Abstract

Micromilling is a promising technology for the fabrication of surface profiles with optical quality. We present a highly integrated optofluidic system made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The system is replicated in a single-step process from a micromilled polymethyl methacrylate master mold. It already includes the reservoirs, the channel system, as well as the optical interconnect surfaces for high numerical aperture objectives. We demonstrate the potential of this approach by laser-based three-dimensional optical manipulation within the replicated system. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a PDMS membrane is used as a well-defined channel wall for an optical trapping setup.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Enger, M. Goksör, K. Ramser, P. Hagberg, and D. Hanstorp, “Optical tweezers applied to a microfluidic system,” Lab Chip 4, 196–200 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. A.-C. Wei, M. Gruber, M. Jarczynski, J. Jahns, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “Plastic planar-integrated free-space optical interconnector,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 5504–5507 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. Hofmann, S. Hauguth-Frank, V. Lebedev, O. Ambacher, and S. Sinzinger, “Sapphire-GaN-based planar integrated free-space optical system,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2950–2955 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. Stubenrauch, U. Fröber, D. Voges, C. Schilling, M. Hoffmann, and H. Witte, “A modular BioMEMS platform for new procedures and experiments in tissue engineering,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19, 074013 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Hampl, F. Weise, U. Fernekorn, C. Hildmann, C. Augspurger, M. Klett, A. Läffert, and A. Schober, “Integrierter Mikrobioreaktor zur parallelen 3D-Zellkulturführung,” in Proc. Mikrosystemtechnik-Kongress 2009 (VDE Verlag GmbH, 2009).

2009 (1)

M. Stubenrauch, U. Fröber, D. Voges, C. Schilling, M. Hoffmann, and H. Witte, “A modular BioMEMS platform for new procedures and experiments in tissue engineering,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19, 074013 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

M. Hofmann, S. Hauguth-Frank, V. Lebedev, O. Ambacher, and S. Sinzinger, “Sapphire-GaN-based planar integrated free-space optical system,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2950–2955 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Stoebenau, M. Amberg, and S. Sinzinger, “Ultraprecision micromilling of freeform optical elements for planar micro optical systems integration,” Proc. SPIE 6992, 699207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Lau, L. P. Lee, and J. W. Chan, “An integrated optofluidic platform for Raman-activated cell sorting,” Lab Chip 8, 1116–1120 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

E. Eriksson, J. Enger, B. Nordlander, N. Erjavec, K. Ramser, M. Goksör, S. Hohmann, T. Nyström, and D. Hanstorp, “A microfluidic system in combination with optical tweezers for analyzing rapid and reversible cytological alterations in single cells upon environmental changes,” Lab Chip 7, 71–76 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A.-C. Wei, M. Gruber, M. Jarczynski, J. Jahns, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “Plastic planar-integrated free-space optical interconnector,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 5504–5507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Shao, J. A. van Kan, K. Ansari, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, “Poly (dimethyl siloxane) micro/nanostructure replication using proton beam written masters,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 260, 479–482 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

A. Y. Yi, C. Huang, F. Klocke, C. Brecher, G. Pongs, M. Winterschladen, A. Demmer, S. Lange, T. Bergs, M. Merz, and F. Niehaus, “Development of a compression molding process for three-dimensional tailored free-form glass optics,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6511–6518 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Hupert, W. J. Guy, S. D. Llopis, C. Situma, S. Rani, D. E. Nikitopoulos, and S. A. Soper, “High-precision micromilling for low-cost fabrication of metal mold masters,” Proc. SPIE 6112, 61120B (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

J. Enger, M. Goksör, K. Ramser, P. Hagberg, and D. Hanstorp, “Optical tweezers applied to a microfluidic system,” Lab Chip 4, 196–200 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

J. Liu, M. Enzelsberger, and S. Quake, “A nanoliter rotary device for polymerase chain reaction,” Electrophoresis 23, 1531–1536 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

D. C. Duffy, J. C. McDonald, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Rapid prototyping of microfluidic systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Anal. Chem. 70, 4974–4984 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

C. S. Effenhauser, G. J. M. Bruin, A. Paulus, and M. Ehrat, “Integrated capillary electrophoresis on flexible silicone microdevices: analysis of DNA restriction fragments and detection of single DNA molecules on microchips,” Anal. Chem. 69, 3451–3457 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

K. Svoboda, P. P. Mitra, and S. M. Block, “Fluctuation analysis of motor protein movement and single enzyme-kinetics,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 11782–11786 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

Ambacher, O.

Amberg, M.

S. Stoebenau, M. Amberg, and S. Sinzinger, “Ultraprecision micromilling of freeform optical elements for planar micro optical systems integration,” Proc. SPIE 6992, 699207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Stoebenau, M. Amberg, and S. Sinzinger, “Micromilling for the fabrication of complex optical microsystems,” in Proceedings of the Euspen 10th International Conference (Copy and Druck, 2010), pp. 412–415.

Ansari, K.

P. G. Shao, J. A. van Kan, K. Ansari, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, “Poly (dimethyl siloxane) micro/nanostructure replication using proton beam written masters,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 260, 479–482 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

Augspurger, C.

J. Hampl, F. Weise, U. Fernekorn, C. Hildmann, C. Augspurger, M. Klett, A. Läffert, and A. Schober, “Integrierter Mikrobioreaktor zur parallelen 3D-Zellkulturführung,” in Proc. Mikrosystemtechnik-Kongress 2009 (VDE Verlag GmbH, 2009).

Autschbach, L.

E. Brinksmeier and L. Autschbach, “Ball-end milling of free-form surfaces for optical mold inserts,” in Proceedings of the ASPE 19th Annual Meeting (ASPE, 2004).

Bergs, T.

Bettiol, A. A.

P. G. Shao, J. A. van Kan, K. Ansari, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, “Poly (dimethyl siloxane) micro/nanostructure replication using proton beam written masters,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 260, 479–482 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Block, S. M.

K. Svoboda, P. P. Mitra, and S. M. Block, “Fluctuation analysis of motor protein movement and single enzyme-kinetics,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 11782–11786 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brecher, C.

Brinksmeier, E.

E. Brinksmeier and L. Autschbach, “Ball-end milling of free-form surfaces for optical mold inserts,” in Proceedings of the ASPE 19th Annual Meeting (ASPE, 2004).

Bruin, G. J. M.

C. S. Effenhauser, G. J. M. Bruin, A. Paulus, and M. Ehrat, “Integrated capillary electrophoresis on flexible silicone microdevices: analysis of DNA restriction fragments and detection of single DNA molecules on microchips,” Anal. Chem. 69, 3451–3457 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, J. W.

A. Y. Lau, L. P. Lee, and J. W. Chan, “An integrated optofluidic platform for Raman-activated cell sorting,” Lab Chip 8, 1116–1120 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S.

Demmer, A.

Duffy, D. C.

D. C. Duffy, J. C. McDonald, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Rapid prototyping of microfluidic systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Anal. Chem. 70, 4974–4984 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dziediz, J. M.

Effenhauser, C. S.

C. S. Effenhauser, G. J. M. Bruin, A. Paulus, and M. Ehrat, “Integrated capillary electrophoresis on flexible silicone microdevices: analysis of DNA restriction fragments and detection of single DNA molecules on microchips,” Anal. Chem. 69, 3451–3457 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ehrat, M.

C. S. Effenhauser, G. J. M. Bruin, A. Paulus, and M. Ehrat, “Integrated capillary electrophoresis on flexible silicone microdevices: analysis of DNA restriction fragments and detection of single DNA molecules on microchips,” Anal. Chem. 69, 3451–3457 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enger, J.

E. Eriksson, J. Enger, B. Nordlander, N. Erjavec, K. Ramser, M. Goksör, S. Hohmann, T. Nyström, and D. Hanstorp, “A microfluidic system in combination with optical tweezers for analyzing rapid and reversible cytological alterations in single cells upon environmental changes,” Lab Chip 7, 71–76 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Enger, M. Goksör, K. Ramser, P. Hagberg, and D. Hanstorp, “Optical tweezers applied to a microfluidic system,” Lab Chip 4, 196–200 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enzelsberger, M.

J. Liu, M. Enzelsberger, and S. Quake, “A nanoliter rotary device for polymerase chain reaction,” Electrophoresis 23, 1531–1536 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eriksson, E.

E. Eriksson, J. Enger, B. Nordlander, N. Erjavec, K. Ramser, M. Goksör, S. Hohmann, T. Nyström, and D. Hanstorp, “A microfluidic system in combination with optical tweezers for analyzing rapid and reversible cytological alterations in single cells upon environmental changes,” Lab Chip 7, 71–76 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Erjavec, N.

E. Eriksson, J. Enger, B. Nordlander, N. Erjavec, K. Ramser, M. Goksör, S. Hohmann, T. Nyström, and D. Hanstorp, “A microfluidic system in combination with optical tweezers for analyzing rapid and reversible cytological alterations in single cells upon environmental changes,” Lab Chip 7, 71–76 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fernekorn, U.

J. Hampl, F. Weise, U. Fernekorn, C. Hildmann, C. Augspurger, M. Klett, A. Läffert, and A. Schober, “Integrierter Mikrobioreaktor zur parallelen 3D-Zellkulturführung,” in Proc. Mikrosystemtechnik-Kongress 2009 (VDE Verlag GmbH, 2009).

Fröber, U.

M. Stubenrauch, U. Fröber, D. Voges, C. Schilling, M. Hoffmann, and H. Witte, “A modular BioMEMS platform for new procedures and experiments in tissue engineering,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19, 074013 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gebhardt, A.

S. Risse, A. Gebhardt, R. Steinkopf, and V. Giggel, “NiP plated mirrors for astronomy and space,” in Proceedings of the Euspen 7th International Conference (Copy and Druck, 2007).

Giggel, V.

S. Risse, A. Gebhardt, R. Steinkopf, and V. Giggel, “NiP plated mirrors for astronomy and space,” in Proceedings of the Euspen 7th International Conference (Copy and Druck, 2007).

Goksör, M.

E. Eriksson, J. Enger, B. Nordlander, N. Erjavec, K. Ramser, M. Goksör, S. Hohmann, T. Nyström, and D. Hanstorp, “A microfluidic system in combination with optical tweezers for analyzing rapid and reversible cytological alterations in single cells upon environmental changes,” Lab Chip 7, 71–76 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Enger, M. Goksör, K. Ramser, P. Hagberg, and D. Hanstorp, “Optical tweezers applied to a microfluidic system,” Lab Chip 4, 196–200 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gruber, M.

A.-C. Wei, M. Gruber, M. Jarczynski, J. Jahns, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “Plastic planar-integrated free-space optical interconnector,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 5504–5507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guy, W. J.

M. L. Hupert, W. J. Guy, S. D. Llopis, C. Situma, S. Rani, D. E. Nikitopoulos, and S. A. Soper, “High-precision micromilling for low-cost fabrication of metal mold masters,” Proc. SPIE 6112, 61120B (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hagberg, P.

J. Enger, M. Goksör, K. Ramser, P. Hagberg, and D. Hanstorp, “Optical tweezers applied to a microfluidic system,” Lab Chip 4, 196–200 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hampl, J.

J. Hampl, F. Weise, U. Fernekorn, C. Hildmann, C. Augspurger, M. Klett, A. Läffert, and A. Schober, “Integrierter Mikrobioreaktor zur parallelen 3D-Zellkulturführung,” in Proc. Mikrosystemtechnik-Kongress 2009 (VDE Verlag GmbH, 2009).

Hanstorp, D.

E. Eriksson, J. Enger, B. Nordlander, N. Erjavec, K. Ramser, M. Goksör, S. Hohmann, T. Nyström, and D. Hanstorp, “A microfluidic system in combination with optical tweezers for analyzing rapid and reversible cytological alterations in single cells upon environmental changes,” Lab Chip 7, 71–76 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Enger, M. Goksör, K. Ramser, P. Hagberg, and D. Hanstorp, “Optical tweezers applied to a microfluidic system,” Lab Chip 4, 196–200 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hauguth-Frank, S.

Hildmann, C.

J. Hampl, F. Weise, U. Fernekorn, C. Hildmann, C. Augspurger, M. Klett, A. Läffert, and A. Schober, “Integrierter Mikrobioreaktor zur parallelen 3D-Zellkulturführung,” in Proc. Mikrosystemtechnik-Kongress 2009 (VDE Verlag GmbH, 2009).

Hoffmann, M.

M. Stubenrauch, U. Fröber, D. Voges, C. Schilling, M. Hoffmann, and H. Witte, “A modular BioMEMS platform for new procedures and experiments in tissue engineering,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19, 074013 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, M.

Hohmann, S.

E. Eriksson, J. Enger, B. Nordlander, N. Erjavec, K. Ramser, M. Goksör, S. Hohmann, T. Nyström, and D. Hanstorp, “A microfluidic system in combination with optical tweezers for analyzing rapid and reversible cytological alterations in single cells upon environmental changes,” Lab Chip 7, 71–76 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.

Hupert, M. L.

M. L. Hupert, W. J. Guy, S. D. Llopis, C. Situma, S. Rani, D. E. Nikitopoulos, and S. A. Soper, “High-precision micromilling for low-cost fabrication of metal mold masters,” Proc. SPIE 6112, 61120B (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jahns, J.

A.-C. Wei, M. Gruber, M. Jarczynski, J. Jahns, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “Plastic planar-integrated free-space optical interconnector,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 5504–5507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jarczynski, M.

A.-C. Wei, M. Gruber, M. Jarczynski, J. Jahns, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “Plastic planar-integrated free-space optical interconnector,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 5504–5507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Klett, M.

J. Hampl, F. Weise, U. Fernekorn, C. Hildmann, C. Augspurger, M. Klett, A. Läffert, and A. Schober, “Integrierter Mikrobioreaktor zur parallelen 3D-Zellkulturführung,” in Proc. Mikrosystemtechnik-Kongress 2009 (VDE Verlag GmbH, 2009).

Klocke, F.

Läffert, A.

J. Hampl, F. Weise, U. Fernekorn, C. Hildmann, C. Augspurger, M. Klett, A. Läffert, and A. Schober, “Integrierter Mikrobioreaktor zur parallelen 3D-Zellkulturführung,” in Proc. Mikrosystemtechnik-Kongress 2009 (VDE Verlag GmbH, 2009).

Lange, S.

Lau, A. Y.

A. Y. Lau, L. P. Lee, and J. W. Chan, “An integrated optofluidic platform for Raman-activated cell sorting,” Lab Chip 8, 1116–1120 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lebedev, V.

Lee, L. P.

A. Y. Lau, L. P. Lee, and J. W. Chan, “An integrated optofluidic platform for Raman-activated cell sorting,” Lab Chip 8, 1116–1120 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, L.

Liu, J.

J. Liu, M. Enzelsberger, and S. Quake, “A nanoliter rotary device for polymerase chain reaction,” Electrophoresis 23, 1531–1536 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Llopis, S. D.

M. L. Hupert, W. J. Guy, S. D. Llopis, C. Situma, S. Rani, D. E. Nikitopoulos, and S. A. Soper, “High-precision micromilling for low-cost fabrication of metal mold masters,” Proc. SPIE 6112, 61120B (2006).
[CrossRef]

McDonald, J. C.

D. C. Duffy, J. C. McDonald, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Rapid prototyping of microfluidic systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Anal. Chem. 70, 4974–4984 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merz, M.

Mitra, P. P.

K. Svoboda, P. P. Mitra, and S. M. Block, “Fluctuation analysis of motor protein movement and single enzyme-kinetics,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 11782–11786 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niehaus, F.

Nikitopoulos, D. E.

M. L. Hupert, W. J. Guy, S. D. Llopis, C. Situma, S. Rani, D. E. Nikitopoulos, and S. A. Soper, “High-precision micromilling for low-cost fabrication of metal mold masters,” Proc. SPIE 6112, 61120B (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nordlander, B.

E. Eriksson, J. Enger, B. Nordlander, N. Erjavec, K. Ramser, M. Goksör, S. Hohmann, T. Nyström, and D. Hanstorp, “A microfluidic system in combination with optical tweezers for analyzing rapid and reversible cytological alterations in single cells upon environmental changes,” Lab Chip 7, 71–76 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nyström, T.

E. Eriksson, J. Enger, B. Nordlander, N. Erjavec, K. Ramser, M. Goksör, S. Hohmann, T. Nyström, and D. Hanstorp, “A microfluidic system in combination with optical tweezers for analyzing rapid and reversible cytological alterations in single cells upon environmental changes,” Lab Chip 7, 71–76 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Paulus, A.

C. S. Effenhauser, G. J. M. Bruin, A. Paulus, and M. Ehrat, “Integrated capillary electrophoresis on flexible silicone microdevices: analysis of DNA restriction fragments and detection of single DNA molecules on microchips,” Anal. Chem. 69, 3451–3457 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pongs, G.

Quake, S.

J. Liu, M. Enzelsberger, and S. Quake, “A nanoliter rotary device for polymerase chain reaction,” Electrophoresis 23, 1531–1536 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramser, K.

E. Eriksson, J. Enger, B. Nordlander, N. Erjavec, K. Ramser, M. Goksör, S. Hohmann, T. Nyström, and D. Hanstorp, “A microfluidic system in combination with optical tweezers for analyzing rapid and reversible cytological alterations in single cells upon environmental changes,” Lab Chip 7, 71–76 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Enger, M. Goksör, K. Ramser, P. Hagberg, and D. Hanstorp, “Optical tweezers applied to a microfluidic system,” Lab Chip 4, 196–200 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rani, S.

M. L. Hupert, W. J. Guy, S. D. Llopis, C. Situma, S. Rani, D. E. Nikitopoulos, and S. A. Soper, “High-precision micromilling for low-cost fabrication of metal mold masters,” Proc. SPIE 6112, 61120B (2006).
[CrossRef]

Risse, S.

S. Risse, A. Gebhardt, R. Steinkopf, and V. Giggel, “NiP plated mirrors for astronomy and space,” in Proceedings of the Euspen 7th International Conference (Copy and Druck, 2007).

Schilling, C.

M. Stubenrauch, U. Fröber, D. Voges, C. Schilling, M. Hoffmann, and H. Witte, “A modular BioMEMS platform for new procedures and experiments in tissue engineering,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19, 074013 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schober, A.

J. Hampl, F. Weise, U. Fernekorn, C. Hildmann, C. Augspurger, M. Klett, A. Läffert, and A. Schober, “Integrierter Mikrobioreaktor zur parallelen 3D-Zellkulturführung,” in Proc. Mikrosystemtechnik-Kongress 2009 (VDE Verlag GmbH, 2009).

Schueller, O. J. A.

D. C. Duffy, J. C. McDonald, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Rapid prototyping of microfluidic systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Anal. Chem. 70, 4974–4984 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shao, P. G.

P. G. Shao, J. A. van Kan, K. Ansari, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, “Poly (dimethyl siloxane) micro/nanostructure replication using proton beam written masters,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 260, 479–482 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shieh, H.-P. D.

A.-C. Wei, M. Gruber, M. Jarczynski, J. Jahns, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “Plastic planar-integrated free-space optical interconnector,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 5504–5507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sinzinger, S.

S. Stoebenau, M. Amberg, and S. Sinzinger, “Ultraprecision micromilling of freeform optical elements for planar micro optical systems integration,” Proc. SPIE 6992, 699207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Hofmann, S. Hauguth-Frank, V. Lebedev, O. Ambacher, and S. Sinzinger, “Sapphire-GaN-based planar integrated free-space optical system,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2950–2955 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Stoebenau, M. Amberg, and S. Sinzinger, “Micromilling for the fabrication of complex optical microsystems,” in Proceedings of the Euspen 10th International Conference (Copy and Druck, 2010), pp. 412–415.

Situma, C.

M. L. Hupert, W. J. Guy, S. D. Llopis, C. Situma, S. Rani, D. E. Nikitopoulos, and S. A. Soper, “High-precision micromilling for low-cost fabrication of metal mold masters,” Proc. SPIE 6112, 61120B (2006).
[CrossRef]

Soper, S. A.

M. L. Hupert, W. J. Guy, S. D. Llopis, C. Situma, S. Rani, D. E. Nikitopoulos, and S. A. Soper, “High-precision micromilling for low-cost fabrication of metal mold masters,” Proc. SPIE 6112, 61120B (2006).
[CrossRef]

Steinkopf, R.

S. Risse, A. Gebhardt, R. Steinkopf, and V. Giggel, “NiP plated mirrors for astronomy and space,” in Proceedings of the Euspen 7th International Conference (Copy and Druck, 2007).

Stoebenau, S.

S. Stoebenau, M. Amberg, and S. Sinzinger, “Ultraprecision micromilling of freeform optical elements for planar micro optical systems integration,” Proc. SPIE 6992, 699207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Stoebenau, M. Amberg, and S. Sinzinger, “Micromilling for the fabrication of complex optical microsystems,” in Proceedings of the Euspen 10th International Conference (Copy and Druck, 2010), pp. 412–415.

Stubenrauch, M.

M. Stubenrauch, U. Fröber, D. Voges, C. Schilling, M. Hoffmann, and H. Witte, “A modular BioMEMS platform for new procedures and experiments in tissue engineering,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19, 074013 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Svoboda, K.

K. Svoboda, P. P. Mitra, and S. M. Block, “Fluctuation analysis of motor protein movement and single enzyme-kinetics,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 11782–11786 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Kan, J. A.

P. G. Shao, J. A. van Kan, K. Ansari, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, “Poly (dimethyl siloxane) micro/nanostructure replication using proton beam written masters,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 260, 479–482 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Voges, D.

M. Stubenrauch, U. Fröber, D. Voges, C. Schilling, M. Hoffmann, and H. Witte, “A modular BioMEMS platform for new procedures and experiments in tissue engineering,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19, 074013 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Watt, F.

P. G. Shao, J. A. van Kan, K. Ansari, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, “Poly (dimethyl siloxane) micro/nanostructure replication using proton beam written masters,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 260, 479–482 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wei, A.-C.

A.-C. Wei, M. Gruber, M. Jarczynski, J. Jahns, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “Plastic planar-integrated free-space optical interconnector,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 5504–5507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weise, F.

J. Hampl, F. Weise, U. Fernekorn, C. Hildmann, C. Augspurger, M. Klett, A. Läffert, and A. Schober, “Integrierter Mikrobioreaktor zur parallelen 3D-Zellkulturführung,” in Proc. Mikrosystemtechnik-Kongress 2009 (VDE Verlag GmbH, 2009).

Whitesides, G. M.

D. C. Duffy, J. C. McDonald, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Rapid prototyping of microfluidic systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Anal. Chem. 70, 4974–4984 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winterschladen, M.

Witte, H.

M. Stubenrauch, U. Fröber, D. Voges, C. Schilling, M. Hoffmann, and H. Witte, “A modular BioMEMS platform for new procedures and experiments in tissue engineering,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19, 074013 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yi, A. Y.

Anal. Chem. (2)

C. S. Effenhauser, G. J. M. Bruin, A. Paulus, and M. Ehrat, “Integrated capillary electrophoresis on flexible silicone microdevices: analysis of DNA restriction fragments and detection of single DNA molecules on microchips,” Anal. Chem. 69, 3451–3457 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Duffy, J. C. McDonald, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Rapid prototyping of microfluidic systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Anal. Chem. 70, 4974–4984 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electrophoresis (1)

J. Liu, M. Enzelsberger, and S. Quake, “A nanoliter rotary device for polymerase chain reaction,” Electrophoresis 23, 1531–1536 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

M. Stubenrauch, U. Fröber, D. Voges, C. Schilling, M. Hoffmann, and H. Witte, “A modular BioMEMS platform for new procedures and experiments in tissue engineering,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19, 074013 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A.-C. Wei, M. Gruber, M. Jarczynski, J. Jahns, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “Plastic planar-integrated free-space optical interconnector,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 5504–5507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip (3)

J. Enger, M. Goksör, K. Ramser, P. Hagberg, and D. Hanstorp, “Optical tweezers applied to a microfluidic system,” Lab Chip 4, 196–200 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Eriksson, J. Enger, B. Nordlander, N. Erjavec, K. Ramser, M. Goksör, S. Hohmann, T. Nyström, and D. Hanstorp, “A microfluidic system in combination with optical tweezers for analyzing rapid and reversible cytological alterations in single cells upon environmental changes,” Lab Chip 7, 71–76 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Lau, L. P. Lee, and J. W. Chan, “An integrated optofluidic platform for Raman-activated cell sorting,” Lab Chip 8, 1116–1120 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B (1)

P. G. Shao, J. A. van Kan, K. Ansari, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, “Poly (dimethyl siloxane) micro/nanostructure replication using proton beam written masters,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 260, 479–482 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

K. Svoboda, P. P. Mitra, and S. M. Block, “Fluctuation analysis of motor protein movement and single enzyme-kinetics,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 11782–11786 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (2)

S. Stoebenau, M. Amberg, and S. Sinzinger, “Ultraprecision micromilling of freeform optical elements for planar micro optical systems integration,” Proc. SPIE 6992, 699207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Hupert, W. J. Guy, S. D. Llopis, C. Situma, S. Rani, D. E. Nikitopoulos, and S. A. Soper, “High-precision micromilling for low-cost fabrication of metal mold masters,” Proc. SPIE 6112, 61120B (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

S. Risse, A. Gebhardt, R. Steinkopf, and V. Giggel, “NiP plated mirrors for astronomy and space,” in Proceedings of the Euspen 7th International Conference (Copy and Druck, 2007).

J. Hampl, F. Weise, U. Fernekorn, C. Hildmann, C. Augspurger, M. Klett, A. Läffert, and A. Schober, “Integrierter Mikrobioreaktor zur parallelen 3D-Zellkulturführung,” in Proc. Mikrosystemtechnik-Kongress 2009 (VDE Verlag GmbH, 2009).

S. Stoebenau, M. Amberg, and S. Sinzinger, “Micromilling for the fabrication of complex optical microsystems,” in Proceedings of the Euspen 10th International Conference (Copy and Druck, 2010), pp. 412–415.

E. Brinksmeier and L. Autschbach, “Ball-end milling of free-form surfaces for optical mold inserts,” in Proceedings of the ASPE 19th Annual Meeting (ASPE, 2004).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Sectional sketch of the optofluidic microsystem attached to a coverslip and (b) sketch of the experimental setup for performing optical trapping.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) CAD data of the bottom master mold including the structures keeping clearance for the reservoirs and channels. (b) Sectional view of the assembled top and bottom master. (c) Photo of the bottom master mold made of PMMA.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plot of white light interferometer measurements of the master molds for (a) the surface of the channel Y junction and (b) the surface keeping clearance for the microscope objective.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Replicated PDMS optofluidic microsystem attached to a glass wafer. 20 × microscopic images of the surface defined as (b) interface “B” and (c) interface “A.”

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Snapshot of the scene shortly before a 3 μm particle is trapped (marked with white arrow). (b), (c) Single particle trapped in laser focus while the other particles (marked by white ring) move on.

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