Abstract

Early steps tracing back to Galileo’s telescope and to the birth of instrumental optics are reported. Particulars of lensmaking technology, basic optics laws, concepts of eye and vision, and issues on instrument trade and service are given. Achievements at the roots of our continuing advances in optical sciences are acknowledged.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Van Helden, “The beginnings, from Lipperhey to Huygens and Cassini,” Exp. Astron. 25, 3-16 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Strano, “Galileo's telescope: history, scientific analysis, and replicated observations,” Exp. Astron. 25, 17-31 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S.Dupré, A.Van Helden, and H.Zuidervaart, eds., The Origins of the Telescope: Proceedings of the Symposium “The Invention of the Dutch Telescope,” Middelburg (The Netherlands), 25-27 September 2008 (Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, to be published).
    [PubMed]
  4. V. Greco, G. Molesini, and F. Quercioli, “Telescopes of Galileo,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6219-6226 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Miniati, A. Van Helden, V. Greco, and G. Molesini, “Seventeenth-century telescope optics of Torricelli, Divini, and Campani,” Appl. Opt. 41, 644-647 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Report of Antonio Priuli, in Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, National Edition (Barbera, 1890-1909), Vol. 19, pp. 587-588.
  7. C. A. Manzini, L'Occhiale all'Occhio (Erede del Benacci, 1660).
  8. A. Van Helden, “The telescope from Galileo to today,” in From Galileo's 'Occhialino' to Optoelectronics, P. Mazzoldi, ed. (World Scientific, 1993), pp. 318-331.
  9. O. Pedersen, “Sagredo's optical researches,” Centaurus 13, 139-150 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Letter of Giovanfrancesco Sagredo to Galileo, 2 June 1612, in Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, National Edition (Barbera, 1890-1909), Vol. 11, pp. 313-316.
  11. Letter of Giovanfrancesco Sagredo to Galileo, 18 March 1618, in Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, National Edition (Barbera, 1890-1909), Vol. 12, pp. 376-378.
  12. Letter of Giovanfrancesco Sagredo to Galileo, 24 August 1613, in Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, National Edition (Barbera, 1890-1909), Vol. 11, pp. 552-556.
  13. Letter of Giovanfrancesco Sagredo to Galileo, 10 October 1615, in Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, National Edition (Barbera, 1890-1909), Vol. 12, pp. 198-199.
  14. Letter of Giovanfrancesco Sagredo to Galileo, 17 October 1615, in Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, National Edition(Barbera, 1890-1909), Vol. 12, pp. 199-200.
  15. Eli Maor, e: the story of a number (Princeton, 1994), p. 7.
  16. Letter of Giovanfrancesco Sagredo to Galileo, 7 July 1612, in Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, National Edition (Barbera, 1890-1909), Vol. 11, pp. 355-356.
  17. Letter of Galileo to Marco Welser, 14 August 1612, in Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, National Edition (Barbera, 1890-1909), Vol. 5, pp. 116-141.
  18. Letter of Galileo to Belisario Vinta, 19 March 1610. In Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, National Edition (Barbera, 1890-1909), Vol. 10, pp. 297-302.
  19. M. L. Bonelli, “Note about Galileo's instruments,” in Proceedings of the 1964 Symposium on Galileo (Bemporad Marzocco, 1967), pp. 125-127.
  20. Letter of Esaù Del Borgo to Galileo, 14 September 1630,in Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, National Edition (Barbera, 1890-1909), Vol. 14, pp. 145-147.

2009 (2)

A. Van Helden, “The beginnings, from Lipperhey to Huygens and Cassini,” Exp. Astron. 25, 3-16 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Strano, “Galileo's telescope: history, scientific analysis, and replicated observations,” Exp. Astron. 25, 17-31 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1993 (1)

1969 (1)

O. Pedersen, “Sagredo's optical researches,” Centaurus 13, 139-150 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Bonelli, M. L.

M. L. Bonelli, “Note about Galileo's instruments,” in Proceedings of the 1964 Symposium on Galileo (Bemporad Marzocco, 1967), pp. 125-127.

Borgo, Esaù Del

Letter of Esaù Del Borgo to Galileo, 14 September 1630,in Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, National Edition (Barbera, 1890-1909), Vol. 14, pp. 145-147.

Galileo,

Letter of Esaù Del Borgo to Galileo, 14 September 1630,in Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, National Edition (Barbera, 1890-1909), Vol. 14, pp. 145-147.

Letter of Galileo to Belisario Vinta, 19 March 1610. In Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, National Edition (Barbera, 1890-1909), Vol. 10, pp. 297-302.

Letter of Giovanfrancesco Sagredo to Galileo, 7 July 1612, in Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, National Edition (Barbera, 1890-1909), Vol. 11, pp. 355-356.

Letter of Giovanfrancesco Sagredo to Galileo, 2 June 1612, in Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, National Edition (Barbera, 1890-1909), Vol. 11, pp. 313-316.

Letter of Galileo to Marco Welser, 14 August 1612, in Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, National Edition (Barbera, 1890-1909), Vol. 5, pp. 116-141.

Letter of Giovanfrancesco Sagredo to Galileo, 10 October 1615, in Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, National Edition (Barbera, 1890-1909), Vol. 12, pp. 198-199.

Letter of Giovanfrancesco Sagredo to Galileo, 17 October 1615, in Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, National Edition(Barbera, 1890-1909), Vol. 12, pp. 199-200.

Letter of Giovanfrancesco Sagredo to Galileo, 24 August 1613, in Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, National Edition (Barbera, 1890-1909), Vol. 11, pp. 552-556.

Letter of Giovanfrancesco Sagredo to Galileo, 18 March 1618, in Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, National Edition (Barbera, 1890-1909), Vol. 12, pp. 376-378.

Greco, V.

Manzini, C. A.

C. A. Manzini, L'Occhiale all'Occhio (Erede del Benacci, 1660).

Maor, Eli

Eli Maor, e: the story of a number (Princeton, 1994), p. 7.

Miniati, M.

Molesini, G.

Pedersen, O.

O. Pedersen, “Sagredo's optical researches,” Centaurus 13, 139-150 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Priuli, Antonio

Report of Antonio Priuli, in Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, National Edition (Barbera, 1890-1909), Vol. 19, pp. 587-588.

Quercioli, F.

Sagredo, Giovanfrancesco

Letter of Giovanfrancesco Sagredo to Galileo, 18 March 1618, in Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, National Edition (Barbera, 1890-1909), Vol. 12, pp. 376-378.

Letter of Giovanfrancesco Sagredo to Galileo, 24 August 1613, in Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, National Edition (Barbera, 1890-1909), Vol. 11, pp. 552-556.

Letter of Giovanfrancesco Sagredo to Galileo, 7 July 1612, in Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, National Edition (Barbera, 1890-1909), Vol. 11, pp. 355-356.

Letter of Giovanfrancesco Sagredo to Galileo, 10 October 1615, in Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, National Edition (Barbera, 1890-1909), Vol. 12, pp. 198-199.

Letter of Giovanfrancesco Sagredo to Galileo, 17 October 1615, in Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, National Edition(Barbera, 1890-1909), Vol. 12, pp. 199-200.

Letter of Giovanfrancesco Sagredo to Galileo, 2 June 1612, in Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, National Edition (Barbera, 1890-1909), Vol. 11, pp. 313-316.

Strano, G.

G. Strano, “Galileo's telescope: history, scientific analysis, and replicated observations,” Exp. Astron. 25, 17-31 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Van Helden, A.

A. Van Helden, “The beginnings, from Lipperhey to Huygens and Cassini,” Exp. Astron. 25, 3-16 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Miniati, A. Van Helden, V. Greco, and G. Molesini, “Seventeenth-century telescope optics of Torricelli, Divini, and Campani,” Appl. Opt. 41, 644-647 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Van Helden, “The telescope from Galileo to today,” in From Galileo's 'Occhialino' to Optoelectronics, P. Mazzoldi, ed. (World Scientific, 1993), pp. 318-331.

Vinta, Belisario

Letter of Galileo to Belisario Vinta, 19 March 1610. In Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, National Edition (Barbera, 1890-1909), Vol. 10, pp. 297-302.

Welser, Marco

Letter of Galileo to Marco Welser, 14 August 1612, in Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, National Edition (Barbera, 1890-1909), Vol. 5, pp. 116-141.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Centaurus (1)

O. Pedersen, “Sagredo's optical researches,” Centaurus 13, 139-150 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Astron. (2)

A. Van Helden, “The beginnings, from Lipperhey to Huygens and Cassini,” Exp. Astron. 25, 3-16 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Strano, “Galileo's telescope: history, scientific analysis, and replicated observations,” Exp. Astron. 25, 17-31 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (15)

S.Dupré, A.Van Helden, and H.Zuidervaart, eds., The Origins of the Telescope: Proceedings of the Symposium “The Invention of the Dutch Telescope,” Middelburg (The Netherlands), 25-27 September 2008 (Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, to be published).
[PubMed]

Report of Antonio Priuli, in Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, National Edition (Barbera, 1890-1909), Vol. 19, pp. 587-588.

C. A. Manzini, L'Occhiale all'Occhio (Erede del Benacci, 1660).

A. Van Helden, “The telescope from Galileo to today,” in From Galileo's 'Occhialino' to Optoelectronics, P. Mazzoldi, ed. (World Scientific, 1993), pp. 318-331.

Letter of Giovanfrancesco Sagredo to Galileo, 2 June 1612, in Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, National Edition (Barbera, 1890-1909), Vol. 11, pp. 313-316.

Letter of Giovanfrancesco Sagredo to Galileo, 18 March 1618, in Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, National Edition (Barbera, 1890-1909), Vol. 12, pp. 376-378.

Letter of Giovanfrancesco Sagredo to Galileo, 24 August 1613, in Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, National Edition (Barbera, 1890-1909), Vol. 11, pp. 552-556.

Letter of Giovanfrancesco Sagredo to Galileo, 10 October 1615, in Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, National Edition (Barbera, 1890-1909), Vol. 12, pp. 198-199.

Letter of Giovanfrancesco Sagredo to Galileo, 17 October 1615, in Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, National Edition(Barbera, 1890-1909), Vol. 12, pp. 199-200.

Eli Maor, e: the story of a number (Princeton, 1994), p. 7.

Letter of Giovanfrancesco Sagredo to Galileo, 7 July 1612, in Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, National Edition (Barbera, 1890-1909), Vol. 11, pp. 355-356.

Letter of Galileo to Marco Welser, 14 August 1612, in Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, National Edition (Barbera, 1890-1909), Vol. 5, pp. 116-141.

Letter of Galileo to Belisario Vinta, 19 March 1610. In Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, National Edition (Barbera, 1890-1909), Vol. 10, pp. 297-302.

M. L. Bonelli, “Note about Galileo's instruments,” in Proceedings of the 1964 Symposium on Galileo (Bemporad Marzocco, 1967), pp. 125-127.

Letter of Esaù Del Borgo to Galileo, 14 September 1630,in Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, National Edition (Barbera, 1890-1909), Vol. 14, pp. 145-147.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical layout of Galileo’s telescope.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Galileo’s layout of the telescope as it appears in The Sidereal Messenger.

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