Abstract

Light scattering properties in such a highly turbid productive lake as Lake Taihu in China were examined through 118 samples collected during three cruises in November 2006, March 2007, and November 2007. The particulate scattering and backscattering coefficients were observed using WETLabs AC-S and ECO-BB9. A power model with a spectral exponent of 0.729 was used to simulate the particulate scattering coefficient (bp) spectra. It has a better performance than the linear model. Scattering parameters are more closely related to inorganic suspended matter (ISM) concentration than to other water components, such as total suspended matter (TSM), organic suspended matter (OSM), and chlorophyll a (Chla). This indicates that ISM dominates the scattering signal in the lake. Three discrepancies with oceanic/coastal waters are observed: (a) the backscattering ratio (b˜bp) decreases with an increase in the ISM concentration because of a highly strong contribution by ISM to bp; (b) the mass-specific scattering coefficient (bpm) exhibits a wider range of variability than that reported in previous studies, which can be attributed to considerable variation in the OSM and ISM distributions; (c) the particle size distribution slope (ξ) is mostly larger than 4.0 in Lake Taihu, whereas it is usually within 3.5–4.0 for marine particles. In addition, the bulk refractive index (n¯p) calculated according to the Twardowski et al. model [J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14129 (2001)JGREA20148-0227] indicates that some stations (n¯p<1.07) can be regarded as organic-particle dominant. Other stations with high ISM concentrations have a very small n¯p value mostly within 1.10–1.17. Overall, the knowledge on the scattering properties gained in this study broadens our understanding of water optics in highly turbid productive water columns.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (2)

A. A. Gitelson, G. Dall'Olmo, W. Moses, D. C. Rundquist, T. Barrow, T. R. Fisher, D. Gurlin, and J. Holz, “A simple semi-analytical model for remote estimation of chlorophyll-a in turbid waters: validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 3582-3593 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Snyder, R. A. Arnone, C. O. Davis, W. Goode, R. W. Gould, S. Ladner, G. Lamela, W. J. Rhea, R. Stavn, M. Sydor, and A. Weidemann, “Optical scattering and backscattering by organic and inorganic particulates in U. S. coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 47, 666-677 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

A. L. Whitmire, E. Boss, T. J. Cowles, and W. S. Pegau, “Spectral variability of the particulate backscattering ratio,” Opt. Express 15, 7019-7031 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Gitelson, J. F. Schalles, and C. M. Hladik, “Remote chlorophyll-a retrieval in turbid, productive estuaries: Cheapeake Bay case study,” Remote Sens. Environ. 109, 464-472 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Lubac and H. Loisel, “Variability and classification of remote sensing reflectance spectra in the Eastern English Channel and southern North Sea,” Remote Sens. Environ. 110, 45-58 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, J.-F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, “Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 739-752 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (9)

X. F. Yuan, H. H. Shi, and X. R. Wang, “Temporal and spatial distributions of periphytic algae in Lake Taihu,” J. Agro-Environ. Sci. 25, 1035-1040 (2006).

Y. W. Chen, K. N. Chen, and Y. H. Hu, “Discussion on possible error for phytoplankton chlorophyll-a concentration analysis using hot-ethanol extraction method,” J. Lake Sci. 18, 550-552 (2006).

A. Morel, B. Gentili, M. Chami, and J. Ras, “Bio-optical properties of high chlorophyll Case 1 waters and of yellow-substance-dominated Case 2 waters,” Deep-Sea Res. I 53, 1439-1459(2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. J. Song and J. W. Tang, “The study on the scattering properties in the Huanghai Sea and East China Sea,” Acta Oceanol. Sin. 28, 56-63 (2006).

H. Loisel, J.-M. Nicolas, A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, and A. Poteau, “Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C09024 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. McKee and A. Cunningham, “Identification and characterization of two optical water types in the Irish Sea from in situ inherent optical properties and seawater constituents,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 68, 305-316 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, and G. K. Korotaev, “Spectral variation of the volume scattering function measured over the full range of scattering angles in a coastal environment,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3605-3619 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. R. V. Zaneveld, C. M. Moore, A. H. Barnard, P. L. Donaghay, and B. Rhoades, “Hyperspectral temperature and salt dependencies of absorption by water and heavy water in the 400-750 nm spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5294-5309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Chami, D. Mckee, E. Leymarie, and G. Khomenko, “Influence of the angular shape of the volume-scattering function and multiple scattering on remote sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 45, 9210-9220 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

D. McKee and A. Cunningham, “Evidence for wavelength dependence of the scattering phase function and its implication for modeling radiance transfer in shelf seas,” Appl. Opt. 44, 126-135 (2005).
[PubMed]

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, P. L. Donaghay, and S. A. Freeman, “Use of optical scattering to discriminate particle types in coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1667-1680 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. 110, (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Dall'Olmo, A. A. Gitelson, D. C. Rundquist, B. Leavitt, T. Barrow, and J. C. Holz, “Assessing the potential of SeaWiFS and MODIS for estimating chlorophyll concentration in turbid productive waters using red and near-infrared bands,” Remote Sens. Environ. 96, 176-187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

Y. L. Zhang, B. Q. Qin, W. M. Chen, and L. C. Luo, “A study on total suspended matter in Lake Taihu,” Resource Environ. Yangtze Basin 13(3), 266-271 (2004).

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C01014 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843-859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

D. J. Keith, J. A. Yoder, and S. A. Freeman, “Spatial and temporal distribution of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island: implications for phytoplankton in coastal waters,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 55, 705-717 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Burd and G. A. Jackson, “Modeling steady-state particle size spectra,” Environmental Sci. Technol. 36, 323-327(2002).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, and E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1035-1050(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (7)

E. T. Baker, D. A. Tennant, R. A. Feely, G. T. Lebon, and S. L. Walker, “Field and laboratory studies on the effect of particle size and composition on optical backscattering measurements in hydrothermal plumes,” Deep-Sea Res. I 48, 593-604(2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Modelling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2929-2945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, M. S. Twardowski, and S. Herring, “Shape of the particulate beam attenuation spectrum and its relation to the size distribution of oceanic particles,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4885-4893(2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss and W. S. Pegau, “The relationship of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5503-5507 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M.S.Twardowski, E. Boss, J.B.MacDonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 1412914142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, “The spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9509-9516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7763-7780(2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

H. Loisel and A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: a reexamination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847-858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

E. Aas, “Refractive index of phytoplankton derived from its metabolite composition,” J. Plankton Res. 18, 2223-2249(1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. Hofmann and J. Dominik, “Turbidity and mass concentration of suspended matter in lake water: a comparison of two calibration methods,” Aquat. Sci. 57, 54-69 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

S. Green and N. Blough, “Optical absorption and fluorescence properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1903-1916 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O. Ulloa, S. Sathyendranath, and T. Platt, “Effect of the particle size-distribution on the backscattering ratio in seawater,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7070-7077 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. M. Moore, “The scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 44-55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1984 (1)

E. T. Baker and J. W. Lavelle, “The effect of particles size on the light attenuation coefficient of natural suspensions,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 8197-8203 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, and L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter in the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domain,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43-53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

A. Morel and L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709-722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

1972 (1)

K. L. Carder, R. D. Tomlinson, and G. F. Beardsley Jr., “A technique for the estimation of indices of refraction of marine phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 833-839(1972).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

H. Bader, “The hyperbolic distribution of particle sizes,” J. Geophys. Res. 75, 2822-2830 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Aas, E.

E. Aas, “Refractive index of phytoplankton derived from its metabolite composition,” J. Plankton Res. 18, 2223-2249(1996).
[CrossRef]

Ackleson, S. G.

Arnone, R. A.

Babin, M.

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843-859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bader, H.

H. Bader, “The hyperbolic distribution of particle sizes,” J. Geophys. Res. 75, 2822-2830 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Baker, E. T.

E. T. Baker, D. A. Tennant, R. A. Feely, G. T. Lebon, and S. L. Walker, “Field and laboratory studies on the effect of particle size and composition on optical backscattering measurements in hydrothermal plumes,” Deep-Sea Res. I 48, 593-604(2001).
[CrossRef]

E. T. Baker and J. W. Lavelle, “The effect of particles size on the light attenuation coefficient of natural suspensions,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 8197-8203 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Baratange, F.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C01014 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, A.

C. Moore, A. Barnard, and D. Hankins, Scattering Meter (BB9) User's Guide, Revision A (WET Labs, 2005), pp. 2-13.

C. Moore, A. Barnard, and D. Hankins, “Spectral Absorption and Attenuation Meter (ac-s) User's Guide, Revision A (WET Labs, 2004), pp. 5-20.

Barnard, A. H.

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. R. V. Zaneveld, C. M. Moore, A. H. Barnard, P. L. Donaghay, and B. Rhoades, “Hyperspectral temperature and salt dependencies of absorption by water and heavy water in the 400-750 nm spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5294-5309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, “The spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9509-9516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barrow, T.

A. A. Gitelson, G. Dall'Olmo, W. Moses, D. C. Rundquist, T. Barrow, T. R. Fisher, D. Gurlin, and J. Holz, “A simple semi-analytical model for remote estimation of chlorophyll-a in turbid waters: validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 3582-3593 (2008).
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G. Dall'Olmo, A. A. Gitelson, D. C. Rundquist, B. Leavitt, T. Barrow, and J. C. Holz, “Assessing the potential of SeaWiFS and MODIS for estimating chlorophyll concentration in turbid productive waters using red and near-infrared bands,” Remote Sens. Environ. 96, 176-187 (2005).
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M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. 110, (2005).
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H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, J.-F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, “Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 739-752 (2007).
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S. Green and N. Blough, “Optical absorption and fluorescence properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1903-1916 (1994).
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A. L. Whitmire, E. Boss, T. J. Cowles, and W. S. Pegau, “Spectral variability of the particulate backscattering ratio,” Opt. Express 15, 7019-7031 (2007).
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E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C01014 (2004).
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C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, and E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1035-1050(2002).
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E. Boss and W. S. Pegau, “The relationship of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5503-5507 (2001).
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D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Modelling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2929-2945 (2001).
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A. B. Burd and G. A. Jackson, “Modeling steady-state particle size spectra,” Environmental Sci. Technol. 36, 323-327(2002).
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K. L. Carder, R. D. Tomlinson, and G. F. Beardsley Jr., “A technique for the estimation of indices of refraction of marine phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 833-839(1972).
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A. Morel, B. Gentili, M. Chami, and J. Ras, “Bio-optical properties of high chlorophyll Case 1 waters and of yellow-substance-dominated Case 2 waters,” Deep-Sea Res. I 53, 1439-1459(2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, and G. K. Korotaev, “Spectral variation of the volume scattering function measured over the full range of scattering angles in a coastal environment,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3605-3619 (2006).
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M. Chami, D. Mckee, E. Leymarie, and G. Khomenko, “Influence of the angular shape of the volume-scattering function and multiple scattering on remote sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 45, 9210-9220 (2006).
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E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, “The spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9509-9516 (2001).
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Chen, W. M.

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B. Q. Qin, W. P. Hu, and W. M. Chen, The Process and Mechanism of Water Environment Evolvement in Taihu Lake (Science Press, 2004).

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Y. W. Chen, K. N. Chen, and Y. H. Hu, “Discussion on possible error for phytoplankton chlorophyll-a concentration analysis using hot-ethanol extraction method,” J. Lake Sci. 18, 550-552 (2006).

Churilova, T. Y.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. 110, (2005).
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A. A. Gitelson, G. Dall'Olmo, W. Moses, D. C. Rundquist, T. Barrow, T. R. Fisher, D. Gurlin, and J. Holz, “A simple semi-analytical model for remote estimation of chlorophyll-a in turbid waters: validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 3582-3593 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Dall'Olmo, A. A. Gitelson, D. C. Rundquist, B. Leavitt, T. Barrow, and J. C. Holz, “Assessing the potential of SeaWiFS and MODIS for estimating chlorophyll concentration in turbid productive waters using red and near-infrared bands,” Remote Sens. Environ. 96, 176-187 (2005).
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Dickey, T. D.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, “The spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9509-9516 (2001).
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Feely, R. A.

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M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843-859 (2003).
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A. A. Gitelson, G. Dall'Olmo, W. Moses, D. C. Rundquist, T. Barrow, T. R. Fisher, D. Gurlin, and J. Holz, “A simple semi-analytical model for remote estimation of chlorophyll-a in turbid waters: validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 3582-3593 (2008).
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M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843-859 (2003).
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E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, “The spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9509-9516 (2001).
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A. Morel, B. Gentili, M. Chami, and J. Ras, “Bio-optical properties of high chlorophyll Case 1 waters and of yellow-substance-dominated Case 2 waters,” Deep-Sea Res. I 53, 1439-1459(2006).
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A. A. Gitelson, G. Dall'Olmo, W. Moses, D. C. Rundquist, T. Barrow, T. R. Fisher, D. Gurlin, and J. Holz, “A simple semi-analytical model for remote estimation of chlorophyll-a in turbid waters: validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 3582-3593 (2008).
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A. A. Gitelson, J. F. Schalles, and C. M. Hladik, “Remote chlorophyll-a retrieval in turbid, productive estuaries: Cheapeake Bay case study,” Remote Sens. Environ. 109, 464-472 (2007).
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Gordon, H. R.

Gould, R. W.

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S. Green and N. Blough, “Optical absorption and fluorescence properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1903-1916 (1994).
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A. A. Gitelson, G. Dall'Olmo, W. Moses, D. C. Rundquist, T. Barrow, T. R. Fisher, D. Gurlin, and J. Holz, “A simple semi-analytical model for remote estimation of chlorophyll-a in turbid waters: validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 3582-3593 (2008).
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Hladik, C. M.

A. A. Gitelson, J. F. Schalles, and C. M. Hladik, “Remote chlorophyll-a retrieval in turbid, productive estuaries: Cheapeake Bay case study,” Remote Sens. Environ. 109, 464-472 (2007).
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A. Hofmann and J. Dominik, “Turbidity and mass concentration of suspended matter in lake water: a comparison of two calibration methods,” Aquat. Sci. 57, 54-69 (1995).
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A. A. Gitelson, G. Dall'Olmo, W. Moses, D. C. Rundquist, T. Barrow, T. R. Fisher, D. Gurlin, and J. Holz, “A simple semi-analytical model for remote estimation of chlorophyll-a in turbid waters: validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 3582-3593 (2008).
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Holz, J. C.

G. Dall'Olmo, A. A. Gitelson, D. C. Rundquist, B. Leavitt, T. Barrow, and J. C. Holz, “Assessing the potential of SeaWiFS and MODIS for estimating chlorophyll concentration in turbid productive waters using red and near-infrared bands,” Remote Sens. Environ. 96, 176-187 (2005).
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B. Q. Qin, W. P. Hu, and W. M. Chen, The Process and Mechanism of Water Environment Evolvement in Taihu Lake (Science Press, 2004).

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Y. W. Chen, K. N. Chen, and Y. H. Hu, “Discussion on possible error for phytoplankton chlorophyll-a concentration analysis using hot-ethanol extraction method,” J. Lake Sci. 18, 550-552 (2006).

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X. Huang, Eco-Investigation, Observation and Analysis of Lakes (Standard Press of China, 1999), pp. 77-99.

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A. B. Burd and G. A. Jackson, “Modeling steady-state particle size spectra,” Environmental Sci. Technol. 36, 323-327(2002).
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Keith, D. J.

D. J. Keith, J. A. Yoder, and S. A. Freeman, “Spatial and temporal distribution of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island: implications for phytoplankton in coastal waters,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 55, 705-717 (2002).
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Khomenko, G. A.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, and G. K. Korotaev, “Spectral variation of the volume scattering function measured over the full range of scattering angles in a coastal environment,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3605-3619 (2006).
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M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. 110, (2005).
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E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C01014 (2004).
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M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, and G. K. Korotaev, “Spectral variation of the volume scattering function measured over the full range of scattering angles in a coastal environment,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3605-3619 (2006).
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M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. 110, (2005).
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[CrossRef]

Lebon, G. T.

E. T. Baker, D. A. Tennant, R. A. Feely, G. T. Lebon, and S. L. Walker, “Field and laboratory studies on the effect of particle size and composition on optical backscattering measurements in hydrothermal plumes,” Deep-Sea Res. I 48, 593-604(2001).
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Lee, M.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C01014 (2004).
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Lee, M. E.-G.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, and G. K. Korotaev, “Spectral variation of the volume scattering function measured over the full range of scattering angles in a coastal environment,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3605-3619 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. 110, (2005).
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Loisel, H.

H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, J.-F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, “Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 739-752 (2007).
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B. Lubac and H. Loisel, “Variability and classification of remote sensing reflectance spectra in the Eastern English Channel and southern North Sea,” Remote Sens. Environ. 110, 45-58 (2007).
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H. Loisel, J.-M. Nicolas, A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, and A. Poteau, “Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C09024 (2006).
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H. Loisel and A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: a reexamination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847-858 (1998).
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B. Lubac and H. Loisel, “Variability and classification of remote sensing reflectance spectra in the Eastern English Channel and southern North Sea,” Remote Sens. Environ. 110, 45-58 (2007).
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Y. L. Zhang, B. Q. Qin, W. M. Chen, and L. C. Luo, “A study on total suspended matter in Lake Taihu,” Resource Environ. Yangtze Basin 13(3), 266-271 (2004).

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A. Morel and S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7763-7780(2001).
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Martynov, O. V.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, and G. K. Korotaev, “Spectral variation of the volume scattering function measured over the full range of scattering angles in a coastal environment,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3605-3619 (2006).
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M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. 110, (2005).
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Mériaux, X.

H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, J.-F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, “Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 739-752 (2007).
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Moore, C.

C. Moore, A. Barnard, and D. Hankins, Scattering Meter (BB9) User's Guide, Revision A (WET Labs, 2005), pp. 2-13.

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Moore, C. M.

Morel, A.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, M. Chami, and J. Ras, “Bio-optical properties of high chlorophyll Case 1 waters and of yellow-substance-dominated Case 2 waters,” Deep-Sea Res. I 53, 1439-1459(2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843-859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7763-7780(2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Modelling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2929-2945 (2001).
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H. Loisel and A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: a reexamination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847-858 (1998).
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A. Bricaud, A. Morel, and L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter in the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domain,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43-53 (1981).
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A. A. Gitelson, G. Dall'Olmo, W. Moses, D. C. Rundquist, T. Barrow, T. R. Fisher, D. Gurlin, and J. Holz, “A simple semi-analytical model for remote estimation of chlorophyll-a in turbid waters: validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 3582-3593 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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H. Loisel, J.-M. Nicolas, A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, and A. Poteau, “Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C09024 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pegau, W. S.

A. L. Whitmire, E. Boss, T. J. Cowles, and W. S. Pegau, “Spectral variability of the particulate backscattering ratio,” Opt. Express 15, 7019-7031 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C01014 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, “The spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9509-9516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss and W. S. Pegau, “The relationship of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5503-5507 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, D. Gray, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Absorption of visible and near-infrared light in water: the dependence on temperature and salinity,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6035-6046 (1997).
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Poteau, A.

H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, J.-F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, “Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 739-752 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, J.-M. Nicolas, A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, and A. Poteau, “Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C09024 (2006).
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Prieur, L.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, and L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter in the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domain,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43-53 (1981).
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[CrossRef]

Qin, B. Q.

Y. L. Zhang, B. Q. Qin, W. M. Chen, and L. C. Luo, “A study on total suspended matter in Lake Taihu,” Resource Environ. Yangtze Basin 13(3), 266-271 (2004).

B. Q. Qin, W. P. Hu, and W. M. Chen, The Process and Mechanism of Water Environment Evolvement in Taihu Lake (Science Press, 2004).

Ras, J.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, M. Chami, and J. Ras, “Bio-optical properties of high chlorophyll Case 1 waters and of yellow-substance-dominated Case 2 waters,” Deep-Sea Res. I 53, 1439-1459(2006).
[CrossRef]

Rhea, W. J.

Rhoades, B.

Rundquist, D. C.

A. A. Gitelson, G. Dall'Olmo, W. Moses, D. C. Rundquist, T. Barrow, T. R. Fisher, D. Gurlin, and J. Holz, “A simple semi-analytical model for remote estimation of chlorophyll-a in turbid waters: validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 3582-3593 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Dall'Olmo, A. A. Gitelson, D. C. Rundquist, B. Leavitt, T. Barrow, and J. C. Holz, “Assessing the potential of SeaWiFS and MODIS for estimating chlorophyll concentration in turbid productive waters using red and near-infrared bands,” Remote Sens. Environ. 96, 176-187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sathyendranath, S.

Schalles, J. F.

A. A. Gitelson, J. F. Schalles, and C. M. Hladik, “Remote chlorophyll-a retrieval in turbid, productive estuaries: Cheapeake Bay case study,” Remote Sens. Environ. 109, 464-472 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sciandra, A.

H. Loisel, J.-M. Nicolas, A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, and A. Poteau, “Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C09024 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shi, H. H.

X. F. Yuan, H. H. Shi, and X. R. Wang, “Temporal and spatial distributions of periphytic algae in Lake Taihu,” J. Agro-Environ. Sci. 25, 1035-1040 (2006).

Shybanov, E.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C01014 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shybanov, E. B.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, and G. K. Korotaev, “Spectral variation of the volume scattering function measured over the full range of scattering angles in a coastal environment,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3605-3619 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. 110, (2005).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, W. A.

Song, Q. J.

Q. J. Song and J. W. Tang, “The study on the scattering properties in the Huanghai Sea and East China Sea,” Acta Oceanol. Sin. 28, 56-63 (2006).

Spinrad, R. W.

Stavn, R.

Stramski, D.

H. Loisel, J.-M. Nicolas, A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, and A. Poteau, “Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C09024 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843-859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Modelling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2929-2945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, J. M.

Sundman, L. K.

Sydor, M.

Tang, J. W.

Q. J. Song and J. W. Tang, “The study on the scattering properties in the Huanghai Sea and East China Sea,” Acta Oceanol. Sin. 28, 56-63 (2006).

Tennant, D. A.

E. T. Baker, D. A. Tennant, R. A. Feely, G. T. Lebon, and S. L. Walker, “Field and laboratory studies on the effect of particle size and composition on optical backscattering measurements in hydrothermal plumes,” Deep-Sea Res. I 48, 593-604(2001).
[CrossRef]

Tomlinson, R. D.

K. L. Carder, R. D. Tomlinson, and G. F. Beardsley Jr., “A technique for the estimation of indices of refraction of marine phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 833-839(1972).
[CrossRef]

Twardowski, M.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C01014 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Twardowski, M. S.

Ulloa, O.

Volz, F.

F. Volz, “Die Optik und Meterologie der atmospharischen Trubung,” in Ber. des Detsch. Wetterdienstes 13 (Bad Kissingen, 1954), Vol. 2, pp. 3-47.

Walker, S. L.

E. T. Baker, D. A. Tennant, R. A. Feely, G. T. Lebon, and S. L. Walker, “Field and laboratory studies on the effect of particle size and composition on optical backscattering measurements in hydrothermal plumes,” Deep-Sea Res. I 48, 593-604(2001).
[CrossRef]

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X. F. Yuan, H. H. Shi, and X. R. Wang, “Temporal and spatial distributions of periphytic algae in Lake Taihu,” J. Agro-Environ. Sci. 25, 1035-1040 (2006).

Weidemann, A.

Whitmire, A. L.

Yoder, J. A.

D. J. Keith, J. A. Yoder, and S. A. Freeman, “Spatial and temporal distribution of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island: implications for phytoplankton in coastal waters,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 55, 705-717 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, X. F.

X. F. Yuan, H. H. Shi, and X. R. Wang, “Temporal and spatial distributions of periphytic algae in Lake Taihu,” J. Agro-Environ. Sci. 25, 1035-1040 (2006).

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M.S.Twardowski, E. Boss, J.B.MacDonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 1412914142 (2001).
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Y. L. Zhang, B. Q. Qin, W. M. Chen, and L. C. Luo, “A study on total suspended matter in Lake Taihu,” Resource Environ. Yangtze Basin 13(3), 266-271 (2004).

Acta Oceanol. Sin. (1)

Q. J. Song and J. W. Tang, “The study on the scattering properties in the Huanghai Sea and East China Sea,” Acta Oceanol. Sin. 28, 56-63 (2006).

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R. W. Gould Jr., R. A. Arnone, and P. M. Martinolich, “Spectral dependence of the scattering coefficient in case 1 and case 2 waters,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2377-2383 (1999).
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[CrossRef]

E. Boss, M. S. Twardowski, and S. Herring, “Shape of the particulate beam attenuation spectrum and its relation to the size distribution of oceanic particles,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4885-4893(2001).
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E. Boss and W. S. Pegau, “The relationship of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5503-5507 (2001).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, and G. K. Korotaev, “Spectral variation of the volume scattering function measured over the full range of scattering angles in a coastal environment,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3605-3619 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. R. V. Zaneveld, C. M. Moore, A. H. Barnard, P. L. Donaghay, and B. Rhoades, “Hyperspectral temperature and salt dependencies of absorption by water and heavy water in the 400-750 nm spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5294-5309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Chami, D. Mckee, E. Leymarie, and G. Khomenko, “Influence of the angular shape of the volume-scattering function and multiple scattering on remote sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 45, 9210-9220 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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E. T. Baker, D. A. Tennant, R. A. Feely, G. T. Lebon, and S. L. Walker, “Field and laboratory studies on the effect of particle size and composition on optical backscattering measurements in hydrothermal plumes,” Deep-Sea Res. I 48, 593-604(2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, M. Chami, and J. Ras, “Bio-optical properties of high chlorophyll Case 1 waters and of yellow-substance-dominated Case 2 waters,” Deep-Sea Res. I 53, 1439-1459(2006).
[CrossRef]

Environmental Sci. Technol. (1)

A. B. Burd and G. A. Jackson, “Modeling steady-state particle size spectra,” Environmental Sci. Technol. 36, 323-327(2002).
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D. McKee and A. Cunningham, “Identification and characterization of two optical water types in the Irish Sea from in situ inherent optical properties and seawater constituents,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 68, 305-316 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Keith, J. A. Yoder, and S. A. Freeman, “Spatial and temporal distribution of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island: implications for phytoplankton in coastal waters,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 55, 705-717 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Agro-Environ. Sci. (1)

X. F. Yuan, H. H. Shi, and X. R. Wang, “Temporal and spatial distributions of periphytic algae in Lake Taihu,” J. Agro-Environ. Sci. 25, 1035-1040 (2006).

J. Geophys. Res. (8)

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, C01014 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M.S.Twardowski, E. Boss, J.B.MacDonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 1412914142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, “The spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9509-9516 (2001).
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[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, J.-M. Nicolas, A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, and A. Poteau, “Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C09024 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. 110, (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7763-7780(2001).
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[CrossRef]

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Proc. SPIE (1)

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B. Lubac and H. Loisel, “Variability and classification of remote sensing reflectance spectra in the Eastern English Channel and southern North Sea,” Remote Sens. Environ. 110, 45-58 (2007).
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A. A. Gitelson, J. F. Schalles, and C. M. Hladik, “Remote chlorophyll-a retrieval in turbid, productive estuaries: Cheapeake Bay case study,” Remote Sens. Environ. 109, 464-472 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Dall'Olmo, A. A. Gitelson, D. C. Rundquist, B. Leavitt, T. Barrow, and J. C. Holz, “Assessing the potential of SeaWiFS and MODIS for estimating chlorophyll concentration in turbid productive waters using red and near-infrared bands,” Remote Sens. Environ. 96, 176-187 (2005).
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[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Location of the study area in China and distribution of sample stations. N represents latitude north, and E represents longitude east.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

MAPE of linear and power models describing the particulate scattering spectra.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured and simulated b p , c p , and b b p spectra at a station.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scatterplots of ISM and scattering parameters: (a) b p ( 532 ) versus ISM, (b) b b p ( 532 ) versus ISM, (c) b ˜ b p ( 532 ) versus ISM.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scatterplots of Chla and backscattering ratio b ˜ b p ( 532 ) .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Distribution of the radiance contribution by multiple scattering at all stations.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

OSM and ISM distribution at some stations. The differences between ISM and OSM at these stations are very big (here, OSM : ISM or ISM : OSM ratios 3 ). The serial numbers on the x axis are not meaningful and just temporary numbers for the stations of big difference between ISM and OSM .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Particulate backscattering ratio ( b ˜ b p ) versus PSD slope (ξ) in Lake Taihu waters (the reference wavelength is 532 nm ). The solid curves overlaid on this plot represent the refractive index contours as calculated by the model of Twardowski et al. (2001). The refractive index contours shown range from 1.02 (bottom) to 1.20 (top) with a gradation of 0.02. The open triangles and black rhombuses represent the sets of data with high ratios of OSM / TSM > 0.5 and ISM / TSM > 0.5 , respectively.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Descriptive Statistics of the Optically Active Substances and Scattering Parameters a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Correlations between Scattering Parameters and Water Component Concentrations a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Variations of Particulate Backscattering Ratio in Several Typical Studies

Equations (19)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

b p = c p + g a p + g ,
β meas ( 117 ° ) = sf · ( output d c ) ,
β corr ( 117 ° ) = β meas ( 117 ° ) exp ( 0.039 a ) ,
β p ( 117 ° ) = β corr ( 117 ° ) β w ( 117 ° ) ,
b b p = 2 π X β p ( 117 ° ) .
c p ( λ ) = A λ γ ,
ξ = γ + 3 0.5 exp ( 6 γ ) .
n ¯ p = 1 + b ˜ b p 0.5377 + 0.4867 ( ξ 3 ) 2 [ 1.4676 + 2.2950 ( ξ 3 ) 2 + 2.3113 ( ξ 3 ) 4 ] .
b p ( λ ) = M ( λ ) b p ( 555 ) .
b p ( λ ) = ( 0.0012 λ + 1.7037 ) b p ( 555 ) ,
b p ( λ ) = b p ( 555 ) [ λ 555 ] 0.729 .
MAPE = 1 n Σ i 1 n | b p ( λ ) i b p ( λ ) i b p ( λ ) i | ,
c p ( λ ) = c p ( 555 ) [ λ 555 ] 1.066 .
b b p ( λ ) = b b p ( 532 ) [ λ 532 ] 3.064 ,
b ˜ b p ( λ ) = b ˜ b p ( 532 ) [ λ 532 ] 2.335 .
b p ( 532 ) = 3.355 [ ISM ] 0.626 ( R 2 = 0.797 ) ,
b b p ( 532 ) = 0.140 [ ISM ] 0.161 ( R 2 = 0.432 ) ,
b ˜ b p ( 532 ) = 0.042 [ ISM ] 0.465 ( R 2 = 0.757 ) .
b ˜ b p ( 532 ) = 0.016 [ Chla ] 0.097 ( R 2 = 0.103 ) .

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