Abstract

A significant hurdle for the widespread adoption of iris recognition in security applications is that the typically small imaging volume for eye placement results in systems that are not user friendly. Separable cubic phase plates at the lens pupil have been shown to ameliorate this disadvantage by increasing the depth of field. However, these phase masks have limitations on how efficiently they can capture the information-bearing spatial frequencies in iris images. The performance gains in information acquisition that can be achieved by more general, nonseparable phase masks is demonstrated. A detailed design method is presented, and simulations using representative designs allow for performance comparisons.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Zhang, Automated Biometrics: Technology and Systems (Kluwer, 2000).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  18. The author is preparing a paper with the title “Simple, fast best-fit circular and elliptical iris boundaries from edge maps.”

2007

2006

J. R. Mattey, O. Naroditsky, K. Hanna, R. Kolczynski, D. LoIacono, S. Mangru, M. Tinker, T. Zappia, and W. Y. Zhao, “Iris on the move: acquisition of images for iris recognition in less constrained environments,” Proc. IEEE 94, 1936-1947(2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

R. Plemmons, M. Horvath, E. Leonhardt, P. Pauca, S. Prasad, S. Robinson, H. Setty, T. Torgerson, J. van der Gracht, E. Dowski, R. Narayanswamy, and P. E. X. Silveira, “Computational imaging systems for iris recognition,” Proc. SPIE 5559, 346-357 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Daugman, “How iris recognition works,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst.Video Technol. 14, 21-30 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. Prasad, T. C. Torgersen, V. P. Pauca, R. J. Plemmons, and J. van der Gratch, “Engineering the pupil phase to improve image quality,” Proc. SPIE 5108, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. G. Daugman, “Statistical richness of visual phase information: update on recognizing persons by iris patterns,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 45, 25-38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1995

1993

J. G. Daugman, “High confidence visual recognition of persons by a test of statistical independence,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 15, 1148-1161 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988

Barwick, S.

Bertsekas, D.

D. Bertsekas, Nonlinear Programming (Athena Scientific, 1999).

Castañeda, J. O.

Cathey, W.

Daugman, J. G.

J. G. Daugman, “How iris recognition works,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst.Video Technol. 14, 21-30 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Daugman, “Statistical richness of visual phase information: update on recognizing persons by iris patterns,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 45, 25-38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Daugman, “High confidence visual recognition of persons by a test of statistical independence,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 15, 1148-1161 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dobeš, D. M.

D. M. Dobeš and L. Machala, “Iris database,” http://www.info.upol.cz/iris/.

Dowski, E.

R. Plemmons, M. Horvath, E. Leonhardt, P. Pauca, S. Prasad, S. Robinson, H. Setty, T. Torgerson, J. van der Gracht, E. Dowski, R. Narayanswamy, and P. E. X. Silveira, “Computational imaging systems for iris recognition,” Proc. SPIE 5559, 346-357 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Dowski and W. Cathey, “Extended depth of field through wavefront coding,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1859-1866 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, Y.

Y. Fan, P. Pauca, R. Plemmons, S. Prasad, T. Torgersen, and J. van der Gracht, “Hamming distance optimized phase masks for iris recognition systems,” Conference on Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging, OSA Technical Digest, 2005.

Farkas, L. G.

L. G. Farkas, Anthropometry of the Head and Face (Raven, 1994).

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1968).

Hanna, K.

J. R. Mattey, O. Naroditsky, K. Hanna, R. Kolczynski, D. LoIacono, S. Mangru, M. Tinker, T. Zappia, and W. Y. Zhao, “Iris on the move: acquisition of images for iris recognition in less constrained environments,” Proc. IEEE 94, 1936-1947(2006).
[CrossRef]

Horvath, M.

R. Plemmons, M. Horvath, E. Leonhardt, P. Pauca, S. Prasad, S. Robinson, H. Setty, T. Torgerson, J. van der Gracht, E. Dowski, R. Narayanswamy, and P. E. X. Silveira, “Computational imaging systems for iris recognition,” Proc. SPIE 5559, 346-357 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, G. E.

King, M. C.

K. N. Smith, V. P. Pauca, A. Ross, T. Torgersen, and M. C. King, “Extended evaluation of simulated wavefront coding technology in iris recognition,” IEEE Conf. on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems, September 2007.

Kolczynski, R.

J. R. Mattey, O. Naroditsky, K. Hanna, R. Kolczynski, D. LoIacono, S. Mangru, M. Tinker, T. Zappia, and W. Y. Zhao, “Iris on the move: acquisition of images for iris recognition in less constrained environments,” Proc. IEEE 94, 1936-1947(2006).
[CrossRef]

Leonhardt, E.

R. Plemmons, M. Horvath, E. Leonhardt, P. Pauca, S. Prasad, S. Robinson, H. Setty, T. Torgerson, J. van der Gracht, E. Dowski, R. Narayanswamy, and P. E. X. Silveira, “Computational imaging systems for iris recognition,” Proc. SPIE 5559, 346-357 (2004).
[CrossRef]

LoIacono, D.

J. R. Mattey, O. Naroditsky, K. Hanna, R. Kolczynski, D. LoIacono, S. Mangru, M. Tinker, T. Zappia, and W. Y. Zhao, “Iris on the move: acquisition of images for iris recognition in less constrained environments,” Proc. IEEE 94, 1936-1947(2006).
[CrossRef]

Machala, L.

D. M. Dobeš and L. Machala, “Iris database,” http://www.info.upol.cz/iris/.

Mangru, S.

J. R. Mattey, O. Naroditsky, K. Hanna, R. Kolczynski, D. LoIacono, S. Mangru, M. Tinker, T. Zappia, and W. Y. Zhao, “Iris on the move: acquisition of images for iris recognition in less constrained environments,” Proc. IEEE 94, 1936-1947(2006).
[CrossRef]

Mattey, J. R.

J. R. Mattey, O. Naroditsky, K. Hanna, R. Kolczynski, D. LoIacono, S. Mangru, M. Tinker, T. Zappia, and W. Y. Zhao, “Iris on the move: acquisition of images for iris recognition in less constrained environments,” Proc. IEEE 94, 1936-1947(2006).
[CrossRef]

Montes, E.

Narayanswamy, R.

R. Narayanswamy, G. E. Johnson, P. Silveira, and H. B. Wach, “Extending the imaging volume for biometric iris recognition,” Appl. Opt. 44, 701-712 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Plemmons, M. Horvath, E. Leonhardt, P. Pauca, S. Prasad, S. Robinson, H. Setty, T. Torgerson, J. van der Gracht, E. Dowski, R. Narayanswamy, and P. E. X. Silveira, “Computational imaging systems for iris recognition,” Proc. SPIE 5559, 346-357 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Naroditsky, O.

J. R. Mattey, O. Naroditsky, K. Hanna, R. Kolczynski, D. LoIacono, S. Mangru, M. Tinker, T. Zappia, and W. Y. Zhao, “Iris on the move: acquisition of images for iris recognition in less constrained environments,” Proc. IEEE 94, 1936-1947(2006).
[CrossRef]

Pauca, P.

R. Plemmons, M. Horvath, E. Leonhardt, P. Pauca, S. Prasad, S. Robinson, H. Setty, T. Torgerson, J. van der Gracht, E. Dowski, R. Narayanswamy, and P. E. X. Silveira, “Computational imaging systems for iris recognition,” Proc. SPIE 5559, 346-357 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fan, P. Pauca, R. Plemmons, S. Prasad, T. Torgersen, and J. van der Gracht, “Hamming distance optimized phase masks for iris recognition systems,” Conference on Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging, OSA Technical Digest, 2005.

Pauca, V. P.

S. Prasad, T. C. Torgersen, V. P. Pauca, R. J. Plemmons, and J. van der Gratch, “Engineering the pupil phase to improve image quality,” Proc. SPIE 5108, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. N. Smith, V. P. Pauca, A. Ross, T. Torgersen, and M. C. King, “Extended evaluation of simulated wavefront coding technology in iris recognition,” IEEE Conf. on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems, September 2007.

Plemmons, R.

R. Plemmons, M. Horvath, E. Leonhardt, P. Pauca, S. Prasad, S. Robinson, H. Setty, T. Torgerson, J. van der Gracht, E. Dowski, R. Narayanswamy, and P. E. X. Silveira, “Computational imaging systems for iris recognition,” Proc. SPIE 5559, 346-357 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fan, P. Pauca, R. Plemmons, S. Prasad, T. Torgersen, and J. van der Gracht, “Hamming distance optimized phase masks for iris recognition systems,” Conference on Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging, OSA Technical Digest, 2005.

Plemmons, R. J.

S. Prasad, T. C. Torgersen, V. P. Pauca, R. J. Plemmons, and J. van der Gratch, “Engineering the pupil phase to improve image quality,” Proc. SPIE 5108, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, S.

R. Plemmons, M. Horvath, E. Leonhardt, P. Pauca, S. Prasad, S. Robinson, H. Setty, T. Torgerson, J. van der Gracht, E. Dowski, R. Narayanswamy, and P. E. X. Silveira, “Computational imaging systems for iris recognition,” Proc. SPIE 5559, 346-357 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Prasad, T. C. Torgersen, V. P. Pauca, R. J. Plemmons, and J. van der Gratch, “Engineering the pupil phase to improve image quality,” Proc. SPIE 5108, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fan, P. Pauca, R. Plemmons, S. Prasad, T. Torgersen, and J. van der Gracht, “Hamming distance optimized phase masks for iris recognition systems,” Conference on Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging, OSA Technical Digest, 2005.

Robinson, S.

R. Plemmons, M. Horvath, E. Leonhardt, P. Pauca, S. Prasad, S. Robinson, H. Setty, T. Torgerson, J. van der Gracht, E. Dowski, R. Narayanswamy, and P. E. X. Silveira, “Computational imaging systems for iris recognition,” Proc. SPIE 5559, 346-357 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ross, A.

K. N. Smith, V. P. Pauca, A. Ross, T. Torgersen, and M. C. King, “Extended evaluation of simulated wavefront coding technology in iris recognition,” IEEE Conf. on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems, September 2007.

Setty, H.

R. Plemmons, M. Horvath, E. Leonhardt, P. Pauca, S. Prasad, S. Robinson, H. Setty, T. Torgerson, J. van der Gracht, E. Dowski, R. Narayanswamy, and P. E. X. Silveira, “Computational imaging systems for iris recognition,” Proc. SPIE 5559, 346-357 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Silveira, P.

Silveira, P. E. X.

R. Plemmons, M. Horvath, E. Leonhardt, P. Pauca, S. Prasad, S. Robinson, H. Setty, T. Torgerson, J. van der Gracht, E. Dowski, R. Narayanswamy, and P. E. X. Silveira, “Computational imaging systems for iris recognition,” Proc. SPIE 5559, 346-357 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smith, K. N.

K. N. Smith, V. P. Pauca, A. Ross, T. Torgersen, and M. C. King, “Extended evaluation of simulated wavefront coding technology in iris recognition,” IEEE Conf. on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems, September 2007.

Tinker, M.

J. R. Mattey, O. Naroditsky, K. Hanna, R. Kolczynski, D. LoIacono, S. Mangru, M. Tinker, T. Zappia, and W. Y. Zhao, “Iris on the move: acquisition of images for iris recognition in less constrained environments,” Proc. IEEE 94, 1936-1947(2006).
[CrossRef]

Torgersen, T.

K. N. Smith, V. P. Pauca, A. Ross, T. Torgersen, and M. C. King, “Extended evaluation of simulated wavefront coding technology in iris recognition,” IEEE Conf. on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems, September 2007.

Y. Fan, P. Pauca, R. Plemmons, S. Prasad, T. Torgersen, and J. van der Gracht, “Hamming distance optimized phase masks for iris recognition systems,” Conference on Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging, OSA Technical Digest, 2005.

Torgersen, T. C.

S. Prasad, T. C. Torgersen, V. P. Pauca, R. J. Plemmons, and J. van der Gratch, “Engineering the pupil phase to improve image quality,” Proc. SPIE 5108, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Torgerson, T.

R. Plemmons, M. Horvath, E. Leonhardt, P. Pauca, S. Prasad, S. Robinson, H. Setty, T. Torgerson, J. van der Gracht, E. Dowski, R. Narayanswamy, and P. E. X. Silveira, “Computational imaging systems for iris recognition,” Proc. SPIE 5559, 346-357 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Valdos, L. R. B.

van der Gracht, J.

R. Plemmons, M. Horvath, E. Leonhardt, P. Pauca, S. Prasad, S. Robinson, H. Setty, T. Torgerson, J. van der Gracht, E. Dowski, R. Narayanswamy, and P. E. X. Silveira, “Computational imaging systems for iris recognition,” Proc. SPIE 5559, 346-357 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fan, P. Pauca, R. Plemmons, S. Prasad, T. Torgersen, and J. van der Gracht, “Hamming distance optimized phase masks for iris recognition systems,” Conference on Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging, OSA Technical Digest, 2005.

van der Gratch, J.

S. Prasad, T. C. Torgersen, V. P. Pauca, R. J. Plemmons, and J. van der Gratch, “Engineering the pupil phase to improve image quality,” Proc. SPIE 5108, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wach, H. B.

Zappia, T.

J. R. Mattey, O. Naroditsky, K. Hanna, R. Kolczynski, D. LoIacono, S. Mangru, M. Tinker, T. Zappia, and W. Y. Zhao, “Iris on the move: acquisition of images for iris recognition in less constrained environments,” Proc. IEEE 94, 1936-1947(2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D.

D. Zhang, Automated Biometrics: Technology and Systems (Kluwer, 2000).

Zhao, W. Y.

J. R. Mattey, O. Naroditsky, K. Hanna, R. Kolczynski, D. LoIacono, S. Mangru, M. Tinker, T. Zappia, and W. Y. Zhao, “Iris on the move: acquisition of images for iris recognition in less constrained environments,” Proc. IEEE 94, 1936-1947(2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst.Video Technol.

J. G. Daugman, “How iris recognition works,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst.Video Technol. 14, 21-30 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell.

J. G. Daugman, “High confidence visual recognition of persons by a test of statistical independence,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 15, 1148-1161 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Comput. Vision

J. G. Daugman, “Statistical richness of visual phase information: update on recognizing persons by iris patterns,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 45, 25-38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

J. R. Mattey, O. Naroditsky, K. Hanna, R. Kolczynski, D. LoIacono, S. Mangru, M. Tinker, T. Zappia, and W. Y. Zhao, “Iris on the move: acquisition of images for iris recognition in less constrained environments,” Proc. IEEE 94, 1936-1947(2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

S. Prasad, T. C. Torgersen, V. P. Pauca, R. J. Plemmons, and J. van der Gratch, “Engineering the pupil phase to improve image quality,” Proc. SPIE 5108, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Plemmons, M. Horvath, E. Leonhardt, P. Pauca, S. Prasad, S. Robinson, H. Setty, T. Torgerson, J. van der Gracht, E. Dowski, R. Narayanswamy, and P. E. X. Silveira, “Computational imaging systems for iris recognition,” Proc. SPIE 5559, 346-357 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

Y. Fan, P. Pauca, R. Plemmons, S. Prasad, T. Torgersen, and J. van der Gracht, “Hamming distance optimized phase masks for iris recognition systems,” Conference on Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging, OSA Technical Digest, 2005.

K. N. Smith, V. P. Pauca, A. Ross, T. Torgersen, and M. C. King, “Extended evaluation of simulated wavefront coding technology in iris recognition,” IEEE Conf. on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems, September 2007.

D. Zhang, Automated Biometrics: Technology and Systems (Kluwer, 2000).

D. Bertsekas, Nonlinear Programming (Athena Scientific, 1999).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1968).

L. G. Farkas, Anthropometry of the Head and Face (Raven, 1994).

D. M. Dobeš and L. Machala, “Iris database,” http://www.info.upol.cz/iris/.

The author is preparing a paper with the title “Simple, fast best-fit circular and elliptical iris boundaries from edge maps.”

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Example of an iris image. The iris texture radiates outward in a spokelike manner.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Unfolded iris mapping transforms the “spokes” into a “zebra stripe” pattern.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized MTFs of the lens in Table 1 with (a) the proposed phase mask, (b) a cubic phase mask of strength 30, and (c) a cubic mask of strength 62.93.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross sections of the MTFs in Fig. 3 are plotted versus spatial frequency radius (a) along the axis and (b) at an angle of 45 ° . (c) Cross sections of the designed MTF are plotted at angles of 0 ° , 45 ° , and 135 ° .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Cross sections of the phase of the corresponding OTFs in Fig. 3 are plotted versus radius (a) along the axis and (b) at an angle of 45 ° .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Hamming distance distributions for mismatches (capped with squares) and correct matches (capped with circles) for the lens with the proposed phase mask design at best focus.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Plot of the decidability of the matching and mismatching Hamming distributions versus object distance for the lens without a phase mask, the lens with the designed phase mask of Eq. (9), the lens with a cubic phase mask of strength 30, and the lens with a cubic phase mask of strength 62.93. The dashed line is at a decidability of 5.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Lens Specifications a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Cost Values for Systems

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Γ ( x , y ) = a 1 ( x 3 + y 3 ) + a 2 ( x 2 y + x y 2 ) + a 3 ( x 5 + y 5 ) + a 4 ( x 4 y + x y 4 ) + a 5 ( x 3 y 2 + x 2 y 3 ) ,
2 τ 2 H ( a , u , v , 0 ) = ( u 2 π ) 2 F { h r r } + ( v 2 π ) 2 F { h s s } + 2 u v ( 2 π ) 2 F { h r s }
h r s = h * 2 h r s h r h * s h s h * r + h 2 h * r s ,
h d d = h * 2 h d 2 2 h d h * d + h 2 h * d 2 ,
D ( a ) = 2 τ 2 H ( a , u , v , 0 ) E ( n m | 2 τ 2 H ( a , u n , v m , 0 ) | 2 ) 1 2 ,
S ( a ) = m | H ( a , ρ o , α ref , 0 ) H ( a , ρ o , α m , 0 ) | ,
B ( a ) = max { | H ( a , u , v , 0 ) | } , ( u , v ) P ,
C ( a ) = w D D ( a ) + w S S ( a ) + w B B ( a ) ,
a = [ 16.44 , 71.696 , 265.02 , 370.016 , 267.97 ] .
d = μ mismatch μ match 1 2 ( σ mismatch 2 + σ match 2 ) ,

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