Abstract

Although the color of cyanobacteria is a very informative characteristic, no standardized protocol has, so far, been established for defining the color in an objective way, and, therefore, direct comparison of experimental results obtained by different research groups is not possible. In the present study, we used colorimetric measurements and conventional statistical tools to determine the effects on the measurement of the color of cyanobacteria, of the concentration of the microorganisms and their moisture content, as well as of the size of the target area and the minimum number of measurements. It was concluded that the color measurement is affected by every factor studied, but that this can be controlled for by making at least 10  consecutive measurements/9.62cm2 at different randomly selected points on the surface of filters completely covered by films of cyanobacteria in which the moisture contents are higher than 50%.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. http://www.cie.co.at
  2. G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, 1982).
  3. L. G. Erokhina, “Spectral effects of the chromatic adaptation of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria grown on different nitrogen sources,” Mikrobiologiya 61, 960-967 (1992).
  4. S. Liotenberg, D. Campbell, R. Rippka, J. Houmard, and N. Tandeau de Marsac, “Effect of the nitrogen source on phycobiliprotein synthesis and cell reserves in a chromatically adapting filamentous cyanobacterium,” Microbiology 142, 611-622 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. R. Miller, M. Martin, J. Touchton, and R. W. Castenholz, “Effects of nitrogen availability on pigmentation and carbon assimilation in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain SH-94-5,” Arch. Microbiol. 177, 392-400 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. E. Miśkiewicz, A. G. Ivanov, J. P. Williams, M. U. Khan, S. Falk, and N. P. A. Huner, “Photosynthetic acclimation of the filamentous cyanobacterium, Plectonema boryanum UTEX 485, to temperature and light,” Plant Cell Physiol. 41, 767-775 (2000).
    [PubMed]
  7. B. Prieto, T. Rivas, and B. Silva, “Rapid quantification of phototrophic microorganisms and their physiological state through their colour,” GBIF 18, 237-245 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Prieto, B. Silva, N. Aira, and L. Laiz, “Induction of biofilms on quartz surfaces as a means of reducing the visual impact of quartz quarries,” GBIF 21, 237-246 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Prieto, P. Sanmartín, B. Silva, and F. Martínez-Verdú, “Measuring the color of granite rocks. a proposed procedure,” Color Res. Appl., article in press, doi:10.1002/col.20579 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Rippka, J. Deruelles, J. B. Waterbury, M. Herdman, and R. Y. Stanier, “Generic assignments, strain histories and properties of pure cultures of cyanobacteria,” J. Gen. Microbiol. 111, 1-61 (1979).
  11. CIE“Improvement to industrial color-difference evaluation,” 142-2001 (CIE Central Bureau, 2001).
  12. CIE, “Colorimetry,” 3rd ed., 15:2004 (CIE Central Bureau, 2004).
  13. J. Schanda, Colorimetry: Understanding the CIE System(Wiley, 2007).
  14. CIE, “Industrial colour-difference evaluation, 116-1995 (CIE Central Bureau, 1995).
  15. F. J. J. Clarke, R. McDonald, and B. Rigg, “Modification to the JPC79 color-difference formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Col. 100, 128-132 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. S. Berns, Billmeyer and Saltzman's Principles of Color Technology, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 2000).
  17. H. G. Völz, Industrial Color Testing (Wiley--VCH, 2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. Gómez-Robledo, M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, R. Roa, M. J. Moyano, and F. J. Heredia, “Virgin-olive-oil color in relation to sample thickness and the measurement method,” J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 85, 1063-1071 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A Y. Hardeberg, “Acquisition and reproduction of color images: colorimetric and multispectral approaches,” Ph.D. thesis (Ecole Nationale Superieure des Telecommunications, 1999).
  20. D. Benavente, F. Martínez-Verdú, A. Bernabeu, V. Viqueira, R. Fort, M. García del Cura, C. Illueca, and S. Ordóñez, “Influence of surface roughness on color changes in building stones,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 343-351 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. Grossi, P. Brimblecombe, R. M. Esbert, and F. J. Alonso, “Color changes in architectural limestones from pollution and cleaning,” Color Res. Appl. 32, 320-331(2007).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

L. Gómez-Robledo, M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, R. Roa, M. J. Moyano, and F. J. Heredia, “Virgin-olive-oil color in relation to sample thickness and the measurement method,” J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 85, 1063-1071 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

C. Grossi, P. Brimblecombe, R. M. Esbert, and F. J. Alonso, “Color changes in architectural limestones from pollution and cleaning,” Color Res. Appl. 32, 320-331(2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

B. Prieto, B. Silva, N. Aira, and L. Laiz, “Induction of biofilms on quartz surfaces as a means of reducing the visual impact of quartz quarries,” GBIF 21, 237-246 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D. Benavente, F. Martínez-Verdú, A. Bernabeu, V. Viqueira, R. Fort, M. García del Cura, C. Illueca, and S. Ordóñez, “Influence of surface roughness on color changes in building stones,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 343-351 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

B. Prieto, T. Rivas, and B. Silva, “Rapid quantification of phototrophic microorganisms and their physiological state through their colour,” GBIF 18, 237-245 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Miller, M. Martin, J. Touchton, and R. W. Castenholz, “Effects of nitrogen availability on pigmentation and carbon assimilation in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain SH-94-5,” Arch. Microbiol. 177, 392-400 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

E. Miśkiewicz, A. G. Ivanov, J. P. Williams, M. U. Khan, S. Falk, and N. P. A. Huner, “Photosynthetic acclimation of the filamentous cyanobacterium, Plectonema boryanum UTEX 485, to temperature and light,” Plant Cell Physiol. 41, 767-775 (2000).
[PubMed]

1996 (1)

S. Liotenberg, D. Campbell, R. Rippka, J. Houmard, and N. Tandeau de Marsac, “Effect of the nitrogen source on phycobiliprotein synthesis and cell reserves in a chromatically adapting filamentous cyanobacterium,” Microbiology 142, 611-622 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

L. G. Erokhina, “Spectral effects of the chromatic adaptation of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria grown on different nitrogen sources,” Mikrobiologiya 61, 960-967 (1992).

1984 (1)

F. J. J. Clarke, R. McDonald, and B. Rigg, “Modification to the JPC79 color-difference formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Col. 100, 128-132 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

R. Rippka, J. Deruelles, J. B. Waterbury, M. Herdman, and R. Y. Stanier, “Generic assignments, strain histories and properties of pure cultures of cyanobacteria,” J. Gen. Microbiol. 111, 1-61 (1979).

Aira, N.

B. Prieto, B. Silva, N. Aira, and L. Laiz, “Induction of biofilms on quartz surfaces as a means of reducing the visual impact of quartz quarries,” GBIF 21, 237-246 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Alonso, F. J.

C. Grossi, P. Brimblecombe, R. M. Esbert, and F. J. Alonso, “Color changes in architectural limestones from pollution and cleaning,” Color Res. Appl. 32, 320-331(2007).
[CrossRef]

Benavente, D.

D. Benavente, F. Martínez-Verdú, A. Bernabeu, V. Viqueira, R. Fort, M. García del Cura, C. Illueca, and S. Ordóñez, “Influence of surface roughness on color changes in building stones,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 343-351 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bernabeu, A.

D. Benavente, F. Martínez-Verdú, A. Bernabeu, V. Viqueira, R. Fort, M. García del Cura, C. Illueca, and S. Ordóñez, “Influence of surface roughness on color changes in building stones,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 343-351 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Berns, R. S.

R. S. Berns, Billmeyer and Saltzman's Principles of Color Technology, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 2000).

Brimblecombe, P.

C. Grossi, P. Brimblecombe, R. M. Esbert, and F. J. Alonso, “Color changes in architectural limestones from pollution and cleaning,” Color Res. Appl. 32, 320-331(2007).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, D.

S. Liotenberg, D. Campbell, R. Rippka, J. Houmard, and N. Tandeau de Marsac, “Effect of the nitrogen source on phycobiliprotein synthesis and cell reserves in a chromatically adapting filamentous cyanobacterium,” Microbiology 142, 611-622 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castenholz, R. W.

S. R. Miller, M. Martin, J. Touchton, and R. W. Castenholz, “Effects of nitrogen availability on pigmentation and carbon assimilation in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain SH-94-5,” Arch. Microbiol. 177, 392-400 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clarke, F. J. J.

F. J. J. Clarke, R. McDonald, and B. Rigg, “Modification to the JPC79 color-difference formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Col. 100, 128-132 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Deruelles, J.

R. Rippka, J. Deruelles, J. B. Waterbury, M. Herdman, and R. Y. Stanier, “Generic assignments, strain histories and properties of pure cultures of cyanobacteria,” J. Gen. Microbiol. 111, 1-61 (1979).

Erokhina, L. G.

L. G. Erokhina, “Spectral effects of the chromatic adaptation of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria grown on different nitrogen sources,” Mikrobiologiya 61, 960-967 (1992).

Esbert, R. M.

C. Grossi, P. Brimblecombe, R. M. Esbert, and F. J. Alonso, “Color changes in architectural limestones from pollution and cleaning,” Color Res. Appl. 32, 320-331(2007).
[CrossRef]

Falk, S.

E. Miśkiewicz, A. G. Ivanov, J. P. Williams, M. U. Khan, S. Falk, and N. P. A. Huner, “Photosynthetic acclimation of the filamentous cyanobacterium, Plectonema boryanum UTEX 485, to temperature and light,” Plant Cell Physiol. 41, 767-775 (2000).
[PubMed]

Fort, R.

D. Benavente, F. Martínez-Verdú, A. Bernabeu, V. Viqueira, R. Fort, M. García del Cura, C. Illueca, and S. Ordóñez, “Influence of surface roughness on color changes in building stones,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 343-351 (2003).
[CrossRef]

García del Cura, M.

D. Benavente, F. Martínez-Verdú, A. Bernabeu, V. Viqueira, R. Fort, M. García del Cura, C. Illueca, and S. Ordóñez, “Influence of surface roughness on color changes in building stones,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 343-351 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gómez-Robledo, L.

L. Gómez-Robledo, M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, R. Roa, M. J. Moyano, and F. J. Heredia, “Virgin-olive-oil color in relation to sample thickness and the measurement method,” J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 85, 1063-1071 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grossi, C.

C. Grossi, P. Brimblecombe, R. M. Esbert, and F. J. Alonso, “Color changes in architectural limestones from pollution and cleaning,” Color Res. Appl. 32, 320-331(2007).
[CrossRef]

Hardeberg, Y.

A Y. Hardeberg, “Acquisition and reproduction of color images: colorimetric and multispectral approaches,” Ph.D. thesis (Ecole Nationale Superieure des Telecommunications, 1999).

Herdman, M.

R. Rippka, J. Deruelles, J. B. Waterbury, M. Herdman, and R. Y. Stanier, “Generic assignments, strain histories and properties of pure cultures of cyanobacteria,” J. Gen. Microbiol. 111, 1-61 (1979).

Heredia, F. J.

L. Gómez-Robledo, M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, R. Roa, M. J. Moyano, and F. J. Heredia, “Virgin-olive-oil color in relation to sample thickness and the measurement method,” J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 85, 1063-1071 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Houmard, J.

S. Liotenberg, D. Campbell, R. Rippka, J. Houmard, and N. Tandeau de Marsac, “Effect of the nitrogen source on phycobiliprotein synthesis and cell reserves in a chromatically adapting filamentous cyanobacterium,” Microbiology 142, 611-622 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huertas, R.

L. Gómez-Robledo, M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, R. Roa, M. J. Moyano, and F. J. Heredia, “Virgin-olive-oil color in relation to sample thickness and the measurement method,” J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 85, 1063-1071 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huner, N. P. A.

E. Miśkiewicz, A. G. Ivanov, J. P. Williams, M. U. Khan, S. Falk, and N. P. A. Huner, “Photosynthetic acclimation of the filamentous cyanobacterium, Plectonema boryanum UTEX 485, to temperature and light,” Plant Cell Physiol. 41, 767-775 (2000).
[PubMed]

Illueca, C.

D. Benavente, F. Martínez-Verdú, A. Bernabeu, V. Viqueira, R. Fort, M. García del Cura, C. Illueca, and S. Ordóñez, “Influence of surface roughness on color changes in building stones,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 343-351 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, A. G.

E. Miśkiewicz, A. G. Ivanov, J. P. Williams, M. U. Khan, S. Falk, and N. P. A. Huner, “Photosynthetic acclimation of the filamentous cyanobacterium, Plectonema boryanum UTEX 485, to temperature and light,” Plant Cell Physiol. 41, 767-775 (2000).
[PubMed]

Khan, M. U.

E. Miśkiewicz, A. G. Ivanov, J. P. Williams, M. U. Khan, S. Falk, and N. P. A. Huner, “Photosynthetic acclimation of the filamentous cyanobacterium, Plectonema boryanum UTEX 485, to temperature and light,” Plant Cell Physiol. 41, 767-775 (2000).
[PubMed]

Laiz, L.

B. Prieto, B. Silva, N. Aira, and L. Laiz, “Induction of biofilms on quartz surfaces as a means of reducing the visual impact of quartz quarries,” GBIF 21, 237-246 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liotenberg, S.

S. Liotenberg, D. Campbell, R. Rippka, J. Houmard, and N. Tandeau de Marsac, “Effect of the nitrogen source on phycobiliprotein synthesis and cell reserves in a chromatically adapting filamentous cyanobacterium,” Microbiology 142, 611-622 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, M.

S. R. Miller, M. Martin, J. Touchton, and R. W. Castenholz, “Effects of nitrogen availability on pigmentation and carbon assimilation in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain SH-94-5,” Arch. Microbiol. 177, 392-400 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martínez-Verdú, F.

D. Benavente, F. Martínez-Verdú, A. Bernabeu, V. Viqueira, R. Fort, M. García del Cura, C. Illueca, and S. Ordóñez, “Influence of surface roughness on color changes in building stones,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 343-351 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Prieto, P. Sanmartín, B. Silva, and F. Martínez-Verdú, “Measuring the color of granite rocks. a proposed procedure,” Color Res. Appl., article in press, doi:10.1002/col.20579 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McDonald, R.

F. J. J. Clarke, R. McDonald, and B. Rigg, “Modification to the JPC79 color-difference formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Col. 100, 128-132 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Melgosa, M.

L. Gómez-Robledo, M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, R. Roa, M. J. Moyano, and F. J. Heredia, “Virgin-olive-oil color in relation to sample thickness and the measurement method,” J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 85, 1063-1071 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miller, S. R.

S. R. Miller, M. Martin, J. Touchton, and R. W. Castenholz, “Effects of nitrogen availability on pigmentation and carbon assimilation in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain SH-94-5,” Arch. Microbiol. 177, 392-400 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miskiewicz, E.

E. Miśkiewicz, A. G. Ivanov, J. P. Williams, M. U. Khan, S. Falk, and N. P. A. Huner, “Photosynthetic acclimation of the filamentous cyanobacterium, Plectonema boryanum UTEX 485, to temperature and light,” Plant Cell Physiol. 41, 767-775 (2000).
[PubMed]

Moyano, M. J.

L. Gómez-Robledo, M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, R. Roa, M. J. Moyano, and F. J. Heredia, “Virgin-olive-oil color in relation to sample thickness and the measurement method,” J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 85, 1063-1071 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ordóñez, S.

D. Benavente, F. Martínez-Verdú, A. Bernabeu, V. Viqueira, R. Fort, M. García del Cura, C. Illueca, and S. Ordóñez, “Influence of surface roughness on color changes in building stones,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 343-351 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Prieto, B.

B. Prieto, B. Silva, N. Aira, and L. Laiz, “Induction of biofilms on quartz surfaces as a means of reducing the visual impact of quartz quarries,” GBIF 21, 237-246 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Prieto, T. Rivas, and B. Silva, “Rapid quantification of phototrophic microorganisms and their physiological state through their colour,” GBIF 18, 237-245 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Prieto, P. Sanmartín, B. Silva, and F. Martínez-Verdú, “Measuring the color of granite rocks. a proposed procedure,” Color Res. Appl., article in press, doi:10.1002/col.20579 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rigg, B.

F. J. J. Clarke, R. McDonald, and B. Rigg, “Modification to the JPC79 color-difference formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Col. 100, 128-132 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Rippka, R.

S. Liotenberg, D. Campbell, R. Rippka, J. Houmard, and N. Tandeau de Marsac, “Effect of the nitrogen source on phycobiliprotein synthesis and cell reserves in a chromatically adapting filamentous cyanobacterium,” Microbiology 142, 611-622 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Rippka, J. Deruelles, J. B. Waterbury, M. Herdman, and R. Y. Stanier, “Generic assignments, strain histories and properties of pure cultures of cyanobacteria,” J. Gen. Microbiol. 111, 1-61 (1979).

Rivas, T.

B. Prieto, T. Rivas, and B. Silva, “Rapid quantification of phototrophic microorganisms and their physiological state through their colour,” GBIF 18, 237-245 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roa, R.

L. Gómez-Robledo, M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, R. Roa, M. J. Moyano, and F. J. Heredia, “Virgin-olive-oil color in relation to sample thickness and the measurement method,” J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 85, 1063-1071 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sanmartín, P.

B. Prieto, P. Sanmartín, B. Silva, and F. Martínez-Verdú, “Measuring the color of granite rocks. a proposed procedure,” Color Res. Appl., article in press, doi:10.1002/col.20579 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schanda, J.

J. Schanda, Colorimetry: Understanding the CIE System(Wiley, 2007).

Silva, B.

B. Prieto, B. Silva, N. Aira, and L. Laiz, “Induction of biofilms on quartz surfaces as a means of reducing the visual impact of quartz quarries,” GBIF 21, 237-246 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Prieto, T. Rivas, and B. Silva, “Rapid quantification of phototrophic microorganisms and their physiological state through their colour,” GBIF 18, 237-245 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Prieto, P. Sanmartín, B. Silva, and F. Martínez-Verdú, “Measuring the color of granite rocks. a proposed procedure,” Color Res. Appl., article in press, doi:10.1002/col.20579 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stanier, R. Y.

R. Rippka, J. Deruelles, J. B. Waterbury, M. Herdman, and R. Y. Stanier, “Generic assignments, strain histories and properties of pure cultures of cyanobacteria,” J. Gen. Microbiol. 111, 1-61 (1979).

Stiles, W. S.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, 1982).

Tandeau de Marsac, N.

S. Liotenberg, D. Campbell, R. Rippka, J. Houmard, and N. Tandeau de Marsac, “Effect of the nitrogen source on phycobiliprotein synthesis and cell reserves in a chromatically adapting filamentous cyanobacterium,” Microbiology 142, 611-622 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Touchton, J.

S. R. Miller, M. Martin, J. Touchton, and R. W. Castenholz, “Effects of nitrogen availability on pigmentation and carbon assimilation in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain SH-94-5,” Arch. Microbiol. 177, 392-400 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Viqueira, V.

D. Benavente, F. Martínez-Verdú, A. Bernabeu, V. Viqueira, R. Fort, M. García del Cura, C. Illueca, and S. Ordóñez, “Influence of surface roughness on color changes in building stones,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 343-351 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Völz, H. G.

H. G. Völz, Industrial Color Testing (Wiley--VCH, 2001).
[CrossRef]

Waterbury, J. B.

R. Rippka, J. Deruelles, J. B. Waterbury, M. Herdman, and R. Y. Stanier, “Generic assignments, strain histories and properties of pure cultures of cyanobacteria,” J. Gen. Microbiol. 111, 1-61 (1979).

Williams, J. P.

E. Miśkiewicz, A. G. Ivanov, J. P. Williams, M. U. Khan, S. Falk, and N. P. A. Huner, “Photosynthetic acclimation of the filamentous cyanobacterium, Plectonema boryanum UTEX 485, to temperature and light,” Plant Cell Physiol. 41, 767-775 (2000).
[PubMed]

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, 1982).

Arch. Microbiol. (1)

S. R. Miller, M. Martin, J. Touchton, and R. W. Castenholz, “Effects of nitrogen availability on pigmentation and carbon assimilation in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain SH-94-5,” Arch. Microbiol. 177, 392-400 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Color Res. Appl. (2)

D. Benavente, F. Martínez-Verdú, A. Bernabeu, V. Viqueira, R. Fort, M. García del Cura, C. Illueca, and S. Ordóñez, “Influence of surface roughness on color changes in building stones,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 343-351 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Grossi, P. Brimblecombe, R. M. Esbert, and F. J. Alonso, “Color changes in architectural limestones from pollution and cleaning,” Color Res. Appl. 32, 320-331(2007).
[CrossRef]

GBIF (2)

B. Prieto, T. Rivas, and B. Silva, “Rapid quantification of phototrophic microorganisms and their physiological state through their colour,” GBIF 18, 237-245 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Prieto, B. Silva, N. Aira, and L. Laiz, “Induction of biofilms on quartz surfaces as a means of reducing the visual impact of quartz quarries,” GBIF 21, 237-246 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (1)

L. Gómez-Robledo, M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, R. Roa, M. J. Moyano, and F. J. Heredia, “Virgin-olive-oil color in relation to sample thickness and the measurement method,” J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 85, 1063-1071 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Gen. Microbiol. (1)

R. Rippka, J. Deruelles, J. B. Waterbury, M. Herdman, and R. Y. Stanier, “Generic assignments, strain histories and properties of pure cultures of cyanobacteria,” J. Gen. Microbiol. 111, 1-61 (1979).

J. Soc. Dyers Col. (1)

F. J. J. Clarke, R. McDonald, and B. Rigg, “Modification to the JPC79 color-difference formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Col. 100, 128-132 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Microbiology (1)

S. Liotenberg, D. Campbell, R. Rippka, J. Houmard, and N. Tandeau de Marsac, “Effect of the nitrogen source on phycobiliprotein synthesis and cell reserves in a chromatically adapting filamentous cyanobacterium,” Microbiology 142, 611-622 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mikrobiologiya (1)

L. G. Erokhina, “Spectral effects of the chromatic adaptation of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria grown on different nitrogen sources,” Mikrobiologiya 61, 960-967 (1992).

Plant Cell Physiol. (1)

E. Miśkiewicz, A. G. Ivanov, J. P. Williams, M. U. Khan, S. Falk, and N. P. A. Huner, “Photosynthetic acclimation of the filamentous cyanobacterium, Plectonema boryanum UTEX 485, to temperature and light,” Plant Cell Physiol. 41, 767-775 (2000).
[PubMed]

Other (10)

B. Prieto, P. Sanmartín, B. Silva, and F. Martínez-Verdú, “Measuring the color of granite rocks. a proposed procedure,” Color Res. Appl., article in press, doi:10.1002/col.20579 (2010).
[CrossRef]

http://www.cie.co.at

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, 1982).

R. S. Berns, Billmeyer and Saltzman's Principles of Color Technology, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 2000).

H. G. Völz, Industrial Color Testing (Wiley--VCH, 2001).
[CrossRef]

A Y. Hardeberg, “Acquisition and reproduction of color images: colorimetric and multispectral approaches,” Ph.D. thesis (Ecole Nationale Superieure des Telecommunications, 1999).

CIE“Improvement to industrial color-difference evaluation,” 142-2001 (CIE Central Bureau, 2001).

CIE, “Colorimetry,” 3rd ed., 15:2004 (CIE Central Bureau, 2004).

J. Schanda, Colorimetry: Understanding the CIE System(Wiley, 2007).

CIE, “Industrial colour-difference evaluation, 116-1995 (CIE Central Bureau, 1995).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Appearance of the filters after depositing the aliquots of cultures containing 0%, 20%, 50%, and 100% cyanobacteria.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Variation in L * , a * , and b * values of the filters containing cyanobacteria deposits with moisture content (%).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a * b * diagram representing the yellow-greenish area corresponding to the filters containing cyanobacteria in relation to range of moisture contents.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Example of the graphs used to determine the minimum number of measurements required. Cumulative averages of the CIELAB color parameters: L * , a * , and b * in relation to the number of measurements, corresponding to filters containing 20% cyanobacteria, filter b, and 10 mm measurement head.

Tables (5)

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Table 1 Minimum Number of Measurements Determined for Characterization of Each CIELAB Color Parameter, for Each Filter with Different Concentrations of Cyanobacteria, and for Different Measuring Heads

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Table 2 Three-Way MANOVA of the Number of Measurements a

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Table 3 Tukey-B Test for the Number of Measurements in Relation to Different Concentrations of Cyanobacteria and Diameter of the Measuring Head a

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Table 4 Minimum Number of Measurements Required to Characterize Each Filter for Each Measuring Head

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Table 5 Maximum Partial ( Δ L * , Δ a * , and Δ b * ) and Total [ Δ E * a b , Δ E 94 ( 1 : 1 : 1 ) , Δ E 00 ( 1 : 1 : 1 ) , and CMC ( 2 : 1 ) ] Color Differences for Each Concentration of Cyanobacteria Deposited on the Filters

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