Abstract

Improvements in measurement of epithelial tissue optical properties (OPs) in the ultraviolet and visible (UV–Vis) may lead to enhanced understanding of optical techniques for neoplasia detection. In this study, we investigated an approach based on fiber-optic measurement of reflectance to determine absorption and reduced scattering coefficients (μa and μs) in two-layer turbid media. Neural network inverse models were trained on simulation data for a wide variety of OP combinations (μa=122.5, μs=542.5cm1). Experimental measurements of phantoms with top-layer thicknesses (D) ranging from 0.22 to 0.66mm were performed at three UV–Vis wavelengths. OP estimation accuracy was calculated and compared to theoretical results. Mean prediction errors were strongly correlated with D and ranged widely, from 1.5 to 12.1cm1. Theoretical analyses indicated the potential for improving accuracy with alternate probe geometries. Although numerous challenges remain, this initial experimental study of an unconstrained approach for fiber-optic-based OP determination in two-layer epithelial tissue indicates the potential to provide useful measurements.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2010 (1)

Q. Wang, A. Agrawal, N. S. Wang, and T. J. Pfefer, “Condensed Monte Carlo modeling of reflectance from biological tissue with a single illumination-detection fiber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 627–634 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. P. Hao, J. Q. Xu, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer Statistics, 2009,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 59, 225–249 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Weber, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, “Noncontact imaging of absorption and scattering in layered tissue using spatially modulated structured light,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 102028 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

Q. Liu and N. Ramanujam, “Scaling method for fast Monte Carlo simulation of diffuse reflectance spectra from multilayered turbid media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1011–1025 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Seo, J. S. You, C. K. Hayakawa, and V. Venugopalan, “Perturbation and differential Monte Carlo methods for measurement of optical properties in a layered epithelial tissue model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014030 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Freeberg, J. L. Benedet, C. MacAulay, L. A. West, and M. Follen, “The performance of fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy for the in vivo diagnosis of cervical neoplasia; point probe versus multispectral approaches,” Gynecol. Oncol. 107, S248–S255 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

2005 (3)

D. Arifler, R. A. Schwarz, S. K. Chang, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for diagnosis of epithelial precancer: model-based analysis of fiber-optic probe designs to resolve spectral information from epithelium and stroma,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4291–4305 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-J. Wei, D. Xing, J.-J. Lu, H.-M. Gu, G.-Y. Wu, and Y. Jin, “Determination of optical properties of normal and adenomatous human colon tissues in vitro using integrating sphere techniques,” World J. Gastroenterol. 11, 2413–2419(2005).
[PubMed]

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

S. K. Chang, D. Arifler, R. Drezek, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Analytical model to describe fluorescence spectra of normal and preneoplastic epithelial tissue: comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and clinical measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 511–522 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, “Measurement of the local optical properties of turbid media by differential path-length spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3048–3054(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (7)

Y. S. Fawzi, A. B. M. Youssef, M. H. El-Batanony, and Y. M. Kadah, “Determination of the optical properties of a two-layer tissue model by detecting photons migrating at progressively increasing depths,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6398–6411 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, and S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties effects upon the collection efficiency of optical fibers in different probe configurations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 314–321 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treatment 2, 505–514 (2003).

K. Y. Yong, S. P. Morgan, I. M. Stockford, and M. C. Pitter, “Characterization of layered scattering media using polarized light measurements and neural networks,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 504–511 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, C. L. Bennett, J. A. Gall, J. N. Wilke, A. J. Durkin, and M. N. Ediger, “Reflectance-based determination of optical properties in highly attenuating tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 206–215 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307–313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liu, C. F. Zhu, and N. Ramanujam, “Experimental validation of Monte Carlo modeling of fluorescence in tissues in the UV-visible spectrum,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 223–236(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

R. J. Hunter, M. S. Patterson, T. J. Farrell, and J. E. Hayward, “Haemoglobin oxygenation of a two-layer tissue-simulating phantom from time-resolved reflectance: effect of top layer thickness,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 193–208 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (4)

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120, 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. P. Moffitt and S. A. Prahl, “Sized-fiber reflectometry for measuring local optical properties,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 952–958 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Alexandrakis, D. R. Busch, G. W. Faris, and M. S. Patterson, “Determination of the optical properties of two-layer turbid media by use of a frequency-domain hybrid Monte Carlo diffusion model,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3810–3821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Muller, I. Georgakoudi, Q. G. Zhang, J. Wu, and M. S. Feld, “Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media: disentangling effects of scattering and absorption,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4633–4646 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

1997 (1)

A. Dellas, H. Moch, E. Schultheiss, G. Feichter, A. C. Almendral, F. Gudat, and J. Torhorst, “Angiogenesis in cervical neoplasia: microvessel quantitation in precancerous lesions and invasive carcinomas with clinicopathological correlations,” Gynecol. Oncol. 67, 27–33 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

C. M. Gardner, S. L. Jacques, and A. J. Welch, “Light transport in tissue: accurate expressions for one-dimensional fluence rate and escape function based upon Monte Carlo simulation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 129–138 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bays, G. Wagnieres, D. Robert, D. Braichotte, J. F. Savary, P. Monnier, and H. van den Bergh, “Clinical determination of tissue optical properties by endoscopic spatially resolved reflectometry,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1756–1766 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

T. J. Farrell, B. C. Wilson, and M. S. Patterson, “The use of a neural network to determine tissue optical-properties from spatially resolved diffuse reflectance measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 2281–2286 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agrawal, A.

Q. Wang, A. Agrawal, N. S. Wang, and T. J. Pfefer, “Condensed Monte Carlo modeling of reflectance from biological tissue with a single illumination-detection fiber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 627–634 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Z. Wang, H. Z. Yang, A. Agrawal, N. S. Wang, and T. J. Pfefer, “Measurement of internal tissue optical properties at ultraviolet and visible wavelengths: development and implementation of a fiberoptic-based system,” Opt. Express 16, 8685–8703 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Sharma, A. Agrawal, L. S. Matchette, and T. J. Pfefer, “Evaluation of a fiberoptic-based system for measurement of optical properties in highly attenuating turbid media,” Biomed. Eng. Online 5, 49 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alexandrakis, G.

Almendral, A. C.

A. Dellas, H. Moch, E. Schultheiss, G. Feichter, A. C. Almendral, F. Gudat, and J. Torhorst, “Angiogenesis in cervical neoplasia: microvessel quantitation in precancerous lesions and invasive carcinomas with clinicopathological correlations,” Gynecol. Oncol. 67, 27–33 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amelink, A.

Arifler, D.

D. Arifler, R. A. Schwarz, S. K. Chang, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for diagnosis of epithelial precancer: model-based analysis of fiber-optic probe designs to resolve spectral information from epithelium and stroma,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4291–4305 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, D. Arifler, R. Drezek, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Analytical model to describe fluorescence spectra of normal and preneoplastic epithelial tissue: comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and clinical measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 511–522 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307–313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Backman, V.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120, 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backman, V. M.

Badizadegan, K.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120, 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bargo, P. R.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, and S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties effects upon the collection efficiency of optical fibers in different probe configurations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 314–321 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bays, R.

Benedet, J. L.

J. A. Freeberg, J. L. Benedet, C. MacAulay, L. A. West, and M. Follen, “The performance of fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy for the in vivo diagnosis of cervical neoplasia; point probe versus multispectral approaches,” Gynecol. Oncol. 107, S248–S255 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennett, C. L.

T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, C. L. Bennett, J. A. Gall, J. N. Wilke, A. J. Durkin, and M. N. Ediger, “Reflectance-based determination of optical properties in highly attenuating tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 206–215 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blair, G.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braichotte, D.

Busch, D. R.

Chang, S. K.

D. Arifler, R. A. Schwarz, S. K. Chang, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for diagnosis of epithelial precancer: model-based analysis of fiber-optic probe designs to resolve spectral information from epithelium and stroma,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4291–4305 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, D. Arifler, R. Drezek, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Analytical model to describe fluorescence spectra of normal and preneoplastic epithelial tissue: comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and clinical measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 511–522 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, L. Lin, G. Li, J. Gao, and Q. Yu, “Hierarchical PCA-NN for retrieving the optical properties of two-layer tissue model,” in Advances in Neural Networks (Springer, 2004), pp. 786–791.

Collier, T.

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307–313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cuccia, D. J.

J. R. Weber, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, “Noncontact imaging of absorption and scattering in layered tissue using spatially modulated structured light,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 102028 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treatment 2, 505–514 (2003).

Dellas, A.

A. Dellas, H. Moch, E. Schultheiss, G. Feichter, A. C. Almendral, F. Gudat, and J. Torhorst, “Angiogenesis in cervical neoplasia: microvessel quantitation in precancerous lesions and invasive carcinomas with clinicopathological correlations,” Gynecol. Oncol. 67, 27–33 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desjardins, A. E.

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treatment 2, 505–514 (2003).

Dognitz, N.

Drezek, R.

S. K. Chang, D. Arifler, R. Drezek, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Analytical model to describe fluorescence spectra of normal and preneoplastic epithelial tissue: comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and clinical measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 511–522 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durkin, A. J.

J. R. Weber, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, “Noncontact imaging of absorption and scattering in layered tissue using spatially modulated structured light,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 102028 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, C. L. Bennett, J. A. Gall, J. N. Wilke, A. J. Durkin, and M. N. Ediger, “Reflectance-based determination of optical properties in highly attenuating tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 206–215 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ediger, M. N.

T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, C. L. Bennett, J. A. Gall, J. N. Wilke, A. J. Durkin, and M. N. Ediger, “Reflectance-based determination of optical properties in highly attenuating tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 206–215 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Batanony, M. H.

Essenpreis, M.

Faris, G. W.

Farrell, T. J.

R. J. Hunter, M. S. Patterson, T. J. Farrell, and J. E. Hayward, “Haemoglobin oxygenation of a two-layer tissue-simulating phantom from time-resolved reflectance: effect of top layer thickness,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 193–208 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and M. Essenpreis, “Influence of layered tissue architecture on estimates of tissue optical properties obtained from spatially resolved diffuse reflectometry,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1958–1972 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Farrell, B. C. Wilson, and M. S. Patterson, “The use of a neural network to determine tissue optical-properties from spatially resolved diffuse reflectance measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 2281–2286 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fawzi, Y. S.

Feichter, G.

A. Dellas, H. Moch, E. Schultheiss, G. Feichter, A. C. Almendral, F. Gudat, and J. Torhorst, “Angiogenesis in cervical neoplasia: microvessel quantitation in precancerous lesions and invasive carcinomas with clinicopathological correlations,” Gynecol. Oncol. 67, 27–33 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treatment 2, 505–514 (2003).

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120, 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Muller, I. Georgakoudi, Q. G. Zhang, J. Wu, and M. S. Feld, “Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media: disentangling effects of scattering and absorption,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4633–4646 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. M. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6628–6637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fitzmaurice, M.

Follen, M.

J. A. Freeberg, J. L. Benedet, C. MacAulay, L. A. West, and M. Follen, “The performance of fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy for the in vivo diagnosis of cervical neoplasia; point probe versus multispectral approaches,” Gynecol. Oncol. 107, S248–S255 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, D. Arifler, R. Drezek, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Analytical model to describe fluorescence spectra of normal and preneoplastic epithelial tissue: comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and clinical measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 511–522 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307–313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Freeberg, J. A.

J. A. Freeberg, J. L. Benedet, C. MacAulay, L. A. West, and M. Follen, “The performance of fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy for the in vivo diagnosis of cervical neoplasia; point probe versus multispectral approaches,” Gynecol. Oncol. 107, S248–S255 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galindo, L.

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treatment 2, 505–514 (2003).

Gall, J. A.

T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, C. L. Bennett, J. A. Gall, J. N. Wilke, A. J. Durkin, and M. N. Ediger, “Reflectance-based determination of optical properties in highly attenuating tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 206–215 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, J.

Y. Chen, L. Lin, G. Li, J. Gao, and Q. Yu, “Hierarchical PCA-NN for retrieving the optical properties of two-layer tissue model,” in Advances in Neural Networks (Springer, 2004), pp. 786–791.

Gardner, C. M.

C. M. Gardner, S. L. Jacques, and A. J. Welch, “Light transport in tissue: accurate expressions for one-dimensional fluence rate and escape function based upon Monte Carlo simulation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 129–138 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Georgakoudi, I.

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treatment 2, 505–514 (2003).

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120, 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Muller, I. Georgakoudi, Q. G. Zhang, J. Wu, and M. S. Feld, “Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media: disentangling effects of scattering and absorption,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4633–4646 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Goodell, T. T.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, H.-M.

H.-J. Wei, D. Xing, J.-J. Lu, H.-M. Gu, G.-Y. Wu, and Y. Jin, “Determination of optical properties of normal and adenomatous human colon tissues in vitro using integrating sphere techniques,” World J. Gastroenterol. 11, 2413–2419(2005).
[PubMed]

Gudat, F.

A. Dellas, H. Moch, E. Schultheiss, G. Feichter, A. C. Almendral, F. Gudat, and J. Torhorst, “Angiogenesis in cervical neoplasia: microvessel quantitation in precancerous lesions and invasive carcinomas with clinicopathological correlations,” Gynecol. Oncol. 67, 27–33 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hao, Y. P.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. P. Hao, J. Q. Xu, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer Statistics, 2009,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 59, 225–249 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayakawa, C.

Hayakawa, C. K.

I. Seo, J. S. You, C. K. Hayakawa, and V. Venugopalan, “Perturbation and differential Monte Carlo methods for measurement of optical properties in a layered epithelial tissue model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014030 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayward, J. E.

R. J. Hunter, M. S. Patterson, T. J. Farrell, and J. E. Hayward, “Haemoglobin oxygenation of a two-layer tissue-simulating phantom from time-resolved reflectance: effect of top layer thickness,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 193–208 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunter, R. J.

R. J. Hunter, M. S. Patterson, T. J. Farrell, and J. E. Hayward, “Haemoglobin oxygenation of a two-layer tissue-simulating phantom from time-resolved reflectance: effect of top layer thickness,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 193–208 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobson, B. C.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120, 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, and S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties effects upon the collection efficiency of optical fibers in different probe configurations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 314–321 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Gardner, S. L. Jacques, and A. J. Welch, “Light transport in tissue: accurate expressions for one-dimensional fluence rate and escape function based upon Monte Carlo simulation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 129–138 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jemal, A.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. P. Hao, J. Q. Xu, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer Statistics, 2009,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 59, 225–249 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, Y.

H.-J. Wei, D. Xing, J.-J. Lu, H.-M. Gu, G.-Y. Wu, and Y. Jin, “Determination of optical properties of normal and adenomatous human colon tissues in vitro using integrating sphere techniques,” World J. Gastroenterol. 11, 2413–2419(2005).
[PubMed]

Kadah, Y. M.

Kienle, A.

Kim, A. D.

Koval, G.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, G.

Y. Chen, L. Lin, G. Li, J. Gao, and Q. Yu, “Hierarchical PCA-NN for retrieving the optical properties of two-layer tissue model,” in Advances in Neural Networks (Springer, 2004), pp. 786–791.

Lin, L.

Y. Chen, L. Lin, G. Li, J. Gao, and Q. Yu, “Hierarchical PCA-NN for retrieving the optical properties of two-layer tissue model,” in Advances in Neural Networks (Springer, 2004), pp. 786–791.

Liu, Q.

Lu, J.-J.

H.-J. Wei, D. Xing, J.-J. Lu, H.-M. Gu, G.-Y. Wu, and Y. Jin, “Determination of optical properties of normal and adenomatous human colon tissues in vitro using integrating sphere techniques,” World J. Gastroenterol. 11, 2413–2419(2005).
[PubMed]

MacAulay, C.

J. A. Freeberg, J. L. Benedet, C. MacAulay, L. A. West, and M. Follen, “The performance of fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy for the in vivo diagnosis of cervical neoplasia; point probe versus multispectral approaches,” Gynecol. Oncol. 107, S248–S255 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malpica, A.

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307–313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Manoharan, R.

Matchette, L. S.

D. Sharma, A. Agrawal, L. S. Matchette, and T. J. Pfefer, “Evaluation of a fiberoptic-based system for measurement of optical properties in highly attenuating turbid media,” Biomed. Eng. Online 5, 49 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, C. L. Bennett, J. A. Gall, J. N. Wilke, A. J. Durkin, and M. N. Ediger, “Reflectance-based determination of optical properties in highly attenuating tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 206–215 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGee, S. A.

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treatment 2, 505–514 (2003).

Mirkovic, J.

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treatment 2, 505–514 (2003).

Moch, H.

A. Dellas, H. Moch, E. Schultheiss, G. Feichter, A. C. Almendral, F. Gudat, and J. Torhorst, “Angiogenesis in cervical neoplasia: microvessel quantitation in precancerous lesions and invasive carcinomas with clinicopathological correlations,” Gynecol. Oncol. 67, 27–33 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moffitt, T. P.

T. P. Moffitt and S. A. Prahl, “Sized-fiber reflectometry for measuring local optical properties,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 952–958 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Monnier, P.

Morgan, S. P.

K. Y. Yong, S. P. Morgan, I. M. Stockford, and M. C. Pitter, “Characterization of layered scattering media using polarized light measurements and neural networks,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 504–511 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mueller, M. G.

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treatment 2, 505–514 (2003).

Muller, M. G.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120, 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Muller, I. Georgakoudi, Q. G. Zhang, J. Wu, and M. S. Feld, “Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media: disentangling effects of scattering and absorption,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4633–4646 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nazemi, J.

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treatment 2, 505–514 (2003).

Nguyen, F. T.

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treatment 2, 505–514 (2003).

Palmer, G. M.

Patterson, M. S.

Perelman, L. T.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120, 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. M. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6628–6637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pfefer, T. J.

Q. Wang, A. Agrawal, N. S. Wang, and T. J. Pfefer, “Condensed Monte Carlo modeling of reflectance from biological tissue with a single illumination-detection fiber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 627–634 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Z. Wang, H. Z. Yang, A. Agrawal, N. S. Wang, and T. J. Pfefer, “Measurement of internal tissue optical properties at ultraviolet and visible wavelengths: development and implementation of a fiberoptic-based system,” Opt. Express 16, 8685–8703 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Sharma, A. Agrawal, L. S. Matchette, and T. J. Pfefer, “Evaluation of a fiberoptic-based system for measurement of optical properties in highly attenuating turbid media,” Biomed. Eng. Online 5, 49 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, C. L. Bennett, J. A. Gall, J. N. Wilke, A. J. Durkin, and M. N. Ediger, “Reflectance-based determination of optical properties in highly attenuating tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 206–215 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pham, T. H.

Pitter, M. C.

K. Y. Yong, S. P. Morgan, I. M. Stockford, and M. C. Pitter, “Characterization of layered scattering media using polarized light measurements and neural networks,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 504–511 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prahl, S. A.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, and S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties effects upon the collection efficiency of optical fibers in different probe configurations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 314–321 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. P. Moffitt and S. A. Prahl, “Sized-fiber reflectometry for measuring local optical properties,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 952–958 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. Vangemert, and A. J. Welch, “determining the optical-properties of turbid media by using the adding-doubling method,” Appl. Opt. 32, 559–568 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramanujam, N.

Richards-Kortum, R.

D. Arifler, R. A. Schwarz, S. K. Chang, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for diagnosis of epithelial precancer: model-based analysis of fiber-optic probe designs to resolve spectral information from epithelium and stroma,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4291–4305 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, D. Arifler, R. Drezek, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Analytical model to describe fluorescence spectra of normal and preneoplastic epithelial tissue: comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and clinical measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 511–522 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307–313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Robert, D.

Savary, J. F.

Schultheiss, E.

A. Dellas, H. Moch, E. Schultheiss, G. Feichter, A. C. Almendral, F. Gudat, and J. Torhorst, “Angiogenesis in cervical neoplasia: microvessel quantitation in precancerous lesions and invasive carcinomas with clinicopathological correlations,” Gynecol. Oncol. 67, 27–33 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwarz, R. A.

Seo, I.

I. Seo, J. S. You, C. K. Hayakawa, and V. Venugopalan, “Perturbation and differential Monte Carlo methods for measurement of optical properties in a layered epithelial tissue model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014030 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharma, D.

D. Sharma, A. Agrawal, L. S. Matchette, and T. J. Pfefer, “Evaluation of a fiberoptic-based system for measurement of optical properties in highly attenuating turbid media,” Biomed. Eng. Online 5, 49 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegel, R.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. P. Hao, J. Q. Xu, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer Statistics, 2009,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 59, 225–249 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sleven, R. A.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spott, T.

Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.

Stockford, I. M.

K. Y. Yong, S. P. Morgan, I. M. Stockford, and M. C. Pitter, “Characterization of layered scattering media using polarized light measurements and neural networks,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 504–511 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, D.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120, 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svaasand, L. O.

Thomas, G. A.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120, 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thun, M. J.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. P. Hao, J. Q. Xu, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer Statistics, 2009,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 59, 225–249 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torhorst, J.

A. Dellas, H. Moch, E. Schultheiss, G. Feichter, A. C. Almendral, F. Gudat, and J. Torhorst, “Angiogenesis in cervical neoplasia: microvessel quantitation in precancerous lesions and invasive carcinomas with clinicopathological correlations,” Gynecol. Oncol. 67, 27–33 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

J. R. Weber, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, “Noncontact imaging of absorption and scattering in layered tissue using spatially modulated structured light,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 102028 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Pham, T. Spott, L. O. Svaasand, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantifying the properties of two-layer turbid media with frequency-domain diffuse reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4733–4745 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tunnell, J. W.

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treatment 2, 505–514 (2003).

Van Dam, J.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120, 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. M. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6628–6637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

van den Bergh, H.

Vangemert, M. J. C.

Venugopalan, V.

I. Seo, J. S. You, C. K. Hayakawa, and V. Venugopalan, “Perturbation and differential Monte Carlo methods for measurement of optical properties in a layered epithelial tissue model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014030 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Kim, C. Hayakawa, and V. Venugopalan, “Estimating optical properties in layered tissues by use of the Born approximation of the radiative transport equation,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1088–1090 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagnieres, G.

Wallace, M. B.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120, 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, N. S.

Q. Wang, A. Agrawal, N. S. Wang, and T. J. Pfefer, “Condensed Monte Carlo modeling of reflectance from biological tissue with a single illumination-detection fiber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 627–634 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Z. Wang, H. Z. Yang, A. Agrawal, N. S. Wang, and T. J. Pfefer, “Measurement of internal tissue optical properties at ultraviolet and visible wavelengths: development and implementation of a fiberoptic-based system,” Opt. Express 16, 8685–8703 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

Q. Wang, A. Agrawal, N. S. Wang, and T. J. Pfefer, “Condensed Monte Carlo modeling of reflectance from biological tissue with a single illumination-detection fiber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 627–634 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. Z.

Ward, E.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. P. Hao, J. Q. Xu, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer Statistics, 2009,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 59, 225–249 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wax, A.

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treatment 2, 505–514 (2003).

Weber, J. R.

J. R. Weber, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, “Noncontact imaging of absorption and scattering in layered tissue using spatially modulated structured light,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 102028 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wei, H.-J.

H.-J. Wei, D. Xing, J.-J. Lu, H.-M. Gu, G.-Y. Wu, and Y. Jin, “Determination of optical properties of normal and adenomatous human colon tissues in vitro using integrating sphere techniques,” World J. Gastroenterol. 11, 2413–2419(2005).
[PubMed]

Welch, A. J.

C. M. Gardner, S. L. Jacques, and A. J. Welch, “Light transport in tissue: accurate expressions for one-dimensional fluence rate and escape function based upon Monte Carlo simulation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 129–138 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. Vangemert, and A. J. Welch, “determining the optical-properties of turbid media by using the adding-doubling method,” Appl. Opt. 32, 559–568 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

West, L. A.

J. A. Freeberg, J. L. Benedet, C. MacAulay, L. A. West, and M. Follen, “The performance of fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy for the in vivo diagnosis of cervical neoplasia; point probe versus multispectral approaches,” Gynecol. Oncol. 107, S248–S255 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilke, J. N.

T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, C. L. Bennett, J. A. Gall, J. N. Wilke, A. J. Durkin, and M. N. Ediger, “Reflectance-based determination of optical properties in highly attenuating tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 206–215 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

T. J. Farrell, B. C. Wilson, and M. S. Patterson, “The use of a neural network to determine tissue optical-properties from spatially resolved diffuse reflectance measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 2281–2286 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, G.-Y.

H.-J. Wei, D. Xing, J.-J. Lu, H.-M. Gu, G.-Y. Wu, and Y. Jin, “Determination of optical properties of normal and adenomatous human colon tissues in vitro using integrating sphere techniques,” World J. Gastroenterol. 11, 2413–2419(2005).
[PubMed]

Wu, J.

Xing, D.

H.-J. Wei, D. Xing, J.-J. Lu, H.-M. Gu, G.-Y. Wu, and Y. Jin, “Determination of optical properties of normal and adenomatous human colon tissues in vitro using integrating sphere techniques,” World J. Gastroenterol. 11, 2413–2419(2005).
[PubMed]

Xu, J. Q.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. P. Hao, J. Q. Xu, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer Statistics, 2009,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 59, 225–249 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, H. Z.

Yong, K. Y.

K. Y. Yong, S. P. Morgan, I. M. Stockford, and M. C. Pitter, “Characterization of layered scattering media using polarized light measurements and neural networks,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 504–511 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

You, J. S.

I. Seo, J. S. You, C. K. Hayakawa, and V. Venugopalan, “Perturbation and differential Monte Carlo methods for measurement of optical properties in a layered epithelial tissue model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014030 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Youssef, A. B. M.

Yu, Q.

Y. Chen, L. Lin, G. Li, J. Gao, and Q. Yu, “Hierarchical PCA-NN for retrieving the optical properties of two-layer tissue model,” in Advances in Neural Networks (Springer, 2004), pp. 786–791.

Zhang, Q.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120, 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q. G.

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treatment 2, 505–514 (2003).

M. G. Muller, I. Georgakoudi, Q. G. Zhang, J. Wu, and M. S. Feld, “Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media: disentangling effects of scattering and absorption,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4633–4646 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, C. F.

Q. Liu, C. F. Zhu, and N. Ramanujam, “Experimental validation of Monte Carlo modeling of fluorescence in tissues in the UV-visible spectrum,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 223–236(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zonios, G.

Appl. Opt. (13)

S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. Vangemert, and A. J. Welch, “determining the optical-properties of turbid media by using the adding-doubling method,” Appl. Opt. 32, 559–568 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and M. Essenpreis, “Influence of layered tissue architecture on estimates of tissue optical properties obtained from spatially resolved diffuse reflectometry,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1958–1972 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Bays, G. Wagnieres, D. Robert, D. Braichotte, J. F. Savary, P. Monnier, and H. van den Bergh, “Clinical determination of tissue optical properties by endoscopic spatially resolved reflectometry,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1756–1766 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kienle, M. S. Patterson, N. Dognitz, R. Bays, G. Wagnieres, and H. van den Bergh, “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of two-layered turbid media,” Appl. Opt. 37, 779–791 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. M. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6628–6637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Pham, T. Spott, L. O. Svaasand, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantifying the properties of two-layer turbid media with frequency-domain diffuse reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4733–4745 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Alexandrakis, D. R. Busch, G. W. Faris, and M. S. Patterson, “Determination of the optical properties of two-layer turbid media by use of a frequency-domain hybrid Monte Carlo diffusion model,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3810–3821 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Muller, I. Georgakoudi, Q. G. Zhang, J. Wu, and M. S. Feld, “Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media: disentangling effects of scattering and absorption,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4633–4646 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Fawzi, A. B. M. Youssef, M. H. El-Batanony, and Y. M. Kadah, “Determination of the optical properties of a two-layer tissue model by detecting photons migrating at progressively increasing depths,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6398–6411 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, “Measurement of the local optical properties of turbid media by differential path-length spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3048–3054(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Arifler, R. A. Schwarz, S. K. Chang, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for diagnosis of epithelial precancer: model-based analysis of fiber-optic probe designs to resolve spectral information from epithelium and stroma,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4291–4305 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer and N. Ramanujam, “Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part I: Theory and validation on synthetic phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1062–1071 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liu and N. Ramanujam, “Sequential estimation of optical properties of a two-layered epithelial tissue model from depth-resolved ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectra,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4776–4790 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Eng. Online (1)

D. Sharma, A. Agrawal, L. S. Matchette, and T. J. Pfefer, “Evaluation of a fiberoptic-based system for measurement of optical properties in highly attenuating turbid media,” Biomed. Eng. Online 5, 49 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

CA Cancer J. Clin. (1)

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. P. Hao, J. Q. Xu, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer Statistics, 2009,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 59, 225–249 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastroenterology (1)

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120, 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gynecol. Oncol. (2)

J. A. Freeberg, J. L. Benedet, C. MacAulay, L. A. West, and M. Follen, “The performance of fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy for the in vivo diagnosis of cervical neoplasia; point probe versus multispectral approaches,” Gynecol. Oncol. 107, S248–S255 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dellas, H. Moch, E. Schultheiss, G. Feichter, A. C. Almendral, F. Gudat, and J. Torhorst, “Angiogenesis in cervical neoplasia: microvessel quantitation in precancerous lesions and invasive carcinomas with clinicopathological correlations,” Gynecol. Oncol. 67, 27–33 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (4)

Q. Wang, A. Agrawal, N. S. Wang, and T. J. Pfefer, “Condensed Monte Carlo modeling of reflectance from biological tissue with a single illumination-detection fiber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 627–634 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. P. Moffitt and S. A. Prahl, “Sized-fiber reflectometry for measuring local optical properties,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 952–958 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, and S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties effects upon the collection efficiency of optical fibers in different probe configurations,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 314–321 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307–313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. R. Weber, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, “Noncontact imaging of absorption and scattering in layered tissue using spatially modulated structured light,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 102028 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (6)

K. Y. Yong, S. P. Morgan, I. M. Stockford, and M. C. Pitter, “Characterization of layered scattering media using polarized light measurements and neural networks,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 504–511 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, C. L. Bennett, J. A. Gall, J. N. Wilke, A. J. Durkin, and M. N. Ediger, “Reflectance-based determination of optical properties in highly attenuating tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 206–215 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, D. Arifler, R. Drezek, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Analytical model to describe fluorescence spectra of normal and preneoplastic epithelial tissue: comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and clinical measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 511–522 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, C. F. Zhu, and N. Ramanujam, “Experimental validation of Monte Carlo modeling of fluorescence in tissues in the UV-visible spectrum,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 223–236(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Seo, J. S. You, C. K. Hayakawa, and V. Venugopalan, “Perturbation and differential Monte Carlo methods for measurement of optical properties in a layered epithelial tissue model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014030 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

C. M. Gardner, S. L. Jacques, and A. J. Welch, “Light transport in tissue: accurate expressions for one-dimensional fluence rate and escape function based upon Monte Carlo simulation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 129–138 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (2)

R. J. Hunter, M. S. Patterson, T. J. Farrell, and J. E. Hayward, “Haemoglobin oxygenation of a two-layer tissue-simulating phantom from time-resolved reflectance: effect of top layer thickness,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 193–208 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Farrell, B. C. Wilson, and M. S. Patterson, “The use of a neural network to determine tissue optical-properties from spatially resolved diffuse reflectance measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 2281–2286 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Technol. Cancer Res. Treatment (1)

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. G. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treatment 2, 505–514 (2003).

World J. Gastroenterol. (1)

H.-J. Wei, D. Xing, J.-J. Lu, H.-M. Gu, G.-Y. Wu, and Y. Jin, “Determination of optical properties of normal and adenomatous human colon tissues in vitro using integrating sphere techniques,” World J. Gastroenterol. 11, 2413–2419(2005).
[PubMed]

Other (1)

Y. Chen, L. Lin, G. Li, J. Gao, and Q. Yu, “Hierarchical PCA-NN for retrieving the optical properties of two-layer tissue model,” in Advances in Neural Networks (Springer, 2004), pp. 786–791.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Flow chart of the investigation (R, reflectance along radius).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Influence of OPs on reflectance [numbers in the legends have units of cm 1 ; D = 0.2 mm for (a), (c), (e), and (g); D = 0.6 mm for (b), (d), (f), and (h)].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Theoretical evaluation of NN inverse models with the 5L probe geometry [(a), (c) no noise added and (b), (d) 5% noise added to the reflectance values].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Theoretical evaluation of NNLS inverse models with the 5L probe geometry [(a) no noise added and (b) 5% noise added to the reflectance values].

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental estimates of phantom top- and bottom-layer OPs.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Theoretical evaluation of the effect of fiber-optic probe design on OP estimation error for two D values.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Example of nonuniqueness in reflectance distributions. Curves are shown for two different sets of OPs ( μ a 1 , μ s 1 , μ a 2 , and μ s 2 ): Tissue #1 (8.6, 15.1, 10.6, and 5.6 cm 1 ) and Tissue #2 (13.9, 18.0, 8.6, and 10.6 cm 1 ), where D = 0.4 mm .

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Fiber Geometries Evaluated Theoretically a

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