Abstract

We have investigated the effect of size distribution of aqueous solutions of monodisperse and a mixture of polydisperse scatterers of two different sizes on the image quality using linear and circularly polarized light. The contrast and resolution are affected by the size distribution present in the mixture of a polydisperse medium, while they are affected by the refractive index in a monodisperse medium. Circularly polarized light improves image quality of polydisperse scatterers. Images in the polydisperse medium are retrieved for values of optical thickness less than those of the large-sized monodisperse medium. We offer plausible explanations for all the experimental observations.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. M. Schmitt, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and R. F. Bonner, “Use of polarized light to discriminate short path photons in a multiply scattering medium,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6535-6546 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. G. Demos, H. B. Radousky, and R. R. Alfano, “Deep subsurface imaging in tissues using spectral and polarization filtering,” Opt. Express 7, 23-28 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. S. Jacques, R. J. Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J Biomed. Opt. 7, 329-340 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. A. Kartazayeva, X. Ni, and R. R. Alfano, “Back scattering target detection in turbid media by use of circularly and linearly polarized light,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1168-1170 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. P. Schilders, X. Gan, and M. Gu, “Resolution improvement in microscopic imaging through turbid media based on differential polarization gating,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4300-4302(1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. X. Gan, S. P. Schilders, and M. Gu, “Image enhancement through turbid media under a microscope by use of polarization gating methods,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2177-2184 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. S. Tyo, “Enhancement of the point spread function for imaging in scattering media by use of polarization difference imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1-10 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. E. E. Gorodnichev, A. I. Kuzovlev, and D. B. Rogozkin, “Diffusion of circularly polarized light in a disordered medium with large scale inhomogeneities,” JETP Lett. 68, 22-28(1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. V. Sankaran, J. T. Walsh, Jr., and D. J. Maitland, “Comparative study of polarized light propagation in biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 300-306 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. N. Ghosh, H. S. Patel, and P. K. Gupta, “Depolarization of light in tissue phantoms--effect of a distribution in the size of scatterers,” Opt. Express 11, 2198-2205 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. P. Shukla, R. Sumathi, S. Gupta, A. Pradhan, “Influence of size parameter and refractive index of scatterer on polarization gated optical imaging through turbid media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1704-1713 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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2007 (1)

2006 (1)

N. Ghosh, P. K. Gupta, A. Pradhan, and S. K. Majumder, “Anomalous behavior of depolarization of light in a turbid medium,” Phys. Lett. A 354, 236-242 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

L. F. Rojas-Ochoa, D. Lacoste, R. Lenke, P. Schurtenberger, and F. Scheffold, “Depolarization of backscattered linearly polarized light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 1799-1804 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Ghosh, A. Pradhan, P. K. Gupta, S. Gupta, V. Jaiswal, and R. P. Singh, “Depolarization of light in a multiply scattering medium: effect of refractive index of scatterer,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 066607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

N. Ghosh, P. K. Gupta, H. S. Patel, B. Jain, and B. N. Singh, “Depolarization of light in tissue phantoms--effect of collection geometry,” Opt. Commun. 222, 93-99 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Ghosh, H. S. Patel, and P. K. Gupta, “Depolarization of light in tissue phantoms--effect of a distribution in the size of scatterers,” Opt. Express 11, 2198-2205 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, L. V. Wang, C. W. Sun, and C. C. Yang, “Polarized light propagation through scattering media: time resolved Monte Carlo simulations and experiments,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 608-617 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

L. S. Jacques, R. J. Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J Biomed. Opt. 7, 329-340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Sankaran, J. T. Walsh, Jr., and D. J. Maitland, “Comparative study of polarized light propagation in biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 300-306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

A. D. Kim and M. Moscoso, “Influence of the refractive index on the depolarization of multiply scattered waves,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 026612 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

1999 (2)

1998 (2)

E. E. Gorodnichev, A. I. Kuzovlev, and D. B. Rogozkin, “Diffusion of circularly polarized light in a disordered medium with large scale inhomogeneities,” JETP Lett. 68, 22-28(1998).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Schilders, X. Gan, and M. Gu, “Resolution improvement in microscopic imaging through turbid media based on differential polarization gating,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4300-4302(1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, and J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: Influence of size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767-1770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

Alfano, R. R.

Bicout, D.

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, and J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: Influence of size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767-1770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Hoffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Bonner, R. F.

Brosseau, C.

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, and J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: Influence of size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767-1770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Demos, S. G.

Gan, X.

Gandjbakhche, A. H.

Ghosh, N.

N. Ghosh, P. K. Gupta, A. Pradhan, and S. K. Majumder, “Anomalous behavior of depolarization of light in a turbid medium,” Phys. Lett. A 354, 236-242 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Ghosh, A. Pradhan, P. K. Gupta, S. Gupta, V. Jaiswal, and R. P. Singh, “Depolarization of light in a multiply scattering medium: effect of refractive index of scatterer,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 066607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Ghosh, P. K. Gupta, H. S. Patel, B. Jain, and B. N. Singh, “Depolarization of light in tissue phantoms--effect of collection geometry,” Opt. Commun. 222, 93-99 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Ghosh, H. S. Patel, and P. K. Gupta, “Depolarization of light in tissue phantoms--effect of a distribution in the size of scatterers,” Opt. Express 11, 2198-2205 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorodnichev, E. E.

E. E. Gorodnichev, A. I. Kuzovlev, and D. B. Rogozkin, “Diffusion of circularly polarized light in a disordered medium with large scale inhomogeneities,” JETP Lett. 68, 22-28(1998).
[CrossRef]

Gu, M.

Gupta, P. K.

N. Ghosh, P. K. Gupta, A. Pradhan, and S. K. Majumder, “Anomalous behavior of depolarization of light in a turbid medium,” Phys. Lett. A 354, 236-242 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Ghosh, A. Pradhan, P. K. Gupta, S. Gupta, V. Jaiswal, and R. P. Singh, “Depolarization of light in a multiply scattering medium: effect of refractive index of scatterer,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 066607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Ghosh, P. K. Gupta, H. S. Patel, B. Jain, and B. N. Singh, “Depolarization of light in tissue phantoms--effect of collection geometry,” Opt. Commun. 222, 93-99 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Ghosh, H. S. Patel, and P. K. Gupta, “Depolarization of light in tissue phantoms--effect of a distribution in the size of scatterers,” Opt. Express 11, 2198-2205 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gupta, S.

P. Shukla, R. Sumathi, S. Gupta, A. Pradhan, “Influence of size parameter and refractive index of scatterer on polarization gated optical imaging through turbid media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1704-1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Ghosh, A. Pradhan, P. K. Gupta, S. Gupta, V. Jaiswal, and R. P. Singh, “Depolarization of light in a multiply scattering medium: effect of refractive index of scatterer,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 066607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Hoffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Jacques, L. S.

L. S. Jacques, R. J. Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J Biomed. Opt. 7, 329-340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 119-129 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jain, B.

N. Ghosh, P. K. Gupta, H. S. Patel, B. Jain, and B. N. Singh, “Depolarization of light in tissue phantoms--effect of collection geometry,” Opt. Commun. 222, 93-99 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jaiswal, V.

N. Ghosh, A. Pradhan, P. K. Gupta, S. Gupta, V. Jaiswal, and R. P. Singh, “Depolarization of light in a multiply scattering medium: effect of refractive index of scatterer,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 066607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kartazayeva, S. A.

Khong, M. P.

Kim, A. D.

A. D. Kim and M. Moscoso, “Influence of the refractive index on the depolarization of multiply scattered waves,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 026612 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kuzovlev, A. I.

E. E. Gorodnichev, A. I. Kuzovlev, and D. B. Rogozkin, “Diffusion of circularly polarized light in a disordered medium with large scale inhomogeneities,” JETP Lett. 68, 22-28(1998).
[CrossRef]

Lacoste, D.

Lee, K.

L. S. Jacques, R. J. Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J Biomed. Opt. 7, 329-340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 119-129 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lenke, R.

Maitland, D. J.

V. Sankaran, J. T. Walsh, Jr., and D. J. Maitland, “Comparative study of polarized light propagation in biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 300-306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Sankaran, K. Schonenberger, J. T. Walsh, Jr., and D. J. Maitland, “Polarization discrimination of coherently propagating light in turbid media,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4252-4261 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Majumder, S. K.

N. Ghosh, P. K. Gupta, A. Pradhan, and S. K. Majumder, “Anomalous behavior of depolarization of light in a turbid medium,” Phys. Lett. A 354, 236-242 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, A. S.

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, and J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: Influence of size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767-1770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, S. P.

Moscoso, M.

A. D. Kim and M. Moscoso, “Influence of the refractive index on the depolarization of multiply scattered waves,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 026612 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ni, X.

Patel, H. S.

N. Ghosh, H. S. Patel, and P. K. Gupta, “Depolarization of light in tissue phantoms--effect of a distribution in the size of scatterers,” Opt. Express 11, 2198-2205 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ghosh, P. K. Gupta, H. S. Patel, B. Jain, and B. N. Singh, “Depolarization of light in tissue phantoms--effect of collection geometry,” Opt. Commun. 222, 93-99 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pradhan, A.

P. Shukla, R. Sumathi, S. Gupta, A. Pradhan, “Influence of size parameter and refractive index of scatterer on polarization gated optical imaging through turbid media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1704-1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Ghosh, P. K. Gupta, A. Pradhan, and S. K. Majumder, “Anomalous behavior of depolarization of light in a turbid medium,” Phys. Lett. A 354, 236-242 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Ghosh, A. Pradhan, P. K. Gupta, S. Gupta, V. Jaiswal, and R. P. Singh, “Depolarization of light in a multiply scattering medium: effect of refractive index of scatterer,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 066607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Radousky, H. B.

Rogozkin, D. B.

E. E. Gorodnichev, A. I. Kuzovlev, and D. B. Rogozkin, “Diffusion of circularly polarized light in a disordered medium with large scale inhomogeneities,” JETP Lett. 68, 22-28(1998).
[CrossRef]

Rojas-Ochoa, L. F.

Roman, J. R.

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 119-129 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roman, R. J.

L. S. Jacques, R. J. Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J Biomed. Opt. 7, 329-340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sankaran, V.

V. Sankaran, J. T. Walsh, Jr., and D. J. Maitland, “Comparative study of polarized light propagation in biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 300-306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Sankaran, K. Schonenberger, J. T. Walsh, Jr., and D. J. Maitland, “Polarization discrimination of coherently propagating light in turbid media,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4252-4261 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scheffold, F.

Schilders, S. P.

Schmitt, J. M.

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, and J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: Influence of size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767-1770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schmitt, A. H. Gandjbakhche, and R. F. Bonner, “Use of polarized light to discriminate short path photons in a multiply scattering medium,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6535-6546 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schonenberger, K.

Schurtenberger, P.

Shukla, P.

Singh, B. N.

N. Ghosh, P. K. Gupta, H. S. Patel, B. Jain, and B. N. Singh, “Depolarization of light in tissue phantoms--effect of collection geometry,” Opt. Commun. 222, 93-99 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Singh, R. P.

N. Ghosh, A. Pradhan, P. K. Gupta, S. Gupta, V. Jaiswal, and R. P. Singh, “Depolarization of light in a multiply scattering medium: effect of refractive index of scatterer,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 066607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Somekh, M. G.

Sumathi, R.

Sun, C. W.

X. Wang, L. V. Wang, C. W. Sun, and C. C. Yang, “Polarized light propagation through scattering media: time resolved Monte Carlo simulations and experiments,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 608-617 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tyo, J. S.

Walsh, J. T.

V. Sankaran, J. T. Walsh, Jr., and D. J. Maitland, “Comparative study of polarized light propagation in biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 300-306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Sankaran, K. Schonenberger, J. T. Walsh, Jr., and D. J. Maitland, “Polarization discrimination of coherently propagating light in turbid media,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4252-4261 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. V.

X. Wang, L. V. Wang, C. W. Sun, and C. C. Yang, “Polarized light propagation through scattering media: time resolved Monte Carlo simulations and experiments,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 608-617 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, L. V. Wang, C. W. Sun, and C. C. Yang, “Polarized light propagation through scattering media: time resolved Monte Carlo simulations and experiments,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 608-617 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C. C.

X. Wang, L. V. Wang, C. W. Sun, and C. C. Yang, “Polarized light propagation through scattering media: time resolved Monte Carlo simulations and experiments,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 608-617 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (4)

J Biomed. Opt. (1)

L. S. Jacques, R. J. Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J Biomed. Opt. 7, 329-340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

V. Sankaran, J. T. Walsh, Jr., and D. J. Maitland, “Comparative study of polarized light propagation in biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 300-306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, L. V. Wang, C. W. Sun, and C. C. Yang, “Polarized light propagation through scattering media: time resolved Monte Carlo simulations and experiments,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 608-617 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

JETP Lett. (1)

E. E. Gorodnichev, A. I. Kuzovlev, and D. B. Rogozkin, “Diffusion of circularly polarized light in a disordered medium with large scale inhomogeneities,” JETP Lett. 68, 22-28(1998).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 119-129 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

N. Ghosh, P. K. Gupta, H. S. Patel, B. Jain, and B. N. Singh, “Depolarization of light in tissue phantoms--effect of collection geometry,” Opt. Commun. 222, 93-99 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

N. Ghosh, P. K. Gupta, A. Pradhan, and S. K. Majumder, “Anomalous behavior of depolarization of light in a turbid medium,” Phys. Lett. A 354, 236-242 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (3)

N. Ghosh, A. Pradhan, P. K. Gupta, S. Gupta, V. Jaiswal, and R. P. Singh, “Depolarization of light in a multiply scattering medium: effect of refractive index of scatterer,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 066607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Kim and M. Moscoso, “Influence of the refractive index on the depolarization of multiply scattered waves,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 026612 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, and J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: Influence of size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767-1770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Hoffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Polarization images recorded for (a) co state (b) cross state (c) differential (co–cross) polarization state of circularly polarized light in the mixture of polystyrene microspheres at the optical thickness τ = 15 .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Polarization images recorded for (a) co state (b) cross state (c) differential (co–cross) polarization state of circularly polarized light in the large size polystyrene microspheres at the optical thickness τ = 15 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variations of (a) resolution (R) and (b) contrast (C) as a function of τ for differential circular polarization gating (circle) and differential linear polarization gating (square) obtained from samples prepared using aqueous suspensions of large size polystyrene microspheres with mean diameter of 1.1 μm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variations of (a) resolution (R) and (b) contrast (C) as a function of τ for differential circular polarization gating (circle) and differential linear polarization gating (square) obtained from samples prepared using aqueous suspensions of mixture of polydisperse polystyrene microspheres.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variation of contrast for (a) linearly polarized light open square (□) for monodisperse large size polystyrene microspheres and solid square (▪) for mixture of polystyrene microspheres and (b) circularly polarized light open circle (○) for monodisperse large size microspheres and solid circle (•) for mixture of microspheres with optical thickness τ.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Variations of (a) resolution (R) and (b) contrast (C) as a function of τ for differential circular polarization gating (circle) and differential linear polarization gating (square) obtained from samples prepared using aqueous suspensions of large size silica microspheres with mean diameter of 0.97 μm .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Variations of (a) resolution (R) and (b) contrast (C) as a function of τ for differential circular polarization gating (circle) and differential linear polarization gating (square) obtained from samples prepared using aqueous suspensions of mixture of polydisperse silica microspheres.

Equations (2)

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R = | d 1 + d 2 | 2 .
C = I max I min I max + I min .

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