Abstract

Cavity-enhanced tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy is an attractive method for measuring small concentrations of gaseous species. Ethane is a breath biomarker of lipid peroxidation initiated by reactive oxygen species. A noninvasive means of quickly quantifying oxidative stress status has the potential for broad clinical application. We present a simple, compact system using off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy with an interband cascade laser and demonstrate its use in real-time measurements of breath ethane. We demonstrate a detection sensitivity of 0.48ppb/Hz1/2.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. Halmer, S. Thelen, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Online monitoring of ethane traces in exhaled breath with a difference frequency generation spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B. 85, 437-443 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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2006

K. D. Skeldon, L. C. McMillan, C. A. Wyse, S. D. Monk, G. Gibson, C. Patterson, T. France, C. Longbottom, and M. J. Padgett, “Application of laser spectroscopy for measurement of exhaled ethane in patients with lung cancer,” Respir. Med. 100, 300-306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Cope, S. F. Solga, L. K. Hummers, F. M. Wigley, A. M. Diehl, and T. H. Risby, “Abnormal exhaled ethane concentrations in scleroderma,” Biomarkers 11, 70-84 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Halmer, S. Thelen, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Online monitoring of ethane traces in exhaled breath with a difference frequency generation spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B. 85, 437-443 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Engel, W. S. Drisdell, F. N. Keutsch, E. J. Moyer, and J. G. Anderson, “Ultrasensitive near-infrared integrated cavity output spectroscopy technique for detection of CO at 1.5 μm: new sensitivity limits for absorption measurements in passive optical cavities,” Appl. Opt. 45, 9221-9229 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

K. D. Skeldon, G. M. Gibson, C. A. Wyse, L. C. McMillan, S. D. Monk, C. Longbottom, and M. J. Padgett, “Development of high-resolution real-time sub-ppb ethane spectroscopy and some pilot studies in life science,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4712-4721(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Rothman, L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204(2005).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Frish, R. T. Wainner, B. D. Green, M. C. Laderer, and M. G. Allen, “Standoff gas leak detectors based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6010, 60100D (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2001

2000

T. G. Spence, C. C. Harb, B. A. Paldus, R. N. Zare, B. Wilke, and R. L. Byer, “A laser-locked cavity ring-down spectrometer employing an analog detection scheme,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 347-353 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

T. H. Risby, L. Jiang, S. Stoll, D. Ingram, E. Spangler, J. Heim, R. Cutler, G. S. Roth, and J. M. Rifkind, “Breath ethane as a marker of reactive oxygen species during manipulation of diet and oxygen tension in rats,” J. Appl. Physiol. 86, 617-622(1999).
[PubMed]

A. O'Keefe, J. J. Scherer, and J. B. Paul, “CW Integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 343-349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

R. Engeln, G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, “Cavity enhanced absorption and cavity enhanced magnetic rotation spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3763-3769 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

R. Q. Yang, “Infrared laser based on intersubband transitions in quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 17, 77-83 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1978

1965

1942

Allen, M. G.

M. B. Frish, R. T. Wainner, B. D. Green, M. C. Laderer, and M. G. Allen, “Standoff gas leak detectors based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6010, 60100D (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Sonnenfroh, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. G. Allen, “Diode laser-based sensor for high precision measurements of ambient CO2,” in Laser Applications to Chemical, Security and Environmental Analysis, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper LMA1.

Anderson, J. G.

Auwera, J. Vander

L. S. Rothman, L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204(2005).
[CrossRef]

Bakhirkin, Y. A.

Y. A. Bakhirkin, G. Wysocki, M. P. Fraser, R. Q. Yang, and F. K. Tittel, “Sensitive, real-time interband cascade laser based sensor for ethane monitoring,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CFG2.

Ballik, E. A.

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204(2005).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204(2005).
[CrossRef]

Berden, G.

R. Engeln, G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, “Cavity enhanced absorption and cavity enhanced magnetic rotation spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3763-3769 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204(2005).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204(2005).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

T. G. Spence, C. C. Harb, B. A. Paldus, R. N. Zare, B. Wilke, and R. L. Byer, “A laser-locked cavity ring-down spectrometer employing an analog detection scheme,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 347-353 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Carleer, M. R.

L. S. Rothman, L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204(2005).
[CrossRef]

Chackerian, C.

L. S. Rothman, L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204(2005).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204(2005).
[CrossRef]

Cope, K. A.

K. A. Cope, S. F. Solga, L. K. Hummers, F. M. Wigley, A. M. Diehl, and T. H. Risby, “Abnormal exhaled ethane concentrations in scleroderma,” Biomarkers 11, 70-84 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204(2005).
[CrossRef]

Cutler, R.

T. H. Risby, L. Jiang, S. Stoll, D. Ingram, E. Spangler, J. Heim, R. Cutler, G. S. Roth, and J. M. Rifkind, “Breath ethane as a marker of reactive oxygen species during manipulation of diet and oxygen tension in rats,” J. Appl. Physiol. 86, 617-622(1999).
[PubMed]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204(2005).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204(2005).
[CrossRef]

Diehl, A. M.

K. A. Cope, S. F. Solga, L. K. Hummers, F. M. Wigley, A. M. Diehl, and T. H. Risby, “Abnormal exhaled ethane concentrations in scleroderma,” Biomarkers 11, 70-84 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drisdell, W. S.

Engel, G. S.

Engeln, R.

R. Engeln, G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, “Cavity enhanced absorption and cavity enhanced magnetic rotation spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3763-3769 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204(2005).
[CrossRef]

France, T.

K. D. Skeldon, L. C. McMillan, C. A. Wyse, S. D. Monk, G. Gibson, C. Patterson, T. France, C. Longbottom, and M. J. Padgett, “Application of laser spectroscopy for measurement of exhaled ethane in patients with lung cancer,” Respir. Med. 100, 300-306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, M. P.

Y. A. Bakhirkin, G. Wysocki, M. P. Fraser, R. Q. Yang, and F. K. Tittel, “Sensitive, real-time interband cascade laser based sensor for ethane monitoring,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CFG2.

Frish, M. B.

M. B. Frish, R. T. Wainner, B. D. Green, M. C. Laderer, and M. G. Allen, “Standoff gas leak detectors based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6010, 60100D (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204(2005).
[CrossRef]

Garside, B. K.

Gibson, G.

K. D. Skeldon, L. C. McMillan, C. A. Wyse, S. D. Monk, G. Gibson, C. Patterson, T. France, C. Longbottom, and M. J. Padgett, “Application of laser spectroscopy for measurement of exhaled ethane in patients with lung cancer,” Respir. Med. 100, 300-306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, G. M.

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204(2005).
[CrossRef]

Green, B. D.

M. B. Frish, R. T. Wainner, B. D. Green, M. C. Laderer, and M. G. Allen, “Standoff gas leak detectors based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6010, 60100D (2005).
[CrossRef]

Halmer, D.

D. Halmer, S. Thelen, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Online monitoring of ethane traces in exhaled breath with a difference frequency generation spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B. 85, 437-443 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. von Basum, D. Halmer, P. Hering, M. Mürtz, S. Schiller, F. Müller, A. Popp, and F. Kühnemann, “Parts per trillion sensitivity for ethane in air with an optical parametric oscillator cavity leak-out spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 29, 797-799(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harb, C. C.

T. G. Spence, C. C. Harb, B. A. Paldus, R. N. Zare, B. Wilke, and R. L. Byer, “A laser-locked cavity ring-down spectrometer employing an analog detection scheme,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 347-353 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204(2005).
[CrossRef]

Heim, J.

T. H. Risby, L. Jiang, S. Stoll, D. Ingram, E. Spangler, J. Heim, R. Cutler, G. S. Roth, and J. M. Rifkind, “Breath ethane as a marker of reactive oxygen species during manipulation of diet and oxygen tension in rats,” J. Appl. Physiol. 86, 617-622(1999).
[PubMed]

Hering, P.

D. Halmer, S. Thelen, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Online monitoring of ethane traces in exhaled breath with a difference frequency generation spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B. 85, 437-443 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. von Basum, D. Halmer, P. Hering, M. Mürtz, S. Schiller, F. Müller, A. Popp, and F. Kühnemann, “Parts per trillion sensitivity for ethane in air with an optical parametric oscillator cavity leak-out spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 29, 797-799(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herriott, D. R.

Hummers, L. K.

K. A. Cope, S. F. Solga, L. K. Hummers, F. M. Wigley, A. M. Diehl, and T. H. Risby, “Abnormal exhaled ethane concentrations in scleroderma,” Biomarkers 11, 70-84 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ingram, D.

T. H. Risby, L. Jiang, S. Stoll, D. Ingram, E. Spangler, J. Heim, R. Cutler, G. S. Roth, and J. M. Rifkind, “Breath ethane as a marker of reactive oxygen species during manipulation of diet and oxygen tension in rats,” J. Appl. Physiol. 86, 617-622(1999).
[PubMed]

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204(2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, L.

T. H. Risby, L. Jiang, S. Stoll, D. Ingram, E. Spangler, J. Heim, R. Cutler, G. S. Roth, and J. M. Rifkind, “Breath ethane as a marker of reactive oxygen species during manipulation of diet and oxygen tension in rats,” J. Appl. Physiol. 86, 617-622(1999).
[PubMed]

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204(2005).
[CrossRef]

Keutsch, F. N.

Kühnemann, F.

Laderer, M. C.

M. B. Frish, R. T. Wainner, B. D. Green, M. C. Laderer, and M. G. Allen, “Standoff gas leak detectors based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6010, 60100D (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lapson, L.

Longbottom, C.

K. D. Skeldon, L. C. McMillan, C. A. Wyse, S. D. Monk, G. Gibson, C. Patterson, T. France, C. Longbottom, and M. J. Padgett, “Application of laser spectroscopy for measurement of exhaled ethane in patients with lung cancer,” Respir. Med. 100, 300-306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Skeldon, G. M. Gibson, C. A. Wyse, L. C. McMillan, S. D. Monk, C. Longbottom, and M. J. Padgett, “Development of high-resolution real-time sub-ppb ethane spectroscopy and some pilot studies in life science,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4712-4721(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maki, A. G.

L. S. Rothman, L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204(2005).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204(2005).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204(2005).
[CrossRef]

McMillan, L. C.

K. D. Skeldon, L. C. McMillan, C. A. Wyse, S. D. Monk, G. Gibson, C. Patterson, T. France, C. Longbottom, and M. J. Padgett, “Application of laser spectroscopy for measurement of exhaled ethane in patients with lung cancer,” Respir. Med. 100, 300-306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Skeldon, G. M. Gibson, C. A. Wyse, L. C. McMillan, S. D. Monk, C. Longbottom, and M. J. Padgett, “Development of high-resolution real-time sub-ppb ethane spectroscopy and some pilot studies in life science,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4712-4721(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meijer, G.

R. Engeln, G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, “Cavity enhanced absorption and cavity enhanced magnetic rotation spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3763-3769 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Monk, S. D.

K. D. Skeldon, L. C. McMillan, C. A. Wyse, S. D. Monk, G. Gibson, C. Patterson, T. France, C. Longbottom, and M. J. Padgett, “Application of laser spectroscopy for measurement of exhaled ethane in patients with lung cancer,” Respir. Med. 100, 300-306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Skeldon, G. M. Gibson, C. A. Wyse, L. C. McMillan, S. D. Monk, C. Longbottom, and M. J. Padgett, “Development of high-resolution real-time sub-ppb ethane spectroscopy and some pilot studies in life science,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4712-4721(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moyer, E. J.

Müller, F.

Mürtz, M.

D. Halmer, S. Thelen, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Online monitoring of ethane traces in exhaled breath with a difference frequency generation spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B. 85, 437-443 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. von Basum, D. Halmer, P. Hering, M. Mürtz, S. Schiller, F. Müller, A. Popp, and F. Kühnemann, “Parts per trillion sensitivity for ethane in air with an optical parametric oscillator cavity leak-out spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 29, 797-799(2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O'Keefe, A.

A. O'Keefe, J. J. Scherer, and J. B. Paul, “CW Integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 343-349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204(2005).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M. J.

K. D. Skeldon, L. C. McMillan, C. A. Wyse, S. D. Monk, G. Gibson, C. Patterson, T. France, C. Longbottom, and M. J. Padgett, “Application of laser spectroscopy for measurement of exhaled ethane in patients with lung cancer,” Respir. Med. 100, 300-306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Skeldon, G. M. Gibson, C. A. Wyse, L. C. McMillan, S. D. Monk, C. Longbottom, and M. J. Padgett, “Development of high-resolution real-time sub-ppb ethane spectroscopy and some pilot studies in life science,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4712-4721(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paldus, B. A.

T. G. Spence, C. C. Harb, B. A. Paldus, R. N. Zare, B. Wilke, and R. L. Byer, “A laser-locked cavity ring-down spectrometer employing an analog detection scheme,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 347-353 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Parameswaran, K. R.

D. M. Sonnenfroh, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. G. Allen, “Diode laser-based sensor for high precision measurements of ambient CO2,” in Laser Applications to Chemical, Security and Environmental Analysis, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper LMA1.

Patterson, C.

K. D. Skeldon, L. C. McMillan, C. A. Wyse, S. D. Monk, G. Gibson, C. Patterson, T. France, C. Longbottom, and M. J. Padgett, “Application of laser spectroscopy for measurement of exhaled ethane in patients with lung cancer,” Respir. Med. 100, 300-306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Paul, J. B.

Peeters, R.

R. Engeln, G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, “Cavity enhanced absorption and cavity enhanced magnetic rotation spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3763-3769 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204(2005).
[CrossRef]

Popp, A.

Reid, J.

Rifkind, J. M.

T. H. Risby, L. Jiang, S. Stoll, D. Ingram, E. Spangler, J. Heim, R. Cutler, G. S. Roth, and J. M. Rifkind, “Breath ethane as a marker of reactive oxygen species during manipulation of diet and oxygen tension in rats,” J. Appl. Physiol. 86, 617-622(1999).
[PubMed]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204(2005).
[CrossRef]

Risby, T. H.

K. A. Cope, S. F. Solga, L. K. Hummers, F. M. Wigley, A. M. Diehl, and T. H. Risby, “Abnormal exhaled ethane concentrations in scleroderma,” Biomarkers 11, 70-84 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Risby, L. Jiang, S. Stoll, D. Ingram, E. Spangler, J. Heim, R. Cutler, G. S. Roth, and J. M. Rifkind, “Breath ethane as a marker of reactive oxygen species during manipulation of diet and oxygen tension in rats,” J. Appl. Physiol. 86, 617-622(1999).
[PubMed]

T. H. Risby, “Current status of clinical breath analysis,” in Breath Analysis for Clinical Diagnosis and Therapeutic Monitoring, A. Amman and D. Smith, eds. (World Scientific, 2005), pp. 251-265.
[CrossRef]

Roth, G. S.

T. H. Risby, L. Jiang, S. Stoll, D. Ingram, E. Spangler, J. Heim, R. Cutler, G. S. Roth, and J. M. Rifkind, “Breath ethane as a marker of reactive oxygen species during manipulation of diet and oxygen tension in rats,” J. Appl. Physiol. 86, 617-622(1999).
[PubMed]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204(2005).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204(2005).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, J. J.

A. O'Keefe, J. J. Scherer, and J. B. Paul, “CW Integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 343-349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schiller, S.

Schulte, H. J.

Shewchun, J.

Skeldon, K. D.

K. D. Skeldon, L. C. McMillan, C. A. Wyse, S. D. Monk, G. Gibson, C. Patterson, T. France, C. Longbottom, and M. J. Padgett, “Application of laser spectroscopy for measurement of exhaled ethane in patients with lung cancer,” Respir. Med. 100, 300-306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Skeldon, G. M. Gibson, C. A. Wyse, L. C. McMillan, S. D. Monk, C. Longbottom, and M. J. Padgett, “Development of high-resolution real-time sub-ppb ethane spectroscopy and some pilot studies in life science,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4712-4721(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204(2005).
[CrossRef]

Solga, S. F.

K. A. Cope, S. F. Solga, L. K. Hummers, F. M. Wigley, A. M. Diehl, and T. H. Risby, “Abnormal exhaled ethane concentrations in scleroderma,” Biomarkers 11, 70-84 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sonnenfroh, D. M.

D. M. Sonnenfroh, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. G. Allen, “Diode laser-based sensor for high precision measurements of ambient CO2,” in Laser Applications to Chemical, Security and Environmental Analysis, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper LMA1.

Spangler, E.

T. H. Risby, L. Jiang, S. Stoll, D. Ingram, E. Spangler, J. Heim, R. Cutler, G. S. Roth, and J. M. Rifkind, “Breath ethane as a marker of reactive oxygen species during manipulation of diet and oxygen tension in rats,” J. Appl. Physiol. 86, 617-622(1999).
[PubMed]

Spence, T. G.

T. G. Spence, C. C. Harb, B. A. Paldus, R. N. Zare, B. Wilke, and R. L. Byer, “A laser-locked cavity ring-down spectrometer employing an analog detection scheme,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 347-353 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stoll, S.

T. H. Risby, L. Jiang, S. Stoll, D. Ingram, E. Spangler, J. Heim, R. Cutler, G. S. Roth, and J. M. Rifkind, “Breath ethane as a marker of reactive oxygen species during manipulation of diet and oxygen tension in rats,” J. Appl. Physiol. 86, 617-622(1999).
[PubMed]

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204(2005).
[CrossRef]

Thelen, S.

D. Halmer, S. Thelen, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Online monitoring of ethane traces in exhaled breath with a difference frequency generation spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B. 85, 437-443 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

Y. A. Bakhirkin, G. Wysocki, M. P. Fraser, R. Q. Yang, and F. K. Tittel, “Sensitive, real-time interband cascade laser based sensor for ethane monitoring,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CFG2.

Tolchenov, R. N.

L. S. Rothman, L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204(2005).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204(2005).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204(2005).
[CrossRef]

von Basum, G.

Wagner, G.

L. S. Rothman, L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, Jr., K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204(2005).
[CrossRef]

Wainner, R. T.

M. B. Frish, R. T. Wainner, B. D. Green, M. C. Laderer, and M. G. Allen, “Standoff gas leak detectors based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6010, 60100D (2005).
[CrossRef]

White, J. U.

Wigley, F. M.

K. A. Cope, S. F. Solga, L. K. Hummers, F. M. Wigley, A. M. Diehl, and T. H. Risby, “Abnormal exhaled ethane concentrations in scleroderma,” Biomarkers 11, 70-84 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilke, B.

T. G. Spence, C. C. Harb, B. A. Paldus, R. N. Zare, B. Wilke, and R. L. Byer, “A laser-locked cavity ring-down spectrometer employing an analog detection scheme,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 347-353 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wyse, C. A.

K. D. Skeldon, L. C. McMillan, C. A. Wyse, S. D. Monk, G. Gibson, C. Patterson, T. France, C. Longbottom, and M. J. Padgett, “Application of laser spectroscopy for measurement of exhaled ethane in patients with lung cancer,” Respir. Med. 100, 300-306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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T. G. Spence, C. C. Harb, B. A. Paldus, R. N. Zare, B. Wilke, and R. L. Byer, “A laser-locked cavity ring-down spectrometer employing an analog detection scheme,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 347-353 (2000).
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[CrossRef]

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T. G. Spence, C. C. Harb, B. A. Paldus, R. N. Zare, B. Wilke, and R. L. Byer, “A laser-locked cavity ring-down spectrometer employing an analog detection scheme,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 347-353 (2000).
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[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

HITRAN calculations showing spectroscopy of ethane and potential interfering species in the spectral region of interest.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photograph of laser submount. The laser bar containing nine emitters is on the top edge and is wire bonded to the submount pins.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Laser characteristics.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photograph of OA-ICOS ethane spectrometer. The beam from the laser in the Dewar is collimated and aligned to the cell. Subject breath passes through the filter and valve and then is dried by Nafion tubing before passing through a flow-limiting orifice to the cell. The signal from an InSb detector is amplified and processed by a personal computer. The pump, CO monitor, and CO 2 capnograph are not shown.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Single-pass absorption measurement of ethane line near 2986.7 cm 1 with HITRAN calculation. Measured peak absorption coefficient is 1.7 × 10 3 / ( ppm m ) , significantly lower than that predicted by HITRAN.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measurements of 100 ppb bottled mix at 85 Torr : (a) detector signal with baseline fit; (b) absorbance spectrum calculated from detector signal. Cursors (not shown) indicate limits for calculating integrated absorbance.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measurements of CO, CO 2 , and ethane from a subject 30 min after smoking a cigarette; ethane data are shown with a 2   s running average.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measurements of CO, CO 2 , and ethane from a nonsmoker with an elevated ethane signal; ethane data are shown with a 2   s running average.

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