Abstract

We built a device sensitive to the birefringence of the retinal nerve fiber layer for biometric purposes. A circle of 20° diameter on the retina was scanned around the optic disk with a spot of light from a 785nm laser diode. The nonbirefringent blood vessels indenting or displacing the retinal nerve fiber layer were seen as “blips” in the measured birefringence-derived signal. For comparison, the reflection–absorption signature of the blood vessel pattern in the scanned circle was also measured. The birefringence-derived signal proved to add useful information to the reflectance–absorption signature for retinal biometric scanning.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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2005

2004

1999

1992

A. W. Dreher and K. Reiter, “Scanning laser polarimetry of the retinal nerve fiber layer,” Proc. SPIE 1746, 34-41(1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

1990

R. Weinreb, A. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, and K. Reiter, “Histopathologic validation of Fourier-ellipsometry measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 108, 557-560 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

1987

1978

W. Cope, M. Wolbarsht, and B. Yamanashi, “The corneal polarization cross,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1149-1140 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1975

F. Bettelheim, “On optical anisotropy of the lens fiber cells,” Exp. Eye Res. 21, 231-234 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arch. Ophthalmol.

R. Weinreb, A. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, and K. Reiter, “Histopathologic validation of Fourier-ellipsometry measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 108, 557-560 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Exp. Eye Res.

F. Bettelheim, “On optical anisotropy of the lens fiber cells,” Exp. Eye Res. 21, 231-234 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

W. Cope, M. Wolbarsht, and B. Yamanashi, “The corneal polarization cross,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1149-1140 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Express

Proc. SPIE

A. W. Dreher and K. Reiter, “Scanning laser polarimetry of the retinal nerve fiber layer,” Proc. SPIE 1746, 34-41(1992).
[CrossRef]

Other

L. Flom and A. Safir, “Iris recognition system,” U.S. patent 4,641,349 (3 February 1987).

R. Hill, “Apparatus and method for identifying individuals through their retinal vasculature patterns,” U.S. patent 4,109,237 (22 August 1978).

R. Hill, “Rotating beam ocular identification apparatus and method,” U.S. patent 4,393,366 (12 July 1983).

R. Hill, “Fovea-centered eye fundus scanner,” U.S. patent 4,620,318 (28 October 1986).

R. Hill, “Eye fundus optical scanning system and method,” U.S. patent 5,532,771 (2 July 1996).

J. Marshall and D. Usher, “Method for generating a unique and consistent signal pattern for identification of an individual,” U.S. patent 6,757,409 (29 June 2004).

D. L. Guyton, D. G. Hunter, S. N. Patel, J. C. Sandruck, and R. L. Fry, “Eye fixation monitor and tracker,” U.S. patent 6,027,216 (22 February 2000).

D. Sliney and M. Wolbarsht, Safety with Lasers and Other Optical Sources (Plenum, 1980).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measurement setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fundus photograph with superimposed scanning ring centered about the optic disk. Such fundus photographs were used to correlate the measured peaks with actual blood vessels. The scan is assumed to be centered on the optic disk since the subject is looking at the fixation light 15 ° horizontally away from the center of the scan. The 15 ° ring was drawn on a transparency; the vessels were pinpointed with dots as shown on the image. Thus the angles at which the blood vessels were supposed to be “seen” could be measured.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Example of the absorption–reflectance measurement, displaying normalized intensity. The blips are marked with arrows. The bump around 0 / 360 ° resulted from the scanning beam hitting one of the mirror holders at that angle and is thus an artifact.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Example of the birefringence-based measurement, displaying normalized intensity (measured from the same eye as Fig. 3). The blips are marked with arrows.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Results from Test Subject 1, Left Eye, with 12 Blood Vessels Located on the Fundus Photo a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Overall Results, Four Subjects with Eight Eyes, Altogether 113 Vessels, 66 Identified

Tables Icon

Table 3 Overall Results, the Better Eye of Each Subject, Altogether 55 Vessels, 34 Identified

Metrics