Abstract

We present an original and compact optical system inspired by the unusual eyes of a Strepsipteran insect called Xenos peckii. It is designed for a field of view of 30° and is composed of multiple telescopes. An array of prisms of various angles is placed in front of these telescopes in order to set a different field of view for each channel. This type of camera operates in the [ 35μm] spectral bandwidth and is entirely integrated in a Dewar in order to maximize its compactness. Experimental images are presented to validate this design.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (4)

G. Druart, N. Guérineau, R. Haïdar, E. Lambert, M. Tauvy, S. Thétas, S. Rommeluère, J. Primot, and J. Deschamps, “MULTICAM: a miniature cryogenic camera for infrared detection,” Proc. SPIE 6992, 699215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C.-J. Yu, J. B. Geddes III, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature 454, 748-752(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shankar, R. Willet, N. Pitsianis, T. Schulz, R. Gibbons, R. T. Kolste, J. Carriere, C. Chen, D. Prather, and D. Brady, “Thin infrared imaging systems through multichannel sampling,” Appl. Opt. 47, B1-B10 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-B. Rim, P. B. Catrysse, R. Dinyari, K. Huang, and P. Peumans, “The optical advantages of curved focal plane arrays,” Opt. Express 16, 4965-4971 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

L. C. Laycock and V. A. Handerek, “Multi-aperture imaging device for airborne platforms,” Proc. SPIE 6737, 673709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Chen, “Beam steering and pointing with counter-rotating grisms,” Proc. SPIE 6714, 671409 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

K.-H. Jeong, J. Kim, and L. P. Lee, “Biologically inspired artificial compound eyes,” Science 312, 557-561 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Martín-Palma, C. G. Pantano, and A. Lakhtakia, “Replication of fly eyes by the conformal-evaporated-film-by-rotation technique,” Science 312, 557-561 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Duparré and F. C. Wippermann, “Micro-optical artificial compound eyes,” Bioinspir. Biomim. 1, R1-R16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Gubsky, M. Gertsenshteyn, and T. Jannson, “Lobster-eye infrared focusing optics,” Proc. SPIE 629562950F (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Shankar, W. C. Hasenplaugh, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Stack, and M. A. Neifeld, “Multiaperture imaging,” Appl. Opt. 45, 2871-2883 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

E. K. Buschbeck, B. Ehmer, and R. R. Hoy, “The unusual visual system of the Strepsiptera: external eye and neuropils,” J. Comp. Physiol. A 189, 617-630 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1999 (2)

E. K. Buschbeck, B. Ehmer, and R. R. Hoy, “Chunk versus point sampling: visual imaging in a small insect,” Science 286, 1178-1180 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hembd-Sölner, R. F. Stevens, and M. C. Hutley, “Imaging properties of the Gabor superlens,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 94-102 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

R. Völkel, “Natural optical design for microcameras,” Laser Optoelektron. 30, 47-55 (1998).

1996 (1)

K. Hamanaka and H. Koshi, “An artificial compound eye using a microlens array and its application to scale-invariant processing,” Opt. Rev. 3, 264-268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. S. Sanders and C. E. Halford, “Design and analysis of apposition compound eye optical sensors,” Opt. Eng. 34, 222-235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

Adams, A.

B. Wilburn, N. Joshi, V. Vaish, E.-V. Talvala, E. Antunez, A. Barth, A. Adams, M. Horowitz, and M. Levoy, “High performance imaging using large camera arrays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 24, 765-776 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Antunez, E.

B. Wilburn, N. Joshi, V. Vaish, E.-V. Talvala, E. Antunez, A. Barth, A. Adams, M. Horowitz, and M. Levoy, “High performance imaging using large camera arrays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 24, 765-776 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barth, A.

B. Wilburn, N. Joshi, V. Vaish, E.-V. Talvala, E. Antunez, A. Barth, A. Adams, M. Horowitz, and M. Levoy, “High performance imaging using large camera arrays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 24, 765-776 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brady, D.

Bräuer, A.

Buschbeck, E. K.

E. K. Buschbeck, B. Ehmer, and R. R. Hoy, “The unusual visual system of the Strepsiptera: external eye and neuropils,” J. Comp. Physiol. A 189, 617-630 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. K. Buschbeck, B. Ehmer, and R. R. Hoy, “Chunk versus point sampling: visual imaging in a small insect,” Science 286, 1178-1180 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carriere, J.

Catrysse, P. B.

Chen, C.

Chen, C. B.

C. B. Chen, “Beam steering and pointing with counter-rotating grisms,” Proc. SPIE 6714, 671409 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W. M.

H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C.-J. Yu, J. B. Geddes III, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature 454, 748-752(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dannberg, P.

Deschamps, J.

G. Druart, N. Guérineau, R. Haïdar, E. Lambert, M. Tauvy, S. Thétas, S. Rommeluère, J. Primot, and J. Deschamps, “MULTICAM: a miniature cryogenic camera for infrared detection,” Proc. SPIE 6992, 699215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dinyari, R.

Druart, G.

G. Druart, N. Guérineau, R. Haïdar, E. Lambert, M. Tauvy, S. Thétas, S. Rommeluère, J. Primot, and J. Deschamps, “MULTICAM: a miniature cryogenic camera for infrared detection,” Proc. SPIE 6992, 699215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Duparré, J.

Duparré, J. W.

J. W. Duparré and F. C. Wippermann, “Micro-optical artificial compound eyes,” Bioinspir. Biomim. 1, R1-R16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ehmer, B.

E. K. Buschbeck, B. Ehmer, and R. R. Hoy, “The unusual visual system of the Strepsiptera: external eye and neuropils,” J. Comp. Physiol. A 189, 617-630 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. K. Buschbeck, B. Ehmer, and R. R. Hoy, “Chunk versus point sampling: visual imaging in a small insect,” Science 286, 1178-1180 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eisner, M.

El Gamal, A.

K. Fife, A. El Gamal, and H.-S. P. Wong, “A 3D multi-aperture image sensor architecture,” in Proceedings of Custom Integrated Circuits Conference, 2006 (IEEE, 2006), pp. 281-284.
[CrossRef]

Fife, K.

K. Fife, A. El Gamal, and H.-S. P. Wong, “A 3D multi-aperture image sensor architecture,” in Proceedings of Custom Integrated Circuits Conference, 2006 (IEEE, 2006), pp. 281-284.
[CrossRef]

Geddes, J. B.

H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C.-J. Yu, J. B. Geddes III, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature 454, 748-752(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gertsenshteyn, M.

V. Gubsky, M. Gertsenshteyn, and T. Jannson, “Lobster-eye infrared focusing optics,” Proc. SPIE 629562950F (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gibbons, R.

Gubsky, V.

V. Gubsky, M. Gertsenshteyn, and T. Jannson, “Lobster-eye infrared focusing optics,” Proc. SPIE 629562950F (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guérineau, N.

G. Druart, N. Guérineau, R. Haïdar, E. Lambert, M. Tauvy, S. Thétas, S. Rommeluère, J. Primot, and J. Deschamps, “MULTICAM: a miniature cryogenic camera for infrared detection,” Proc. SPIE 6992, 699215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haïdar, R.

G. Druart, N. Guérineau, R. Haïdar, E. Lambert, M. Tauvy, S. Thétas, S. Rommeluère, J. Primot, and J. Deschamps, “MULTICAM: a miniature cryogenic camera for infrared detection,” Proc. SPIE 6992, 699215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Halford, C. E.

J. S. Sanders and C. E. Halford, “Design and analysis of apposition compound eye optical sensors,” Opt. Eng. 34, 222-235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hamanaka, K.

K. Hamanaka and H. Koshi, “An artificial compound eye using a microlens array and its application to scale-invariant processing,” Opt. Rev. 3, 264-268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Handerek, V. A.

L. C. Laycock and V. A. Handerek, “Multi-aperture imaging device for airborne platforms,” Proc. SPIE 6737, 673709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hasenplaugh, W. C.

Hembd-Sölner, C.

C. Hembd-Sölner, R. F. Stevens, and M. C. Hutley, “Imaging properties of the Gabor superlens,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 94-102 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Horowitz, M.

B. Wilburn, N. Joshi, V. Vaish, E.-V. Talvala, E. Antunez, A. Barth, A. Adams, M. Horowitz, and M. Levoy, “High performance imaging using large camera arrays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 24, 765-776 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hoy, R. R.

E. K. Buschbeck, B. Ehmer, and R. R. Hoy, “The unusual visual system of the Strepsiptera: external eye and neuropils,” J. Comp. Physiol. A 189, 617-630 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. K. Buschbeck, B. Ehmer, and R. R. Hoy, “Chunk versus point sampling: visual imaging in a small insect,” Science 286, 1178-1180 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, K.

Huang, Y.

H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C.-J. Yu, J. B. Geddes III, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature 454, 748-752(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hutley, M. C.

C. Hembd-Sölner, R. F. Stevens, and M. C. Hutley, “Imaging properties of the Gabor superlens,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 94-102 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ichioka, Y.

Ishida, K.

Jannson, T.

V. Gubsky, M. Gertsenshteyn, and T. Jannson, “Lobster-eye infrared focusing optics,” Proc. SPIE 629562950F (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, K.-H.

K.-H. Jeong, J. Kim, and L. P. Lee, “Biologically inspired artificial compound eyes,” Science 312, 557-561 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joshi, N.

B. Wilburn, N. Joshi, V. Vaish, E.-V. Talvala, E. Antunez, A. Barth, A. Adams, M. Horowitz, and M. Levoy, “High performance imaging using large camera arrays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 24, 765-776 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

K.-H. Jeong, J. Kim, and L. P. Lee, “Biologically inspired artificial compound eyes,” Science 312, 557-561 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitamura, Y.

Ko, H. C.

H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C.-J. Yu, J. B. Geddes III, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature 454, 748-752(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolste, R. T.

Kondou, N.

Koshi, H.

K. Hamanaka and H. Koshi, “An artificial compound eye using a microlens array and its application to scale-invariant processing,” Opt. Rev. 3, 264-268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kumagai, T.

Lakhtakia, A.

R. J. Martín-Palma, C. G. Pantano, and A. Lakhtakia, “Replication of fly eyes by the conformal-evaporated-film-by-rotation technique,” Science 312, 557-561 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lambert, E.

G. Druart, N. Guérineau, R. Haïdar, E. Lambert, M. Tauvy, S. Thétas, S. Rommeluère, J. Primot, and J. Deschamps, “MULTICAM: a miniature cryogenic camera for infrared detection,” Proc. SPIE 6992, 699215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Land, M. F.

M. F. Land and D.-E. Nilsson, Animal Eyes, Oxford Animal Biology Series (Oxford U. Press, 2002).

Laycock, L. C.

L. C. Laycock and V. A. Handerek, “Multi-aperture imaging device for airborne platforms,” Proc. SPIE 6737, 673709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, L. P.

K.-H. Jeong, J. Kim, and L. P. Lee, “Biologically inspired artificial compound eyes,” Science 312, 557-561 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levoy, M.

B. Wilburn, N. Joshi, V. Vaish, E.-V. Talvala, E. Antunez, A. Barth, A. Adams, M. Horowitz, and M. Levoy, “High performance imaging using large camera arrays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 24, 765-776 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lohmann, A. W.

Malyarchuk, V.

H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C.-J. Yu, J. B. Geddes III, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature 454, 748-752(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martín-Palma, R. J.

R. J. Martín-Palma, C. G. Pantano, and A. Lakhtakia, “Replication of fly eyes by the conformal-evaporated-film-by-rotation technique,” Science 312, 557-561 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Masaki, Y.

Matthes, A.

Miyamoto, M.

Miyatake, S.

Miyazaki, D.

Morimoto, T.

Morrison, R. L.

Neifeld, M. A.

Nilsson, D.-E.

M. F. Land and D.-E. Nilsson, Animal Eyes, Oxford Animal Biology Series (Oxford U. Press, 2002).

E. Warrant and D.-E. Nilsson, Invertebrate Vision (Cambridge U. Press2006).

Pantano, C. G.

R. J. Martín-Palma, C. G. Pantano, and A. Lakhtakia, “Replication of fly eyes by the conformal-evaporated-film-by-rotation technique,” Science 312, 557-561 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peumans, P.

Pitsianis, N.

Prather, D.

Primot, J.

G. Druart, N. Guérineau, R. Haïdar, E. Lambert, M. Tauvy, S. Thétas, S. Rommeluère, J. Primot, and J. Deschamps, “MULTICAM: a miniature cryogenic camera for infrared detection,” Proc. SPIE 6992, 699215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pshenay-Severin, E.

Reimann, A.

Rim, S.-B.

Rogers, J. A.

H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C.-J. Yu, J. B. Geddes III, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature 454, 748-752(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rommeluère, S.

G. Druart, N. Guérineau, R. Haïdar, E. Lambert, M. Tauvy, S. Thétas, S. Rommeluère, J. Primot, and J. Deschamps, “MULTICAM: a miniature cryogenic camera for infrared detection,” Proc. SPIE 6992, 699215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, J. S.

J. S. Sanders and C. E. Halford, “Design and analysis of apposition compound eye optical sensors,” Opt. Eng. 34, 222-235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schreiber, P.

Schulz, T.

Shankar, M.

Shankar, P. M.

Sharf, T.

Shogenji, R.

Shreiber, P.

Song, J.

H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C.-J. Yu, J. B. Geddes III, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature 454, 748-752(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stack, R. A.

Stevens, R. F.

C. Hembd-Sölner, R. F. Stevens, and M. C. Hutley, “Imaging properties of the Gabor superlens,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 94-102 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stoykovich, M. P.

H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C.-J. Yu, J. B. Geddes III, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature 454, 748-752(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Talvala, E.-V.

B. Wilburn, N. Joshi, V. Vaish, E.-V. Talvala, E. Antunez, A. Barth, A. Adams, M. Horowitz, and M. Levoy, “High performance imaging using large camera arrays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 24, 765-776 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tanida, J.

Tauvy, M.

G. Druart, N. Guérineau, R. Haïdar, E. Lambert, M. Tauvy, S. Thétas, S. Rommeluère, J. Primot, and J. Deschamps, “MULTICAM: a miniature cryogenic camera for infrared detection,” Proc. SPIE 6992, 699215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thétas, S.

G. Druart, N. Guérineau, R. Haïdar, E. Lambert, M. Tauvy, S. Thétas, S. Rommeluère, J. Primot, and J. Deschamps, “MULTICAM: a miniature cryogenic camera for infrared detection,” Proc. SPIE 6992, 699215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

Vaish, V.

B. Wilburn, N. Joshi, V. Vaish, E.-V. Talvala, E. Antunez, A. Barth, A. Adams, M. Horowitz, and M. Levoy, “High performance imaging using large camera arrays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 24, 765-776 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Völkel, R.

Wang, S.

H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C.-J. Yu, J. B. Geddes III, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature 454, 748-752(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warrant, E.

E. Warrant and D.-E. Nilsson, Invertebrate Vision (Cambridge U. Press2006).

Wilburn, B.

B. Wilburn, N. Joshi, V. Vaish, E.-V. Talvala, E. Antunez, A. Barth, A. Adams, M. Horowitz, and M. Levoy, “High performance imaging using large camera arrays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 24, 765-776 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Willet, R.

Wippermann, F.

Wippermann, F. C.

J. W. Duparré and F. C. Wippermann, “Micro-optical artificial compound eyes,” Bioinspir. Biomim. 1, R1-R16 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wong, H.-S. P.

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison of the angular resolution versus the field of view between single and multiple lenses.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of different types of natural eyes of invertebrates: (a) apposition compound eyes, (b) superposition compound eyes, and (c) eyelets.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Illustration of the update of MULTICAM with an array of prisms.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Projection by the relay lens of the clear area of the pinhole mask on the detector. The radius R is equal to r . d / d , where r is the radius of the corner of the pinhole mask, d is the distance between the pinhole mask and the relay lens, and d is the distance between the relay lens and the detector.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Illustration of the implementation of the optics in a mechanical mount.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Integration of MULTICAM with an array of prisms in a Dewar.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Illustration of the experimental setup for the characterization of MULTICAM with an array of prisms.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measurement of the PSF for each channel of MULTICAM with an array of prisms.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of two PSFs acquired at the center of channel 1 (see Fig. 8) (b) with or (a) without a bandpass filter.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Illustration of an image acquired by MULTICAM with an array of prisms, (b) assessment of the shifts between each channel, and (c) restoration of the whole scene.

Equations (3)

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θ = 2 arctan ( r f d d ) ,
[ ( θ 1 , x , θ 1 , y ) ; ( θ 2 , x , θ 1 , y ) ; ( θ 1 , x , θ 2 , y ) ; ( θ 2 , x , θ 2 , y ) ] [ ( FOV u 2 , FOV u 2 ) ; ( FOV u 2 , FOV u 2 ) ; ( FOV u 2 , FOV u 2 ) ; ( FOV u 2 , FOV u 2 ) ] ,
sin ( | θ 1 , x / y + θ 2 , x / y 2 | + A x / y ) = sin ( A x / y ) .

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