Abstract

We present a multispectral system developed and optimized for measurement of the spectral reflectance and the color of the human iris. We tested several sets of filters as acquisition channels, analyzed different reconstruction algorithms, and used different samples as training sets. The results obtained show that a conventional three-channel color camera (RGB) was enough to reconstruct the analyzed reflectances with high accuracy, obtaining averaged color differences of around 2–3 CIEDE2000 units and root mean square errors of around 0.01. The device developed was used to characterize 100 real irises corresponding to 50 subjects, 68 prostheses used in clinical practice, and 17 cosmetic colored contact lenses.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. L. Wilkerson, N. A. Syed, M. R. Fisher, N. L. Robinson, I. H. L. Wallow, and D. M. Albert, “Melanocytes and iris color. Light-microscopic findings,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 114, 437-442(1996).
  2. W. E. Budde, I. M. Velten, and J. B. Jonas, “Optics disc size and iris color,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 116, 545 (1998).
  3. J. M. Seddon, C. R. Sahagian, R. J. Glynn, R. D. Sperduto, and E. S. Gragoudas, “Evaluation of an iris color classification system. The eye disorders case-control study group,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 31, 1592-1598 (1990).
  4. M. Melgosa, M. J. Rivas, L. Gómez, and E. Hita, “Towards a colorimetric characterization of the human iris,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 20, 252-260 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. H. Imai, “Preliminary experiment for spectral reflectance estimation of human iris using a digital camera,” Technical report (Munsell Color Science Laboratory, Rochester Institute of Technology, 2002), http://www.cis.rit.edu/mcsl/research/reports.php.
  6. M. Vilaseca, M. de Lasarte, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, and F. H. Imai, “Estimation of human iris spectral reflectance using a multi-spectral imaging system,” in Proceedings of the Third European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2006) (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2006), Vol. 1, pp. 232-236.
  7. M. Vilaseca, R. Mercadal, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, M. de Lasarte, R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and F. H. Imai, “Measuring and Analyzing the Colour of the Iris with a Multispectral Imaging System,” in Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2008) (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 427-431.
  8. M. de Lasarte, M. Vilaseca, J. Pujol, and M. Arjona, “Color measurements with colorimetric and multispectral imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 6062, 0F1-0F11 (2006).
  9. D. Connah, A. Alsam, and J. Y. Hardeberg, “Multispectral imaging: how many sensors do we need?” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 50, 45-52 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Vilaseca, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, and M. de Lasarte, “Multispectral system for the reflectance reconstruction in the near-infrared region,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4241-4253 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, and H. Brettel, “Multispectral color image capture using a liquid crystal tunable filter,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2532-2548 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. I. T. Jolliffe, Principal Component Analysis (Springer-Verlag, 1986).
  13. R. Schettini, G. Novati, and P. Pellegri, “Training set and filters selection for the efficient use of multispectral acquisition systems,” in Proceedings of the Second European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2004) (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2004), Vol. 1, pp. 422-426.
  14. M. A. Sandberg, A. R. Gaudio, S. Miller, and A. Weiner, “Iris pigmentation and extent of disease in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 2734-2740 (1994).
  15. J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, G. L. Wing, and K. A. Fitch, “Relationship of senile macular degeneration to ocular pigmentation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 99,185-187 (1985).
  16. T. J. Van den Berg, J. K. Ijspeert, and P. W. de Waard, “Dependence of intraocular straylight on pigmentation and light transmission through the ocular wall,” Vision Res. 31, 1361-1367 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. H. Imai, R. S. Berns, and D. Tzeng, “A comparative analysis of spectral reflectance estimation in various spaces using a trichromatic camera system,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 44, 280-287 (2000).
  18. M. de Lasarte, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, and M. Vilaseca, “Optimized algorithm for the spatial non-uniformity correction of an imaging system based on a CCD color camera,” Appl. Opt. 46, 167-174 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. F. H. Imai, M. R. Rosen, and R. S. Berns, “Comparative study of metrics for spectral match quality,” in Proceedings of the First European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2002) (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 492-496.
  20. “Improvement to industrial colour-difference evaluation,” Publication 142-2001 (International Commission on Illumination, 2001).
  21. G. Sharma, W. Wu, and E. N. Dalal, “The CIEDE2000 color-difference formula: implementation notes, supplementary test data, and mathematical observations,” Color Res. Appl. 30, 21-30 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. R. Rosen, H. Zhang, R. Velthuizen, and Q. Sun, “Imaging flesh: skin-customized profiling,” in Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2008) (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2008), Vol. 1, pp. 554-557.
  23. F. H. Imai, D. R. Wyble, R. S. Berns, and D. Tzeng. “A feasibility study of spectral color reproduction,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 47, 543-553 (2003).

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

M. de Lasarte, M. Vilaseca, J. Pujol, and M. Arjona, “Color measurements with colorimetric and multispectral imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 6062, 0F1-0F11 (2006).

D. Connah, A. Alsam, and J. Y. Hardeberg, “Multispectral imaging: how many sensors do we need?” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 50, 45-52 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Vilaseca, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, and M. de Lasarte, “Multispectral system for the reflectance reconstruction in the near-infrared region,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4241-4253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

G. Sharma, W. Wu, and E. N. Dalal, “The CIEDE2000 color-difference formula: implementation notes, supplementary test data, and mathematical observations,” Color Res. Appl. 30, 21-30 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

F. H. Imai, D. R. Wyble, R. S. Berns, and D. Tzeng. “A feasibility study of spectral color reproduction,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 47, 543-553 (2003).

2002 (1)

J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, and H. Brettel, “Multispectral color image capture using a liquid crystal tunable filter,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2532-2548 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

M. Melgosa, M. J. Rivas, L. Gómez, and E. Hita, “Towards a colorimetric characterization of the human iris,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 20, 252-260 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. H. Imai, R. S. Berns, and D. Tzeng, “A comparative analysis of spectral reflectance estimation in various spaces using a trichromatic camera system,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 44, 280-287 (2000).

1998 (1)

W. E. Budde, I. M. Velten, and J. B. Jonas, “Optics disc size and iris color,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 116, 545 (1998).

1996 (1)

C. L. Wilkerson, N. A. Syed, M. R. Fisher, N. L. Robinson, I. H. L. Wallow, and D. M. Albert, “Melanocytes and iris color. Light-microscopic findings,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 114, 437-442(1996).

1994 (1)

M. A. Sandberg, A. R. Gaudio, S. Miller, and A. Weiner, “Iris pigmentation and extent of disease in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 2734-2740 (1994).

1991 (1)

T. J. Van den Berg, J. K. Ijspeert, and P. W. de Waard, “Dependence of intraocular straylight on pigmentation and light transmission through the ocular wall,” Vision Res. 31, 1361-1367 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

J. M. Seddon, C. R. Sahagian, R. J. Glynn, R. D. Sperduto, and E. S. Gragoudas, “Evaluation of an iris color classification system. The eye disorders case-control study group,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 31, 1592-1598 (1990).

1985 (1)

J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, G. L. Wing, and K. A. Fitch, “Relationship of senile macular degeneration to ocular pigmentation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 99,185-187 (1985).

Albert, D. M.

C. L. Wilkerson, N. A. Syed, M. R. Fisher, N. L. Robinson, I. H. L. Wallow, and D. M. Albert, “Melanocytes and iris color. Light-microscopic findings,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 114, 437-442(1996).

Alsam, A.

D. Connah, A. Alsam, and J. Y. Hardeberg, “Multispectral imaging: how many sensors do we need?” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 50, 45-52 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arjona, M.

M. de Lasarte, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, and M. Vilaseca, “Optimized algorithm for the spatial non-uniformity correction of an imaging system based on a CCD color camera,” Appl. Opt. 46, 167-174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Vilaseca, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, and M. de Lasarte, “Multispectral system for the reflectance reconstruction in the near-infrared region,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4241-4253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. de Lasarte, M. Vilaseca, J. Pujol, and M. Arjona, “Color measurements with colorimetric and multispectral imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 6062, 0F1-0F11 (2006).

M. Vilaseca, M. de Lasarte, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, and F. H. Imai, “Estimation of human iris spectral reflectance using a multi-spectral imaging system,” in Proceedings of the Third European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2006) (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2006), Vol. 1, pp. 232-236.

M. Vilaseca, R. Mercadal, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, M. de Lasarte, R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and F. H. Imai, “Measuring and Analyzing the Colour of the Iris with a Multispectral Imaging System,” in Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2008) (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 427-431.

Berns, R. S.

F. H. Imai, D. R. Wyble, R. S. Berns, and D. Tzeng. “A feasibility study of spectral color reproduction,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 47, 543-553 (2003).

F. H. Imai, R. S. Berns, and D. Tzeng, “A comparative analysis of spectral reflectance estimation in various spaces using a trichromatic camera system,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 44, 280-287 (2000).

F. H. Imai, M. R. Rosen, and R. S. Berns, “Comparative study of metrics for spectral match quality,” in Proceedings of the First European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2002) (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 492-496.

Brettel, H.

J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, and H. Brettel, “Multispectral color image capture using a liquid crystal tunable filter,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2532-2548 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Budde, W. E.

W. E. Budde, I. M. Velten, and J. B. Jonas, “Optics disc size and iris color,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 116, 545 (1998).

Connah, D.

D. Connah, A. Alsam, and J. Y. Hardeberg, “Multispectral imaging: how many sensors do we need?” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 50, 45-52 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dalal, E. N.

G. Sharma, W. Wu, and E. N. Dalal, “The CIEDE2000 color-difference formula: implementation notes, supplementary test data, and mathematical observations,” Color Res. Appl. 30, 21-30 (2005).
[CrossRef]

de Lasarte, M.

M. de Lasarte, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, and M. Vilaseca, “Optimized algorithm for the spatial non-uniformity correction of an imaging system based on a CCD color camera,” Appl. Opt. 46, 167-174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Vilaseca, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, and M. de Lasarte, “Multispectral system for the reflectance reconstruction in the near-infrared region,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4241-4253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. de Lasarte, M. Vilaseca, J. Pujol, and M. Arjona, “Color measurements with colorimetric and multispectral imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 6062, 0F1-0F11 (2006).

M. Vilaseca, R. Mercadal, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, M. de Lasarte, R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and F. H. Imai, “Measuring and Analyzing the Colour of the Iris with a Multispectral Imaging System,” in Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2008) (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 427-431.

M. Vilaseca, M. de Lasarte, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, and F. H. Imai, “Estimation of human iris spectral reflectance using a multi-spectral imaging system,” in Proceedings of the Third European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2006) (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2006), Vol. 1, pp. 232-236.

de Waard, P. W.

T. J. Van den Berg, J. K. Ijspeert, and P. W. de Waard, “Dependence of intraocular straylight on pigmentation and light transmission through the ocular wall,” Vision Res. 31, 1361-1367 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Delori, F. C.

J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, G. L. Wing, and K. A. Fitch, “Relationship of senile macular degeneration to ocular pigmentation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 99,185-187 (1985).

Fisher, M. R.

C. L. Wilkerson, N. A. Syed, M. R. Fisher, N. L. Robinson, I. H. L. Wallow, and D. M. Albert, “Melanocytes and iris color. Light-microscopic findings,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 114, 437-442(1996).

Fitch, K. A.

J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, G. L. Wing, and K. A. Fitch, “Relationship of senile macular degeneration to ocular pigmentation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 99,185-187 (1985).

Gaudio, A. R.

M. A. Sandberg, A. R. Gaudio, S. Miller, and A. Weiner, “Iris pigmentation and extent of disease in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 2734-2740 (1994).

Glynn, R. J.

J. M. Seddon, C. R. Sahagian, R. J. Glynn, R. D. Sperduto, and E. S. Gragoudas, “Evaluation of an iris color classification system. The eye disorders case-control study group,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 31, 1592-1598 (1990).

Gómez, L.

M. Melgosa, M. J. Rivas, L. Gómez, and E. Hita, “Towards a colorimetric characterization of the human iris,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 20, 252-260 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gragoudas, E. S.

J. M. Seddon, C. R. Sahagian, R. J. Glynn, R. D. Sperduto, and E. S. Gragoudas, “Evaluation of an iris color classification system. The eye disorders case-control study group,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 31, 1592-1598 (1990).

Hardeberg, J. Y.

D. Connah, A. Alsam, and J. Y. Hardeberg, “Multispectral imaging: how many sensors do we need?” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 50, 45-52 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, and H. Brettel, “Multispectral color image capture using a liquid crystal tunable filter,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2532-2548 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hita, E.

M. Melgosa, M. J. Rivas, L. Gómez, and E. Hita, “Towards a colorimetric characterization of the human iris,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 20, 252-260 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huertas, R.

M. Vilaseca, R. Mercadal, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, M. de Lasarte, R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and F. H. Imai, “Measuring and Analyzing the Colour of the Iris with a Multispectral Imaging System,” in Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2008) (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 427-431.

Ijspeert, J. K.

T. J. Van den Berg, J. K. Ijspeert, and P. W. de Waard, “Dependence of intraocular straylight on pigmentation and light transmission through the ocular wall,” Vision Res. 31, 1361-1367 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Imai, F. H.

F. H. Imai, D. R. Wyble, R. S. Berns, and D. Tzeng. “A feasibility study of spectral color reproduction,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 47, 543-553 (2003).

F. H. Imai, R. S. Berns, and D. Tzeng, “A comparative analysis of spectral reflectance estimation in various spaces using a trichromatic camera system,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 44, 280-287 (2000).

F. H. Imai, M. R. Rosen, and R. S. Berns, “Comparative study of metrics for spectral match quality,” in Proceedings of the First European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2002) (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 492-496.

M. Vilaseca, M. de Lasarte, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, and F. H. Imai, “Estimation of human iris spectral reflectance using a multi-spectral imaging system,” in Proceedings of the Third European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2006) (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2006), Vol. 1, pp. 232-236.

M. Vilaseca, R. Mercadal, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, M. de Lasarte, R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and F. H. Imai, “Measuring and Analyzing the Colour of the Iris with a Multispectral Imaging System,” in Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2008) (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 427-431.

F. H. Imai, “Preliminary experiment for spectral reflectance estimation of human iris using a digital camera,” Technical report (Munsell Color Science Laboratory, Rochester Institute of Technology, 2002), http://www.cis.rit.edu/mcsl/research/reports.php.

Jolliffe, I. T.

I. T. Jolliffe, Principal Component Analysis (Springer-Verlag, 1986).

Jonas, J. B.

W. E. Budde, I. M. Velten, and J. B. Jonas, “Optics disc size and iris color,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 116, 545 (1998).

Melgosa, M.

M. Melgosa, M. J. Rivas, L. Gómez, and E. Hita, “Towards a colorimetric characterization of the human iris,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 20, 252-260 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Vilaseca, R. Mercadal, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, M. de Lasarte, R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and F. H. Imai, “Measuring and Analyzing the Colour of the Iris with a Multispectral Imaging System,” in Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2008) (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 427-431.

Mercadal, R.

M. Vilaseca, R. Mercadal, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, M. de Lasarte, R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and F. H. Imai, “Measuring and Analyzing the Colour of the Iris with a Multispectral Imaging System,” in Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2008) (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 427-431.

Miller, S.

M. A. Sandberg, A. R. Gaudio, S. Miller, and A. Weiner, “Iris pigmentation and extent of disease in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 2734-2740 (1994).

Novati, G.

R. Schettini, G. Novati, and P. Pellegri, “Training set and filters selection for the efficient use of multispectral acquisition systems,” in Proceedings of the Second European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2004) (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2004), Vol. 1, pp. 422-426.

Pellegri, P.

R. Schettini, G. Novati, and P. Pellegri, “Training set and filters selection for the efficient use of multispectral acquisition systems,” in Proceedings of the Second European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2004) (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2004), Vol. 1, pp. 422-426.

Pujol, J.

M. de Lasarte, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, and M. Vilaseca, “Optimized algorithm for the spatial non-uniformity correction of an imaging system based on a CCD color camera,” Appl. Opt. 46, 167-174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Vilaseca, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, and M. de Lasarte, “Multispectral system for the reflectance reconstruction in the near-infrared region,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4241-4253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. de Lasarte, M. Vilaseca, J. Pujol, and M. Arjona, “Color measurements with colorimetric and multispectral imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 6062, 0F1-0F11 (2006).

M. Vilaseca, R. Mercadal, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, M. de Lasarte, R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and F. H. Imai, “Measuring and Analyzing the Colour of the Iris with a Multispectral Imaging System,” in Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2008) (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 427-431.

M. Vilaseca, M. de Lasarte, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, and F. H. Imai, “Estimation of human iris spectral reflectance using a multi-spectral imaging system,” in Proceedings of the Third European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2006) (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2006), Vol. 1, pp. 232-236.

Rivas, M. J.

M. Melgosa, M. J. Rivas, L. Gómez, and E. Hita, “Towards a colorimetric characterization of the human iris,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 20, 252-260 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, N. L.

C. L. Wilkerson, N. A. Syed, M. R. Fisher, N. L. Robinson, I. H. L. Wallow, and D. M. Albert, “Melanocytes and iris color. Light-microscopic findings,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 114, 437-442(1996).

Rosen, M. R.

F. H. Imai, M. R. Rosen, and R. S. Berns, “Comparative study of metrics for spectral match quality,” in Proceedings of the First European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2002) (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 492-496.

M. R. Rosen, H. Zhang, R. Velthuizen, and Q. Sun, “Imaging flesh: skin-customized profiling,” in Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2008) (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2008), Vol. 1, pp. 554-557.

Sahagian, C. R.

J. M. Seddon, C. R. Sahagian, R. J. Glynn, R. D. Sperduto, and E. S. Gragoudas, “Evaluation of an iris color classification system. The eye disorders case-control study group,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 31, 1592-1598 (1990).

Sandberg, M. A.

M. A. Sandberg, A. R. Gaudio, S. Miller, and A. Weiner, “Iris pigmentation and extent of disease in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 2734-2740 (1994).

Schettini, R.

R. Schettini, G. Novati, and P. Pellegri, “Training set and filters selection for the efficient use of multispectral acquisition systems,” in Proceedings of the Second European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2004) (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2004), Vol. 1, pp. 422-426.

Schmitt, F.

J. Y. Hardeberg, F. Schmitt, and H. Brettel, “Multispectral color image capture using a liquid crystal tunable filter,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2532-2548 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Seddon, J. M.

J. M. Seddon, C. R. Sahagian, R. J. Glynn, R. D. Sperduto, and E. S. Gragoudas, “Evaluation of an iris color classification system. The eye disorders case-control study group,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 31, 1592-1598 (1990).

Sharma, G.

G. Sharma, W. Wu, and E. N. Dalal, “The CIEDE2000 color-difference formula: implementation notes, supplementary test data, and mathematical observations,” Color Res. Appl. 30, 21-30 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sperduto, R. D.

J. M. Seddon, C. R. Sahagian, R. J. Glynn, R. D. Sperduto, and E. S. Gragoudas, “Evaluation of an iris color classification system. The eye disorders case-control study group,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 31, 1592-1598 (1990).

Sun, Q.

M. R. Rosen, H. Zhang, R. Velthuizen, and Q. Sun, “Imaging flesh: skin-customized profiling,” in Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2008) (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2008), Vol. 1, pp. 554-557.

Syed, N. A.

C. L. Wilkerson, N. A. Syed, M. R. Fisher, N. L. Robinson, I. H. L. Wallow, and D. M. Albert, “Melanocytes and iris color. Light-microscopic findings,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 114, 437-442(1996).

Tzeng, D.

F. H. Imai, D. R. Wyble, R. S. Berns, and D. Tzeng. “A feasibility study of spectral color reproduction,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 47, 543-553 (2003).

F. H. Imai, R. S. Berns, and D. Tzeng, “A comparative analysis of spectral reflectance estimation in various spaces using a trichromatic camera system,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 44, 280-287 (2000).

Van den Berg, T. J.

T. J. Van den Berg, J. K. Ijspeert, and P. W. de Waard, “Dependence of intraocular straylight on pigmentation and light transmission through the ocular wall,” Vision Res. 31, 1361-1367 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Velten, I. M.

W. E. Budde, I. M. Velten, and J. B. Jonas, “Optics disc size and iris color,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 116, 545 (1998).

Velthuizen, R.

M. R. Rosen, H. Zhang, R. Velthuizen, and Q. Sun, “Imaging flesh: skin-customized profiling,” in Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2008) (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2008), Vol. 1, pp. 554-557.

Vilaseca, M.

M. de Lasarte, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, and M. Vilaseca, “Optimized algorithm for the spatial non-uniformity correction of an imaging system based on a CCD color camera,” Appl. Opt. 46, 167-174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Vilaseca, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, and M. de Lasarte, “Multispectral system for the reflectance reconstruction in the near-infrared region,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4241-4253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. de Lasarte, M. Vilaseca, J. Pujol, and M. Arjona, “Color measurements with colorimetric and multispectral imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 6062, 0F1-0F11 (2006).

M. Vilaseca, R. Mercadal, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, M. de Lasarte, R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and F. H. Imai, “Measuring and Analyzing the Colour of the Iris with a Multispectral Imaging System,” in Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2008) (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 427-431.

M. Vilaseca, M. de Lasarte, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, and F. H. Imai, “Estimation of human iris spectral reflectance using a multi-spectral imaging system,” in Proceedings of the Third European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2006) (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2006), Vol. 1, pp. 232-236.

Wallow, I. H. L.

C. L. Wilkerson, N. A. Syed, M. R. Fisher, N. L. Robinson, I. H. L. Wallow, and D. M. Albert, “Melanocytes and iris color. Light-microscopic findings,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 114, 437-442(1996).

Weiner, A.

M. A. Sandberg, A. R. Gaudio, S. Miller, and A. Weiner, “Iris pigmentation and extent of disease in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 2734-2740 (1994).

Weiter, J. J.

J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, G. L. Wing, and K. A. Fitch, “Relationship of senile macular degeneration to ocular pigmentation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 99,185-187 (1985).

Wilkerson, C. L.

C. L. Wilkerson, N. A. Syed, M. R. Fisher, N. L. Robinson, I. H. L. Wallow, and D. M. Albert, “Melanocytes and iris color. Light-microscopic findings,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 114, 437-442(1996).

Wing, G. L.

J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, G. L. Wing, and K. A. Fitch, “Relationship of senile macular degeneration to ocular pigmentation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 99,185-187 (1985).

Wu, W.

G. Sharma, W. Wu, and E. N. Dalal, “The CIEDE2000 color-difference formula: implementation notes, supplementary test data, and mathematical observations,” Color Res. Appl. 30, 21-30 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wyble, D. R.

F. H. Imai, D. R. Wyble, R. S. Berns, and D. Tzeng. “A feasibility study of spectral color reproduction,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 47, 543-553 (2003).

Zhang, H.

M. R. Rosen, H. Zhang, R. Velthuizen, and Q. Sun, “Imaging flesh: skin-customized profiling,” in Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2008) (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2008), Vol. 1, pp. 554-557.

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, G. L. Wing, and K. A. Fitch, “Relationship of senile macular degeneration to ocular pigmentation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 99,185-187 (1985).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Arch. Ophthalmol. (2)

C. L. Wilkerson, N. A. Syed, M. R. Fisher, N. L. Robinson, I. H. L. Wallow, and D. M. Albert, “Melanocytes and iris color. Light-microscopic findings,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 114, 437-442(1996).

W. E. Budde, I. M. Velten, and J. B. Jonas, “Optics disc size and iris color,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 116, 545 (1998).

Color Res. Appl. (1)

G. Sharma, W. Wu, and E. N. Dalal, “The CIEDE2000 color-difference formula: implementation notes, supplementary test data, and mathematical observations,” Color Res. Appl. 30, 21-30 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (2)

J. M. Seddon, C. R. Sahagian, R. J. Glynn, R. D. Sperduto, and E. S. Gragoudas, “Evaluation of an iris color classification system. The eye disorders case-control study group,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 31, 1592-1598 (1990).

M. A. Sandberg, A. R. Gaudio, S. Miller, and A. Weiner, “Iris pigmentation and extent of disease in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 2734-2740 (1994).

J. Imaging Sci. Technol. (3)

F. H. Imai, R. S. Berns, and D. Tzeng, “A comparative analysis of spectral reflectance estimation in various spaces using a trichromatic camera system,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 44, 280-287 (2000).

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[CrossRef]

F. H. Imai, D. R. Wyble, R. S. Berns, and D. Tzeng. “A feasibility study of spectral color reproduction,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 47, 543-553 (2003).

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. (1)

M. Melgosa, M. J. Rivas, L. Gómez, and E. Hita, “Towards a colorimetric characterization of the human iris,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 20, 252-260 (2000).
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Opt. Eng. (1)

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[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. de Lasarte, M. Vilaseca, J. Pujol, and M. Arjona, “Color measurements with colorimetric and multispectral imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 6062, 0F1-0F11 (2006).

Vision Res. (1)

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[CrossRef]

Other (8)

F. H. Imai, M. R. Rosen, and R. S. Berns, “Comparative study of metrics for spectral match quality,” in Proceedings of the First European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2002) (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 492-496.

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R. Schettini, G. Novati, and P. Pellegri, “Training set and filters selection for the efficient use of multispectral acquisition systems,” in Proceedings of the Second European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2004) (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2004), Vol. 1, pp. 422-426.

F. H. Imai, “Preliminary experiment for spectral reflectance estimation of human iris using a digital camera,” Technical report (Munsell Color Science Laboratory, Rochester Institute of Technology, 2002), http://www.cis.rit.edu/mcsl/research/reports.php.

M. Vilaseca, M. de Lasarte, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, and F. H. Imai, “Estimation of human iris spectral reflectance using a multi-spectral imaging system,” in Proceedings of the Third European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2006) (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2006), Vol. 1, pp. 232-236.

M. Vilaseca, R. Mercadal, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, M. de Lasarte, R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and F. H. Imai, “Measuring and Analyzing the Colour of the Iris with a Multispectral Imaging System,” in Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2008) (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 427-431.

M. R. Rosen, H. Zhang, R. Velthuizen, and Q. Sun, “Imaging flesh: skin-customized profiling,” in Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision (CGIV 2008) (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2008), Vol. 1, pp. 554-557.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Multispectral experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Configuration 1, relative spectral sensitivities of the RGB channels of the system (tunable filter and CCD camera) and percentage of transmittance of the additional blue filter and (b) configuration 2, percentage of transmittance of the seven interference filters.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Image of an iris and corresponding analyzed areas.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral reflectance factors of 52 human irises measured with the telespectroradiometer PR-650.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral reflectance factors of the (a) 100 human irises, (b) 68 prostheses, and (c) 17 colored contact lenses measured with the telespectroradiometer PR-650.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Cumulative proportion index (%), that is, percentage explained by different numbers of principal components of the PCA analysis performed on the subset of 52 irises (104 samples).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

CIEDE2000 histogram for the 52 human irises obtained using three channels (test, 52 human irises; method, PSE; configuration, 1).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Best and worst spectral reflectance reconstruction for the three groups of samples analyzed: (a) human irises, (b) prostheses, and (c) colored contact lenses. Solid curves indicate the reconstructed spectral reflectances and dashed curves indicate the measured (PR-650 telespectroradiometer) ones.

Tables (7)

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Table 1 Color Difference and Root Mean Square Error (Mean ± St. Dev.) for the 52 Human Irises a

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Table 2 Color Difference and Root Mean Square Error (Mean ± St. Dev.) for the 52 Human Irises a

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Table 3 Color Difference and Root Mean Square Error (Mean ± St. Dev.) for the 52 Human Irises a

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Table 4 Color Difference and Root Mean Square Error (Mean ± St. Dev.) for the 34 Brown Irises and the 18 Blue–Green Irises a

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Table 5 Cumulative Proportion Index (%) for the First Three Principal Components (PC) Corresponding to the 100 Human Irises, 68 Prostheses, and 17 Colored Contact Lenses

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Table 6 Color Difference and Root Mean Square Error (Mean, Standard Deviation, Minimum, and Maximum Values) for the 100 Human Irises, 68 Prostheses, and 17 Colored Contact Lenses a

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Table 7 Color Difference and Root Mean Square Error (Mean, Standard Deviation, Minimum, and Maximum Values) for the 100 Human Irises, 68 Prostheses, and 17 Colored Contact Lenses

Metrics