aggarwal and N. Ahuja, “A new imaging model,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE, 2001), pp. 82–89.

C. Kolb, D. Mitchell, and P. Hanrahan, “A realistic camera model for computer graphics,” in Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (ACM, 1995), pp. 317–324.

B. Du and J. Wang, Electron Optics (Tsinghua University, 2002).

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