Abstract

We present a Fourier-domain, multiplexed low coherence interferometry (LCI) instrument designed for application to intravaginal measurement of microbicidal gel distribution. Microbicide gels are topical products developed to combat sexually transmitted diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, by acting as delivery vehicles for active drugs and barrier layers to vaginal tissue. Measuring microbicide gel vaginal distribution is key to understanding the gel’s biological effectiveness. This study presents a new LCI system for measuring gel distribution that uses six multiplexed channels to achieve broad area scanning without the need for a mechanical scanner. The presented results characterize the performance of the Fourier-domain multiplexed LCI system in measuring gel thickness distribution. The system demonstrates good optical signal-to-noise ratio, steady performance across all channels, negligible cross talk, and accurate measurement with micrometer scale resolution. The potential impact of using a multiplexed LCI system for in vivo measurements is also discussed.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. K. Howett and J. P. Kuhl, “Microbicides for prevention of transmission of sexually transmitted diseases,” Curr. Pharm. Des. 11, 3731-3746 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. L. Rowell, D. Fairhurst, S. Key, A. Morfesis, I. M. Monahan, M. Mitchnick, and R. A. Shattock, “Microbicides for HIV/AIDS. 1. Electrophoretic fingerprinting the H9 cell model system,” Langmuir 21, 10165-10171 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. O. J. D'cruz and F. M. Uckun, “Clinical development of microbicides for the prevention of HIV infection,” Curr. Pharm. Des. 10, 315-336 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Garg, K. R. Tambwekar, K. Vermani, R. Kandarapu, A. Garg, D. P. Waller, and L. J. D. Zaneveld, “Development pharmaceutics of microbicide formulations. Part II: Formulation, evaluation, and challenges,” AIDS Patient Care and Standards 17, 377-399 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Stone, “Microbicides: A new approach to preventing HIV and other sexually transmitted infections,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 1, 977-985 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. R. Geonnotti and D. F. Katz, “Dynamics of HIV neutralization by a microbicide formulation layer: Biophysical fundamentals and transport theory,” Biophys. J. 91, 2121-2130(2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. H. Henderson, G. M. Couchman, D. K. Walmer, J. J. Peters, D. H. Owen, M. A. Brown, M. L. Lavine, and D. F. Katz, “Optical imaging and analysis of human vaginal coating by drug delivery gels,” Contraception 75, 142-151 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. K. Mauck, D. Katz, E. P. Sandefer, M. D. Nasution, M. Henderson, G. A. Digenis, I. Su, R. Page, and K. Barnhart, “Vaginal distribution of Replens (R) and K-Y (R) Jelly using three imaging techniques,” Contraception 77, 195-204(2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. H. Henderson, J. J. Peters, D. K. Walmer, G. M. Couchman, and D. F. Katz, “Optical instrument for measurement of vaginal coating thickness by drug delivery formulations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 034302 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. T. Barnhart, E. S. Pretorius, K. Timbers, D. Shera, M. Shabbout, and D. Malamud, “In vivo distribution of a vaginal gel: MRI evaluation of the effects of gel volume, time and simulated intercourse,” Contraception 70, 498-505 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Brown, G. Hooper, C. J. Kenyon, S. Haines, J. Burt, J. M. Humphries, S. P. Newman, S. S. Davis, R. A. Sparrow, and I. R. Wilding, “Spreading and retention of vaginal formulations in post-menopausal women as assessed by gamma scintigraphy,” Pharm. Res. 14, 1073-1078 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. E. Braun, J. D. Boyer, M. H. Henderson, D. F. Katz, and A. Wax, “Label-free measurement of microbicidal gel thickness using low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 020504 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Y. Luo, L. J. Arauz, J. E. Castillo, J. K. Barton, and R. K. Kostuk, “Parallel optical coherence tomography system,” Appl. Opt. 46, 8291-8297 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography--principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. K. E. Braun and A. Wax, “Improved simulations for measuring microbicidal gel thickness using low-coherence interferometry,” in Frontiers in Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper FTuE4.
  17. M. Brezinski, Optical Coherence Tomography: Principles and Applications (Elsevier, 2006).
  18. T. Collier, M. Follen, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Sources of scattering in cervical tissue: determination of the scattering coefficient by confocal microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 44, 2072-2081 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. V. V. Tuchin, Tissue Optics: Light Scattering Methods and Instruments for Medical Diagnosis (SPIE, 2000).

2008 (1)

C. K. Mauck, D. Katz, E. P. Sandefer, M. D. Nasution, M. Henderson, G. A. Digenis, I. Su, R. Page, and K. Barnhart, “Vaginal distribution of Replens (R) and K-Y (R) Jelly using three imaging techniques,” Contraception 77, 195-204(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

M. H. Henderson, G. M. Couchman, D. K. Walmer, J. J. Peters, D. H. Owen, M. A. Brown, M. L. Lavine, and D. F. Katz, “Optical imaging and analysis of human vaginal coating by drug delivery gels,” Contraception 75, 142-151 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Luo, L. J. Arauz, J. E. Castillo, J. K. Barton, and R. K. Kostuk, “Parallel optical coherence tomography system,” Appl. Opt. 46, 8291-8297 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

A. R. Geonnotti and D. F. Katz, “Dynamics of HIV neutralization by a microbicide formulation layer: Biophysical fundamentals and transport theory,” Biophys. J. 91, 2121-2130(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Braun and A. Wax, “Improved simulations for measuring microbicidal gel thickness using low-coherence interferometry,” in Frontiers in Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper FTuE4.

M. Brezinski, Optical Coherence Tomography: Principles and Applications (Elsevier, 2006).

K. E. Braun, J. D. Boyer, M. H. Henderson, D. F. Katz, and A. Wax, “Label-free measurement of microbicidal gel thickness using low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 020504 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

T. Collier, M. Follen, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Sources of scattering in cervical tissue: determination of the scattering coefficient by confocal microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 44, 2072-2081 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Henderson, J. J. Peters, D. K. Walmer, G. M. Couchman, and D. F. Katz, “Optical instrument for measurement of vaginal coating thickness by drug delivery formulations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 034302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Howett and J. P. Kuhl, “Microbicides for prevention of transmission of sexually transmitted diseases,” Curr. Pharm. Des. 11, 3731-3746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Rowell, D. Fairhurst, S. Key, A. Morfesis, I. M. Monahan, M. Mitchnick, and R. A. Shattock, “Microbicides for HIV/AIDS. 1. Electrophoretic fingerprinting the H9 cell model system,” Langmuir 21, 10165-10171 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

O. J. D'cruz and F. M. Uckun, “Clinical development of microbicides for the prevention of HIV infection,” Curr. Pharm. Des. 10, 315-336 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. T. Barnhart, E. S. Pretorius, K. Timbers, D. Shera, M. Shabbout, and D. Malamud, “In vivo distribution of a vaginal gel: MRI evaluation of the effects of gel volume, time and simulated intercourse,” Contraception 70, 498-505 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

S. Garg, K. R. Tambwekar, K. Vermani, R. Kandarapu, A. Garg, D. P. Waller, and L. J. D. Zaneveld, “Development pharmaceutics of microbicide formulations. Part II: Formulation, evaluation, and challenges,” AIDS Patient Care and Standards 17, 377-399 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography--principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. Stone, “Microbicides: A new approach to preventing HIV and other sexually transmitted infections,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 1, 977-985 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

V. V. Tuchin, Tissue Optics: Light Scattering Methods and Instruments for Medical Diagnosis (SPIE, 2000).

1997 (1)

J. Brown, G. Hooper, C. J. Kenyon, S. Haines, J. Burt, J. M. Humphries, S. P. Newman, S. S. Davis, R. A. Sparrow, and I. R. Wilding, “Spreading and retention of vaginal formulations in post-menopausal women as assessed by gamma scintigraphy,” Pharm. Res. 14, 1073-1078 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arauz, L. J.

Barnhart, K.

C. K. Mauck, D. Katz, E. P. Sandefer, M. D. Nasution, M. Henderson, G. A. Digenis, I. Su, R. Page, and K. Barnhart, “Vaginal distribution of Replens (R) and K-Y (R) Jelly using three imaging techniques,” Contraception 77, 195-204(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnhart, K. T.

K. T. Barnhart, E. S. Pretorius, K. Timbers, D. Shera, M. Shabbout, and D. Malamud, “In vivo distribution of a vaginal gel: MRI evaluation of the effects of gel volume, time and simulated intercourse,” Contraception 70, 498-505 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barton, J. K.

Boyer, J. D.

K. E. Braun, J. D. Boyer, M. H. Henderson, D. F. Katz, and A. Wax, “Label-free measurement of microbicidal gel thickness using low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 020504 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braun, K. E.

K. E. Braun, J. D. Boyer, M. H. Henderson, D. F. Katz, and A. Wax, “Label-free measurement of microbicidal gel thickness using low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 020504 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Braun and A. Wax, “Improved simulations for measuring microbicidal gel thickness using low-coherence interferometry,” in Frontiers in Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper FTuE4.

Brezinski, M.

M. Brezinski, Optical Coherence Tomography: Principles and Applications (Elsevier, 2006).

Brown, J.

J. Brown, G. Hooper, C. J. Kenyon, S. Haines, J. Burt, J. M. Humphries, S. P. Newman, S. S. Davis, R. A. Sparrow, and I. R. Wilding, “Spreading and retention of vaginal formulations in post-menopausal women as assessed by gamma scintigraphy,” Pharm. Res. 14, 1073-1078 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, M. A.

M. H. Henderson, G. M. Couchman, D. K. Walmer, J. J. Peters, D. H. Owen, M. A. Brown, M. L. Lavine, and D. F. Katz, “Optical imaging and analysis of human vaginal coating by drug delivery gels,” Contraception 75, 142-151 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burt, J.

J. Brown, G. Hooper, C. J. Kenyon, S. Haines, J. Burt, J. M. Humphries, S. P. Newman, S. S. Davis, R. A. Sparrow, and I. R. Wilding, “Spreading and retention of vaginal formulations in post-menopausal women as assessed by gamma scintigraphy,” Pharm. Res. 14, 1073-1078 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castillo, J. E.

Collier, T.

Couchman, G. M.

M. H. Henderson, G. M. Couchman, D. K. Walmer, J. J. Peters, D. H. Owen, M. A. Brown, M. L. Lavine, and D. F. Katz, “Optical imaging and analysis of human vaginal coating by drug delivery gels,” Contraception 75, 142-151 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Henderson, J. J. Peters, D. K. Walmer, G. M. Couchman, and D. F. Katz, “Optical instrument for measurement of vaginal coating thickness by drug delivery formulations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 034302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Davis, S. S.

J. Brown, G. Hooper, C. J. Kenyon, S. Haines, J. Burt, J. M. Humphries, S. P. Newman, S. S. Davis, R. A. Sparrow, and I. R. Wilding, “Spreading and retention of vaginal formulations in post-menopausal women as assessed by gamma scintigraphy,” Pharm. Res. 14, 1073-1078 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D'cruz, O. J.

O. J. D'cruz and F. M. Uckun, “Clinical development of microbicides for the prevention of HIV infection,” Curr. Pharm. Des. 10, 315-336 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Digenis, G. A.

C. K. Mauck, D. Katz, E. P. Sandefer, M. D. Nasution, M. Henderson, G. A. Digenis, I. Su, R. Page, and K. Barnhart, “Vaginal distribution of Replens (R) and K-Y (R) Jelly using three imaging techniques,” Contraception 77, 195-204(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography--principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fairhurst, D.

R. L. Rowell, D. Fairhurst, S. Key, A. Morfesis, I. M. Monahan, M. Mitchnick, and R. A. Shattock, “Microbicides for HIV/AIDS. 1. Electrophoretic fingerprinting the H9 cell model system,” Langmuir 21, 10165-10171 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography--principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Follen, M.

Garg, A.

S. Garg, K. R. Tambwekar, K. Vermani, R. Kandarapu, A. Garg, D. P. Waller, and L. J. D. Zaneveld, “Development pharmaceutics of microbicide formulations. Part II: Formulation, evaluation, and challenges,” AIDS Patient Care and Standards 17, 377-399 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Garg, S.

S. Garg, K. R. Tambwekar, K. Vermani, R. Kandarapu, A. Garg, D. P. Waller, and L. J. D. Zaneveld, “Development pharmaceutics of microbicide formulations. Part II: Formulation, evaluation, and challenges,” AIDS Patient Care and Standards 17, 377-399 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Geonnotti, A. R.

A. R. Geonnotti and D. F. Katz, “Dynamics of HIV neutralization by a microbicide formulation layer: Biophysical fundamentals and transport theory,” Biophys. J. 91, 2121-2130(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haines, S.

J. Brown, G. Hooper, C. J. Kenyon, S. Haines, J. Burt, J. M. Humphries, S. P. Newman, S. S. Davis, R. A. Sparrow, and I. R. Wilding, “Spreading and retention of vaginal formulations in post-menopausal women as assessed by gamma scintigraphy,” Pharm. Res. 14, 1073-1078 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henderson, M.

C. K. Mauck, D. Katz, E. P. Sandefer, M. D. Nasution, M. Henderson, G. A. Digenis, I. Su, R. Page, and K. Barnhart, “Vaginal distribution of Replens (R) and K-Y (R) Jelly using three imaging techniques,” Contraception 77, 195-204(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henderson, M. H.

M. H. Henderson, G. M. Couchman, D. K. Walmer, J. J. Peters, D. H. Owen, M. A. Brown, M. L. Lavine, and D. F. Katz, “Optical imaging and analysis of human vaginal coating by drug delivery gels,” Contraception 75, 142-151 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Braun, J. D. Boyer, M. H. Henderson, D. F. Katz, and A. Wax, “Label-free measurement of microbicidal gel thickness using low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 020504 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Henderson, J. J. Peters, D. K. Walmer, G. M. Couchman, and D. F. Katz, “Optical instrument for measurement of vaginal coating thickness by drug delivery formulations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 034302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography--principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hooper, G.

J. Brown, G. Hooper, C. J. Kenyon, S. Haines, J. Burt, J. M. Humphries, S. P. Newman, S. S. Davis, R. A. Sparrow, and I. R. Wilding, “Spreading and retention of vaginal formulations in post-menopausal women as assessed by gamma scintigraphy,” Pharm. Res. 14, 1073-1078 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Howett, M. K.

M. K. Howett and J. P. Kuhl, “Microbicides for prevention of transmission of sexually transmitted diseases,” Curr. Pharm. Des. 11, 3731-3746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Humphries, J. M.

J. Brown, G. Hooper, C. J. Kenyon, S. Haines, J. Burt, J. M. Humphries, S. P. Newman, S. S. Davis, R. A. Sparrow, and I. R. Wilding, “Spreading and retention of vaginal formulations in post-menopausal women as assessed by gamma scintigraphy,” Pharm. Res. 14, 1073-1078 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kandarapu, R.

S. Garg, K. R. Tambwekar, K. Vermani, R. Kandarapu, A. Garg, D. P. Waller, and L. J. D. Zaneveld, “Development pharmaceutics of microbicide formulations. Part II: Formulation, evaluation, and challenges,” AIDS Patient Care and Standards 17, 377-399 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Katz, D.

C. K. Mauck, D. Katz, E. P. Sandefer, M. D. Nasution, M. Henderson, G. A. Digenis, I. Su, R. Page, and K. Barnhart, “Vaginal distribution of Replens (R) and K-Y (R) Jelly using three imaging techniques,” Contraception 77, 195-204(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katz, D. F.

M. H. Henderson, G. M. Couchman, D. K. Walmer, J. J. Peters, D. H. Owen, M. A. Brown, M. L. Lavine, and D. F. Katz, “Optical imaging and analysis of human vaginal coating by drug delivery gels,” Contraception 75, 142-151 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Geonnotti and D. F. Katz, “Dynamics of HIV neutralization by a microbicide formulation layer: Biophysical fundamentals and transport theory,” Biophys. J. 91, 2121-2130(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Braun, J. D. Boyer, M. H. Henderson, D. F. Katz, and A. Wax, “Label-free measurement of microbicidal gel thickness using low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 020504 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Henderson, J. J. Peters, D. K. Walmer, G. M. Couchman, and D. F. Katz, “Optical instrument for measurement of vaginal coating thickness by drug delivery formulations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 034302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kenyon, C. J.

J. Brown, G. Hooper, C. J. Kenyon, S. Haines, J. Burt, J. M. Humphries, S. P. Newman, S. S. Davis, R. A. Sparrow, and I. R. Wilding, “Spreading and retention of vaginal formulations in post-menopausal women as assessed by gamma scintigraphy,” Pharm. Res. 14, 1073-1078 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Key, S.

R. L. Rowell, D. Fairhurst, S. Key, A. Morfesis, I. M. Monahan, M. Mitchnick, and R. A. Shattock, “Microbicides for HIV/AIDS. 1. Electrophoretic fingerprinting the H9 cell model system,” Langmuir 21, 10165-10171 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kostuk, R. K.

Kuhl, J. P.

M. K. Howett and J. P. Kuhl, “Microbicides for prevention of transmission of sexually transmitted diseases,” Curr. Pharm. Des. 11, 3731-3746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasser, T.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography--principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lavine, M. L.

M. H. Henderson, G. M. Couchman, D. K. Walmer, J. J. Peters, D. H. Owen, M. A. Brown, M. L. Lavine, and D. F. Katz, “Optical imaging and analysis of human vaginal coating by drug delivery gels,” Contraception 75, 142-151 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R.

Luo, Y.

Malamud, D.

K. T. Barnhart, E. S. Pretorius, K. Timbers, D. Shera, M. Shabbout, and D. Malamud, “In vivo distribution of a vaginal gel: MRI evaluation of the effects of gel volume, time and simulated intercourse,” Contraception 70, 498-505 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malpica, A.

Mauck, C. K.

C. K. Mauck, D. Katz, E. P. Sandefer, M. D. Nasution, M. Henderson, G. A. Digenis, I. Su, R. Page, and K. Barnhart, “Vaginal distribution of Replens (R) and K-Y (R) Jelly using three imaging techniques,” Contraception 77, 195-204(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitchnick, M.

R. L. Rowell, D. Fairhurst, S. Key, A. Morfesis, I. M. Monahan, M. Mitchnick, and R. A. Shattock, “Microbicides for HIV/AIDS. 1. Electrophoretic fingerprinting the H9 cell model system,” Langmuir 21, 10165-10171 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monahan, I. M.

R. L. Rowell, D. Fairhurst, S. Key, A. Morfesis, I. M. Monahan, M. Mitchnick, and R. A. Shattock, “Microbicides for HIV/AIDS. 1. Electrophoretic fingerprinting the H9 cell model system,” Langmuir 21, 10165-10171 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morfesis, A.

R. L. Rowell, D. Fairhurst, S. Key, A. Morfesis, I. M. Monahan, M. Mitchnick, and R. A. Shattock, “Microbicides for HIV/AIDS. 1. Electrophoretic fingerprinting the H9 cell model system,” Langmuir 21, 10165-10171 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nasution, M. D.

C. K. Mauck, D. Katz, E. P. Sandefer, M. D. Nasution, M. Henderson, G. A. Digenis, I. Su, R. Page, and K. Barnhart, “Vaginal distribution of Replens (R) and K-Y (R) Jelly using three imaging techniques,” Contraception 77, 195-204(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Newman, S. P.

J. Brown, G. Hooper, C. J. Kenyon, S. Haines, J. Burt, J. M. Humphries, S. P. Newman, S. S. Davis, R. A. Sparrow, and I. R. Wilding, “Spreading and retention of vaginal formulations in post-menopausal women as assessed by gamma scintigraphy,” Pharm. Res. 14, 1073-1078 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Owen, D. H.

M. H. Henderson, G. M. Couchman, D. K. Walmer, J. J. Peters, D. H. Owen, M. A. Brown, M. L. Lavine, and D. F. Katz, “Optical imaging and analysis of human vaginal coating by drug delivery gels,” Contraception 75, 142-151 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Page, R.

C. K. Mauck, D. Katz, E. P. Sandefer, M. D. Nasution, M. Henderson, G. A. Digenis, I. Su, R. Page, and K. Barnhart, “Vaginal distribution of Replens (R) and K-Y (R) Jelly using three imaging techniques,” Contraception 77, 195-204(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peters, J. J.

M. H. Henderson, G. M. Couchman, D. K. Walmer, J. J. Peters, D. H. Owen, M. A. Brown, M. L. Lavine, and D. F. Katz, “Optical imaging and analysis of human vaginal coating by drug delivery gels,” Contraception 75, 142-151 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Henderson, J. J. Peters, D. K. Walmer, G. M. Couchman, and D. F. Katz, “Optical instrument for measurement of vaginal coating thickness by drug delivery formulations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 034302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pretorius, E. S.

K. T. Barnhart, E. S. Pretorius, K. Timbers, D. Shera, M. Shabbout, and D. Malamud, “In vivo distribution of a vaginal gel: MRI evaluation of the effects of gel volume, time and simulated intercourse,” Contraception 70, 498-505 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

Rowell, R. L.

R. L. Rowell, D. Fairhurst, S. Key, A. Morfesis, I. M. Monahan, M. Mitchnick, and R. A. Shattock, “Microbicides for HIV/AIDS. 1. Electrophoretic fingerprinting the H9 cell model system,” Langmuir 21, 10165-10171 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandefer, E. P.

C. K. Mauck, D. Katz, E. P. Sandefer, M. D. Nasution, M. Henderson, G. A. Digenis, I. Su, R. Page, and K. Barnhart, “Vaginal distribution of Replens (R) and K-Y (R) Jelly using three imaging techniques,” Contraception 77, 195-204(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shabbout, M.

K. T. Barnhart, E. S. Pretorius, K. Timbers, D. Shera, M. Shabbout, and D. Malamud, “In vivo distribution of a vaginal gel: MRI evaluation of the effects of gel volume, time and simulated intercourse,” Contraception 70, 498-505 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shattock, R. A.

R. L. Rowell, D. Fairhurst, S. Key, A. Morfesis, I. M. Monahan, M. Mitchnick, and R. A. Shattock, “Microbicides for HIV/AIDS. 1. Electrophoretic fingerprinting the H9 cell model system,” Langmuir 21, 10165-10171 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shera, D.

K. T. Barnhart, E. S. Pretorius, K. Timbers, D. Shera, M. Shabbout, and D. Malamud, “In vivo distribution of a vaginal gel: MRI evaluation of the effects of gel volume, time and simulated intercourse,” Contraception 70, 498-505 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sparrow, R. A.

J. Brown, G. Hooper, C. J. Kenyon, S. Haines, J. Burt, J. M. Humphries, S. P. Newman, S. S. Davis, R. A. Sparrow, and I. R. Wilding, “Spreading and retention of vaginal formulations in post-menopausal women as assessed by gamma scintigraphy,” Pharm. Res. 14, 1073-1078 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stone, A.

A. Stone, “Microbicides: A new approach to preventing HIV and other sexually transmitted infections,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 1, 977-985 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, I.

C. K. Mauck, D. Katz, E. P. Sandefer, M. D. Nasution, M. Henderson, G. A. Digenis, I. Su, R. Page, and K. Barnhart, “Vaginal distribution of Replens (R) and K-Y (R) Jelly using three imaging techniques,” Contraception 77, 195-204(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tambwekar, K. R.

S. Garg, K. R. Tambwekar, K. Vermani, R. Kandarapu, A. Garg, D. P. Waller, and L. J. D. Zaneveld, “Development pharmaceutics of microbicide formulations. Part II: Formulation, evaluation, and challenges,” AIDS Patient Care and Standards 17, 377-399 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Timbers, K.

K. T. Barnhart, E. S. Pretorius, K. Timbers, D. Shera, M. Shabbout, and D. Malamud, “In vivo distribution of a vaginal gel: MRI evaluation of the effects of gel volume, time and simulated intercourse,” Contraception 70, 498-505 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tuchin, V. V.

V. V. Tuchin, Tissue Optics: Light Scattering Methods and Instruments for Medical Diagnosis (SPIE, 2000).

Uckun, F. M.

O. J. D'cruz and F. M. Uckun, “Clinical development of microbicides for the prevention of HIV infection,” Curr. Pharm. Des. 10, 315-336 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vermani, K.

S. Garg, K. R. Tambwekar, K. Vermani, R. Kandarapu, A. Garg, D. P. Waller, and L. J. D. Zaneveld, “Development pharmaceutics of microbicide formulations. Part II: Formulation, evaluation, and challenges,” AIDS Patient Care and Standards 17, 377-399 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Waller, D. P.

S. Garg, K. R. Tambwekar, K. Vermani, R. Kandarapu, A. Garg, D. P. Waller, and L. J. D. Zaneveld, “Development pharmaceutics of microbicide formulations. Part II: Formulation, evaluation, and challenges,” AIDS Patient Care and Standards 17, 377-399 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Walmer, D. K.

M. H. Henderson, G. M. Couchman, D. K. Walmer, J. J. Peters, D. H. Owen, M. A. Brown, M. L. Lavine, and D. F. Katz, “Optical imaging and analysis of human vaginal coating by drug delivery gels,” Contraception 75, 142-151 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Henderson, J. J. Peters, D. K. Walmer, G. M. Couchman, and D. F. Katz, “Optical instrument for measurement of vaginal coating thickness by drug delivery formulations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 034302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wax, A.

K. E. Braun, J. D. Boyer, M. H. Henderson, D. F. Katz, and A. Wax, “Label-free measurement of microbicidal gel thickness using low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 020504 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Braun and A. Wax, “Improved simulations for measuring microbicidal gel thickness using low-coherence interferometry,” in Frontiers in Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper FTuE4.

Wilding, I. R.

J. Brown, G. Hooper, C. J. Kenyon, S. Haines, J. Burt, J. M. Humphries, S. P. Newman, S. S. Davis, R. A. Sparrow, and I. R. Wilding, “Spreading and retention of vaginal formulations in post-menopausal women as assessed by gamma scintigraphy,” Pharm. Res. 14, 1073-1078 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaneveld, L. J. D.

S. Garg, K. R. Tambwekar, K. Vermani, R. Kandarapu, A. Garg, D. P. Waller, and L. J. D. Zaneveld, “Development pharmaceutics of microbicide formulations. Part II: Formulation, evaluation, and challenges,” AIDS Patient Care and Standards 17, 377-399 (2003).
[CrossRef]

AIDS Patient Care and Standards (1)

S. Garg, K. R. Tambwekar, K. Vermani, R. Kandarapu, A. Garg, D. P. Waller, and L. J. D. Zaneveld, “Development pharmaceutics of microbicide formulations. Part II: Formulation, evaluation, and challenges,” AIDS Patient Care and Standards 17, 377-399 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Biophys. J. (1)

A. R. Geonnotti and D. F. Katz, “Dynamics of HIV neutralization by a microbicide formulation layer: Biophysical fundamentals and transport theory,” Biophys. J. 91, 2121-2130(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Contraception (3)

M. H. Henderson, G. M. Couchman, D. K. Walmer, J. J. Peters, D. H. Owen, M. A. Brown, M. L. Lavine, and D. F. Katz, “Optical imaging and analysis of human vaginal coating by drug delivery gels,” Contraception 75, 142-151 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Mauck, D. Katz, E. P. Sandefer, M. D. Nasution, M. Henderson, G. A. Digenis, I. Su, R. Page, and K. Barnhart, “Vaginal distribution of Replens (R) and K-Y (R) Jelly using three imaging techniques,” Contraception 77, 195-204(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. T. Barnhart, E. S. Pretorius, K. Timbers, D. Shera, M. Shabbout, and D. Malamud, “In vivo distribution of a vaginal gel: MRI evaluation of the effects of gel volume, time and simulated intercourse,” Contraception 70, 498-505 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Pharm. Des. (2)

O. J. D'cruz and F. M. Uckun, “Clinical development of microbicides for the prevention of HIV infection,” Curr. Pharm. Des. 10, 315-336 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Howett and J. P. Kuhl, “Microbicides for prevention of transmission of sexually transmitted diseases,” Curr. Pharm. Des. 11, 3731-3746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

K. E. Braun, J. D. Boyer, M. H. Henderson, D. F. Katz, and A. Wax, “Label-free measurement of microbicidal gel thickness using low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 020504 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langmuir (1)

R. L. Rowell, D. Fairhurst, S. Key, A. Morfesis, I. M. Monahan, M. Mitchnick, and R. A. Shattock, “Microbicides for HIV/AIDS. 1. Electrophoretic fingerprinting the H9 cell model system,” Langmuir 21, 10165-10171 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. (1)

A. Stone, “Microbicides: A new approach to preventing HIV and other sexually transmitted infections,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 1, 977-985 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Pharm. Res. (1)

J. Brown, G. Hooper, C. J. Kenyon, S. Haines, J. Burt, J. M. Humphries, S. P. Newman, S. S. Davis, R. A. Sparrow, and I. R. Wilding, “Spreading and retention of vaginal formulations in post-menopausal women as assessed by gamma scintigraphy,” Pharm. Res. 14, 1073-1078 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography--principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

M. H. Henderson, J. J. Peters, D. K. Walmer, G. M. Couchman, and D. F. Katz, “Optical instrument for measurement of vaginal coating thickness by drug delivery formulations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 034302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

K. E. Braun and A. Wax, “Improved simulations for measuring microbicidal gel thickness using low-coherence interferometry,” in Frontiers in Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper FTuE4.

M. Brezinski, Optical Coherence Tomography: Principles and Applications (Elsevier, 2006).

V. V. Tuchin, Tissue Optics: Light Scattering Methods and Instruments for Medical Diagnosis (SPIE, 2000).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the multiplexed Fourier- domain LCI system. L1, L2, lenses; SLD, superluminescent diode; FC/APC, fiber connectors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Silicon V-groove chip.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Interference spectrum resulting from a single point of the calibration socket. (b) Resulting a-scan obtained by performing a FT on the spectrum. Both (a) and (b) are typical of all six channels of the instrument.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

LCI versus digital meter (a) and rendition of the calibration socket (b). Data in (a) are typical of all six channels of the multiplexed LCI system. The same average measurements from the air filled groove from part (a) are used to construct the rendition in part (b).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Test sample and scan pattern on tissue phantom. A 6 × 6 grid of measurements, covering 25 mm 2 , was obtained.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

LCI scan of gel distribution on a tissue phantom. The gel had a mean thickness of 165.6 ± 14.2 μm .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic of the mounting of the imaging module within the sensing section of the fluorescence based system.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Scan pattern of LCI and fluorimetry measurements within the polycarbonate tube. Scan points are shown without offset for illustration purposes.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 OSNR, Axial Resolution, and Falloff

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I = E S 2 + E R 2 + 2 Re [ E s E R * cos ( 2 Δ z k + ϕ ) ] ,
l c = 2 ln ( 2 ) π λ 0 2 Δ λ ,
Z max = ln ( 2 ) 2 π λ 0 2 ( Δ λ N ) ,
OSNR ( dB ) = 20 ( log ( E s / E N ) + ND ) ,
P A B ( dB ) = 10 · log ( P B P A ) .

Metrics