Abstract

We measure high-temporal-resolution time-of-flight distributions of picosecond laser pulses in the visible and near-infrared, scattered in the forward direction by solid and liquid phantoms, and compare them to those obtained by using ex vivo tissues. We demonstrate that time-of-flight distributions from solid phantoms made of Delrin, Nylon, and Teflon are modulated by ripples that are absent in the biological samples and disappear when the temporal and/or angular resolution of the measuring apparatus is decreased. This behavior prevents the use of such materials as tissue phantoms when spatial mode and time selection are required, such as in imaging methods exploiting early arriving photons.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007 (2)

A. Andreoni, L. Nardo, A. Brega, and M. Bondani, “Optical profiles with 180 μm resolution of objects hidden in scattering media,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 024921/1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Sun, C. Zhang, Z. Hao, and J. Tian, “Effect of surface roughness on determination of tissue optical properties obtained by diffusion approximation,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3649-3652 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (7)

E. S. Clark, “The crystal structure of polytetrafluoroethylene, forms I and IV,” J. Macr. Sci. B: Physics 45, 201-213 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Becker, The bh TCSPC Handbook (Becker & Hickl GmbH, 2006).

J. C. Hebden, B. D. Price, A. P. Gibson, and G. Royle, “A soft deformable tissue-equivalent phantom for diffuse optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 5581-5590 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J Biomed. Opt. 11, 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sundberg, T. Lindbergh, and T. Strömberg, “Monte Carlo simulations of backscattered light intensity from convex and concave surfaces with an optical fiber array sensor,” Proc. SPIE 6084, 608404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Deka, M. B. MacMillan, A. V. Ouriadov, I. V. Mastikhin, J. J. Young, P. M. Glover, G. R. Ziegler, and B. J. Balcom, “Quantitative density profiling with pure phase encoding and a dedicated 1D gradient,” J. Magn. Reson. 178, 25-32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Cong, K. Durairaj, L. V. Wang, and G. Wang, “A Born-type approximation method for bioluminescence tomography,” Med. Phys. 33, 679-686 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, and R. Cubeddu, “Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances,” J Biomed. Opt. 9, 1143-1151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, A. Brega, F. Paleari, A. S. Spinelli, and G. Zambra, “Detection of nondelayed photons in the forward-scattering of picosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2457-2459 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

Y. Li, D. Yan, and G. Zhang, “Crystalline structure and thermal behavior of Nylon-10,14,” J. Polym. Sci. B 41, 1422-1427 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Humm, D. Ballon, Y. C. Hu, S. Ruan, C. Chui, P. K. Tulipano, A. Erdi, J. Koutcher, K. Zakian, M. Urano, P. Zanzonico, C. Mattis, J. Dyke, Y. Chen, P Harrington, J. A. O'Donoghue, and C. C. Ling, “A stereotactic method for the three-dimensional registration of multi-modality biologic images in animals: NMR, PET, histology, and autoradiography,” Med. Phys. 30, 2303-2314 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Dunsby and P. M. W. French, “Techniques for depth-resolved imaging through turbid media including coherence-gated imaging,” J. Phys. D 36, R207-R227 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Binzoni, T. S. Leung, D. Boggett, and D. Delphy, “Non-invasive laser Doppler perfusion measurements of large tissue volumes and human skeletal muscle blood RMS velocity,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 2527-2549 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

M. Lualdi, A. Colombo, A. Mari, S. Tomatis, and R. Marchesini, “Development of simulated pigmented lesions in an optical skin-tissue phantom: experimental measurements in the visible and near infrared,” J. Laser Appl. 14, 122-127 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Wei, W. Davis, B. Urban, Y. Song, F. E. Porbeni, X. Wang, J. L. White, C. M. Balik, C. C. Rusa, J. Fox, and A. E. Tonelli, “Manipulation of Nylon-6 crystal structures with its α-Cyclodextrin inclusion complex,” Macromolecules 35, 8039-8044 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, Y. Onodera, M. Ohmi, M. Haruna, and Y. Yamada, “Imaging of in vitro chicken leg using time-resolved near infrared optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 1979-1993 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

S. Svanberg, “Some applications of ultrashort laser pulses in biology and medicine,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1777-1783 (2001) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

T. L. Troy and S. N. Thennadil, “Optical properties of human skin in the near infrared wavelength range of 1000 to 2200 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 167-176 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

1998 (3)

C. R. Simpson, M. Kohl, M. Essenpreis, and M. Cope, “Near-infrared optical properties of ex vivo human skin and subcutaneous tissues measured using the Monte Carlo inversion technique,” Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 2465-2478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Gannot, R. F. Bonner, G. Gannot, P. C. Fox, P. D. Smith, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Optical simulations of a noninvasive technique for the diagnosis of diseased salivary glands in situ,” Med. Phys. 25, 1139-1144 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Puiggalì, L. Franco, C. Aleman, and J. A. Subirana, “Crystal structures of Nylon 5,6. A model with two hydrogen bond directions for Nylons derived from odd diamidines,” Macromolecules 31, 8540-8548 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, “A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1971-1979 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Jarlman, R. Berg, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, and H. Pettersson, “Time-resolved white light transillumination for optical imaging,” Acta Radiologica 38, 185-189 (1997).
[PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical imaging in medicine: I. Experimental techniques,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 825-840 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Matcher, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “In vivo measurements of the wavelength dependence of tissue-scattering coefficients between 760 and 900 nm measured with time-resolved spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 36, 386-396 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

R. Berg, S. Andersson-Engels, O. Jarlman, and S. Svanberg, “Time-gated viewing studies on tissuelike phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 35, 3432-3440 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, K. T. Moesta, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, “Frequency-domain optical mammography: edge effect corrections,” Med. Phys. 23, 149-157 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

J. C. Hebden, D. J. Hall, and D. T. Delpy, “The spatial resolution performance of a time-resolved optical imaging system using temporal extrapolation,” Med. Phys. 22, 201-208 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1993 (4)

1992 (2)

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Laser Surg. Med. 12, 510-519 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Haselgrove, N. G. Wang, and B. Chance, “Investigation of the nonlinear aspects of imaging through a highly scattering medium,” Med. Phys. 19, 17-23 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769-771 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (3)

V. G. Peters, D. R. Wyman, M. S. Patterson, and G. L. Frank, “Optical properties of normal and diseased human breast tissues in the visible and near infrared,” Phys. Med. Biol. 35, 1317-1334 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Harding, M. Newton, and J. Kosanetzky, “Energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 35, 33-41 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Yoo and R. R. Alfano, “Time-resolved coherent and incoherent components of forward light scattering in random media,” Opt. Lett. 15, 320-322 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

A. L. Lacaita, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “Double epitaxy improves single-photon avalanche diode performance,” Electron. Lett. 25, 841-843 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Shimomura, Y. Maeda, and Y. Tanabe, “Mechanical properties of polyoxymethylene whiskers/polyoxymethylene resin composite films,” J. Mater. Sci. 24, 2245-2249 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

A. A. Borovikov, G. N. Khlybov, and M. I. Yakushin, “Optical properties of Teflon at high temperatures,” J. Appl. Mech. Tech. Phys. 15, 516-520 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Aleman, C.

J. Puiggalì, L. Franco, C. Aleman, and J. A. Subirana, “Crystal structures of Nylon 5,6. A model with two hydrogen bond directions for Nylons derived from odd diamidines,” Macromolecules 31, 8540-8548 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

Andersson-Engels, S.

A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, and R. Cubeddu, “Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances,” J Biomed. Opt. 9, 1143-1151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Jarlman, R. Berg, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, and H. Pettersson, “Time-resolved white light transillumination for optical imaging,” Acta Radiologica 38, 185-189 (1997).
[PubMed]

R. Berg, S. Andersson-Engels, O. Jarlman, and S. Svanberg, “Time-gated viewing studies on tissuelike phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 35, 3432-3440 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andreoni, A.

A. Andreoni, L. Nardo, A. Brega, and M. Bondani, “Optical profiles with 180 μm resolution of objects hidden in scattering media,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 024921/1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, A. Brega, F. Paleari, A. S. Spinelli, and G. Zambra, “Detection of nondelayed photons in the forward-scattering of picosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2457-2459 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arridge, S. R.

J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical imaging in medicine: I. Experimental techniques,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 825-840 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balcom, B. J.

K. Deka, M. B. MacMillan, A. V. Ouriadov, I. V. Mastikhin, J. J. Young, P. M. Glover, G. R. Ziegler, and B. J. Balcom, “Quantitative density profiling with pure phase encoding and a dedicated 1D gradient,” J. Magn. Reson. 178, 25-32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Balik, C. M.

M. Wei, W. Davis, B. Urban, Y. Song, F. E. Porbeni, X. Wang, J. L. White, C. M. Balik, C. C. Rusa, J. Fox, and A. E. Tonelli, “Manipulation of Nylon-6 crystal structures with its α-Cyclodextrin inclusion complex,” Macromolecules 35, 8039-8044 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ballon, D.

J. L. Humm, D. Ballon, Y. C. Hu, S. Ruan, C. Chui, P. K. Tulipano, A. Erdi, J. Koutcher, K. Zakian, M. Urano, P. Zanzonico, C. Mattis, J. Dyke, Y. Chen, P Harrington, J. A. O'Donoghue, and C. C. Ling, “A stereotactic method for the three-dimensional registration of multi-modality biologic images in animals: NMR, PET, histology, and autoradiography,” Med. Phys. 30, 2303-2314 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bassi, A.

A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, and R. Cubeddu, “Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances,” J Biomed. Opt. 9, 1143-1151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, W.

W. Becker, The bh TCSPC Handbook (Becker & Hickl GmbH, 2006).

Benaron, D. A.

D. A. Benaron and D. K. Stevenson, “Optical time-of-flight and absorbance imaging of biologic media,” Science 259, 1463-1466 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berg, R.

O. Jarlman, R. Berg, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, and H. Pettersson, “Time-resolved white light transillumination for optical imaging,” Acta Radiologica 38, 185-189 (1997).
[PubMed]

R. Berg, S. Andersson-Engels, O. Jarlman, and S. Svanberg, “Time-gated viewing studies on tissuelike phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 35, 3432-3440 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Binzoni, T.

T. Binzoni, T. S. Leung, D. Boggett, and D. Delphy, “Non-invasive laser Doppler perfusion measurements of large tissue volumes and human skeletal muscle blood RMS velocity,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 2527-2549 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boggett, D.

T. Binzoni, T. S. Leung, D. Boggett, and D. Delphy, “Non-invasive laser Doppler perfusion measurements of large tissue volumes and human skeletal muscle blood RMS velocity,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 2527-2549 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bondani, M.

A. Andreoni, L. Nardo, A. Brega, and M. Bondani, “Optical profiles with 180 μm resolution of objects hidden in scattering media,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 024921/1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, A. Brega, F. Paleari, A. S. Spinelli, and G. Zambra, “Detection of nondelayed photons in the forward-scattering of picosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2457-2459 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bonner, R. F.

I. Gannot, R. F. Bonner, G. Gannot, P. C. Fox, P. D. Smith, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Optical simulations of a noninvasive technique for the diagnosis of diseased salivary glands in situ,” Med. Phys. 25, 1139-1144 (1998).
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A. A. Borovikov, G. N. Khlybov, and M. I. Yakushin, “Optical properties of Teflon at high temperatures,” J. Appl. Mech. Tech. Phys. 15, 516-520 (1976).
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Brega, A.

A. Andreoni, L. Nardo, A. Brega, and M. Bondani, “Optical profiles with 180 μm resolution of objects hidden in scattering media,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 024921/1 (2007).
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A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, A. Brega, F. Paleari, A. S. Spinelli, and G. Zambra, “Detection of nondelayed photons in the forward-scattering of picosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2457-2459 (2004).
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J. C. Haselgrove, N. G. Wang, and B. Chance, “Investigation of the nonlinear aspects of imaging through a highly scattering medium,” Med. Phys. 19, 17-23 (1992).
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Chen, Y.

J. L. Humm, D. Ballon, Y. C. Hu, S. Ruan, C. Chui, P. K. Tulipano, A. Erdi, J. Koutcher, K. Zakian, M. Urano, P. Zanzonico, C. Mattis, J. Dyke, Y. Chen, P Harrington, J. A. O'Donoghue, and C. C. Ling, “A stereotactic method for the three-dimensional registration of multi-modality biologic images in animals: NMR, PET, histology, and autoradiography,” Med. Phys. 30, 2303-2314 (2003).
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A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, and R. Cubeddu, “Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances,” J Biomed. Opt. 9, 1143-1151 (2004).
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J. L. Humm, D. Ballon, Y. C. Hu, S. Ruan, C. Chui, P. K. Tulipano, A. Erdi, J. Koutcher, K. Zakian, M. Urano, P. Zanzonico, C. Mattis, J. Dyke, Y. Chen, P Harrington, J. A. O'Donoghue, and C. C. Ling, “A stereotactic method for the three-dimensional registration of multi-modality biologic images in animals: NMR, PET, histology, and autoradiography,” Med. Phys. 30, 2303-2314 (2003).
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E. S. Clark, “The crystal structure of polytetrafluoroethylene, forms I and IV,” J. Macr. Sci. B: Physics 45, 201-213 (2006).
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M. Lualdi, A. Colombo, A. Mari, S. Tomatis, and R. Marchesini, “Development of simulated pigmented lesions in an optical skin-tissue phantom: experimental measurements in the visible and near infrared,” J. Laser Appl. 14, 122-127 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Cong, W.

Cope, M.

C. R. Simpson, M. Kohl, M. Essenpreis, and M. Cope, “Near-infrared optical properties of ex vivo human skin and subcutaneous tissues measured using the Monte Carlo inversion technique,” Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 2465-2478 (1998).
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S. J. Matcher, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “In vivo measurements of the wavelength dependence of tissue-scattering coefficients between 760 and 900 nm measured with time-resolved spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 36, 386-396 (1997).
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A. L. Lacaita, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “Double epitaxy improves single-photon avalanche diode performance,” Electron. Lett. 25, 841-843 (1989).
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A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, and R. Cubeddu, “Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances,” J Biomed. Opt. 9, 1143-1151 (2004).
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R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, “A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1971-1979 (1997).
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K. Deka, M. B. MacMillan, A. V. Ouriadov, I. V. Mastikhin, J. J. Young, P. M. Glover, G. R. Ziegler, and B. J. Balcom, “Quantitative density profiling with pure phase encoding and a dedicated 1D gradient,” J. Magn. Reson. 178, 25-32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Delfino, I.

Delphy, D.

T. Binzoni, T. S. Leung, D. Boggett, and D. Delphy, “Non-invasive laser Doppler perfusion measurements of large tissue volumes and human skeletal muscle blood RMS velocity,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 2527-2549 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delpy, D. T.

S. J. Matcher, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “In vivo measurements of the wavelength dependence of tissue-scattering coefficients between 760 and 900 nm measured with time-resolved spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 36, 386-396 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical imaging in medicine: I. Experimental techniques,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 825-840 (1997).
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J. C. Hebden, D. J. Hall, and D. T. Delpy, “The spatial resolution performance of a time-resolved optical imaging system using temporal extrapolation,” Med. Phys. 22, 201-208 (1995).
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Duncan, M. D.

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C. Dunsby and P. M. W. French, “Techniques for depth-resolved imaging through turbid media including coherence-gated imaging,” J. Phys. D 36, R207-R227 (2003).
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J. L. Humm, D. Ballon, Y. C. Hu, S. Ruan, C. Chui, P. K. Tulipano, A. Erdi, J. Koutcher, K. Zakian, M. Urano, P. Zanzonico, C. Mattis, J. Dyke, Y. Chen, P Harrington, J. A. O'Donoghue, and C. C. Ling, “A stereotactic method for the three-dimensional registration of multi-modality biologic images in animals: NMR, PET, histology, and autoradiography,” Med. Phys. 30, 2303-2314 (2003).
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J. L. Humm, D. Ballon, Y. C. Hu, S. Ruan, C. Chui, P. K. Tulipano, A. Erdi, J. Koutcher, K. Zakian, M. Urano, P. Zanzonico, C. Mattis, J. Dyke, Y. Chen, P Harrington, J. A. O'Donoghue, and C. C. Ling, “A stereotactic method for the three-dimensional registration of multi-modality biologic images in animals: NMR, PET, histology, and autoradiography,” Med. Phys. 30, 2303-2314 (2003).
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C. R. Simpson, M. Kohl, M. Essenpreis, and M. Cope, “Near-infrared optical properties of ex vivo human skin and subcutaneous tissues measured using the Monte Carlo inversion technique,” Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 2465-2478 (1998).
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S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, K. T. Moesta, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, “Frequency-domain optical mammography: edge effect corrections,” Med. Phys. 23, 149-157 (1996).
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S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Laser Surg. Med. 12, 510-519 (1992).
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M. Wei, W. Davis, B. Urban, Y. Song, F. E. Porbeni, X. Wang, J. L. White, C. M. Balik, C. C. Rusa, J. Fox, and A. E. Tonelli, “Manipulation of Nylon-6 crystal structures with its α-Cyclodextrin inclusion complex,” Macromolecules 35, 8039-8044 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fox, P. C.

I. Gannot, R. F. Bonner, G. Gannot, P. C. Fox, P. D. Smith, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Optical simulations of a noninvasive technique for the diagnosis of diseased salivary glands in situ,” Med. Phys. 25, 1139-1144 (1998).
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Franceschini, M. A.

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, K. T. Moesta, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, “Frequency-domain optical mammography: edge effect corrections,” Med. Phys. 23, 149-157 (1996).
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J. Puiggalì, L. Franco, C. Aleman, and J. A. Subirana, “Crystal structures of Nylon 5,6. A model with two hydrogen bond directions for Nylons derived from odd diamidines,” Macromolecules 31, 8540-8548 (1998).
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C. Dunsby and P. M. W. French, “Techniques for depth-resolved imaging through turbid media including coherence-gated imaging,” J. Phys. D 36, R207-R227 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gaida, G.

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, K. T. Moesta, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, “Frequency-domain optical mammography: edge effect corrections,” Med. Phys. 23, 149-157 (1996).
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Gandjbakhche, A. H.

I. Gannot, R. F. Bonner, G. Gannot, P. C. Fox, P. D. Smith, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Optical simulations of a noninvasive technique for the diagnosis of diseased salivary glands in situ,” Med. Phys. 25, 1139-1144 (1998).
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Gannot, G.

I. Gannot, R. F. Bonner, G. Gannot, P. C. Fox, P. D. Smith, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Optical simulations of a noninvasive technique for the diagnosis of diseased salivary glands in situ,” Med. Phys. 25, 1139-1144 (1998).
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Gannot, I.

I. Gannot, R. F. Bonner, G. Gannot, P. C. Fox, P. D. Smith, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Optical simulations of a noninvasive technique for the diagnosis of diseased salivary glands in situ,” Med. Phys. 25, 1139-1144 (1998).
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Gao, F.

H. Zhao, F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, Y. Onodera, M. Ohmi, M. Haruna, and Y. Yamada, “Imaging of in vitro chicken leg using time-resolved near infrared optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 1979-1993 (2002).
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A. L. Lacaita, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “Double epitaxy improves single-photon avalanche diode performance,” Electron. Lett. 25, 841-843 (1989).
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J. C. Hebden, B. D. Price, A. P. Gibson, and G. Royle, “A soft deformable tissue-equivalent phantom for diffuse optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 5581-5590 (2006).
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K. Deka, M. B. MacMillan, A. V. Ouriadov, I. V. Mastikhin, J. J. Young, P. M. Glover, G. R. Ziegler, and B. J. Balcom, “Quantitative density profiling with pure phase encoding and a dedicated 1D gradient,” J. Magn. Reson. 178, 25-32 (2006).
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Gratton, E.

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, K. T. Moesta, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, “Frequency-domain optical mammography: edge effect corrections,” Med. Phys. 23, 149-157 (1996).
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Hall, D. J.

J. C. Hebden, D. J. Hall, and D. T. Delpy, “The spatial resolution performance of a time-resolved optical imaging system using temporal extrapolation,” Med. Phys. 22, 201-208 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hao, Z.

Harding, G.

G. Harding, M. Newton, and J. Kosanetzky, “Energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 35, 33-41 (1990).
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J. L. Humm, D. Ballon, Y. C. Hu, S. Ruan, C. Chui, P. K. Tulipano, A. Erdi, J. Koutcher, K. Zakian, M. Urano, P. Zanzonico, C. Mattis, J. Dyke, Y. Chen, P Harrington, J. A. O'Donoghue, and C. C. Ling, “A stereotactic method for the three-dimensional registration of multi-modality biologic images in animals: NMR, PET, histology, and autoradiography,” Med. Phys. 30, 2303-2314 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. Zhao, F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, Y. Onodera, M. Ohmi, M. Haruna, and Y. Yamada, “Imaging of in vitro chicken leg using time-resolved near infrared optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 1979-1993 (2002).
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Haselgrove, J. C.

J. C. Haselgrove, N. G. Wang, and B. Chance, “Investigation of the nonlinear aspects of imaging through a highly scattering medium,” Med. Phys. 19, 17-23 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hebden, J. C.

J. C. Hebden, B. D. Price, A. P. Gibson, and G. Royle, “A soft deformable tissue-equivalent phantom for diffuse optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 5581-5590 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical imaging in medicine: I. Experimental techniques,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 825-840 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, D. J. Hall, and D. T. Delpy, “The spatial resolution performance of a time-resolved optical imaging system using temporal extrapolation,” Med. Phys. 22, 201-208 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

Ho, P. P.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769-771 (1991).
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Hoffman, E. A.

Hu, Y. C.

J. L. Humm, D. Ballon, Y. C. Hu, S. Ruan, C. Chui, P. K. Tulipano, A. Erdi, J. Koutcher, K. Zakian, M. Urano, P. Zanzonico, C. Mattis, J. Dyke, Y. Chen, P Harrington, J. A. O'Donoghue, and C. C. Ling, “A stereotactic method for the three-dimensional registration of multi-modality biologic images in animals: NMR, PET, histology, and autoradiography,” Med. Phys. 30, 2303-2314 (2003).
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J. L. Humm, D. Ballon, Y. C. Hu, S. Ruan, C. Chui, P. K. Tulipano, A. Erdi, J. Koutcher, K. Zakian, M. Urano, P. Zanzonico, C. Mattis, J. Dyke, Y. Chen, P Harrington, J. A. O'Donoghue, and C. C. Ling, “A stereotactic method for the three-dimensional registration of multi-modality biologic images in animals: NMR, PET, histology, and autoradiography,” Med. Phys. 30, 2303-2314 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Izatt, J. A.

Jacobson, J. M.

Jacques, S. L.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Laser Surg. Med. 12, 510-519 (1992).
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O. Jarlman, R. Berg, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, and H. Pettersson, “Time-resolved white light transillumination for optical imaging,” Acta Radiologica 38, 185-189 (1997).
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S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, K. T. Moesta, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, “Frequency-domain optical mammography: edge effect corrections,” Med. Phys. 23, 149-157 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, M.

Kaschke, M.

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, K. T. Moesta, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, “Frequency-domain optical mammography: edge effect corrections,” Med. Phys. 23, 149-157 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khlybov, G. N.

A. A. Borovikov, G. N. Khlybov, and M. I. Yakushin, “Optical properties of Teflon at high temperatures,” J. Appl. Mech. Tech. Phys. 15, 516-520 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kohl, M.

C. R. Simpson, M. Kohl, M. Essenpreis, and M. Cope, “Near-infrared optical properties of ex vivo human skin and subcutaneous tissues measured using the Monte Carlo inversion technique,” Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 2465-2478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kölzer, J.

Kosanetzky, J.

G. Harding, M. Newton, and J. Kosanetzky, “Energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 35, 33-41 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Koutcher, J.

J. L. Humm, D. Ballon, Y. C. Hu, S. Ruan, C. Chui, P. K. Tulipano, A. Erdi, J. Koutcher, K. Zakian, M. Urano, P. Zanzonico, C. Mattis, J. Dyke, Y. Chen, P Harrington, J. A. O'Donoghue, and C. C. Ling, “A stereotactic method for the three-dimensional registration of multi-modality biologic images in animals: NMR, PET, histology, and autoradiography,” Med. Phys. 30, 2303-2314 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lacaita, A. L.

A. L. Lacaita, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “Double epitaxy improves single-photon avalanche diode performance,” Electron. Lett. 25, 841-843 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lantz, E.

Le Tolguenec, G.

Lepore, M.

Leung, T. S.

T. Binzoni, T. S. Leung, D. Boggett, and D. Delphy, “Non-invasive laser Doppler perfusion measurements of large tissue volumes and human skeletal muscle blood RMS velocity,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 2527-2549 (2003).
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Y. Li, D. Yan, and G. Zhang, “Crystalline structure and thermal behavior of Nylon-10,14,” J. Polym. Sci. B 41, 1422-1427 (2003).
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M. Sundberg, T. Lindbergh, and T. Strömberg, “Monte Carlo simulations of backscattered light intensity from convex and concave surfaces with an optical fiber array sensor,” Proc. SPIE 6084, 608404 (2006).
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J. L. Humm, D. Ballon, Y. C. Hu, S. Ruan, C. Chui, P. K. Tulipano, A. Erdi, J. Koutcher, K. Zakian, M. Urano, P. Zanzonico, C. Mattis, J. Dyke, Y. Chen, P Harrington, J. A. O'Donoghue, and C. C. Ling, “A stereotactic method for the three-dimensional registration of multi-modality biologic images in animals: NMR, PET, histology, and autoradiography,” Med. Phys. 30, 2303-2314 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, C.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769-771 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Lualdi, M.

M. Lualdi, A. Colombo, A. Mari, S. Tomatis, and R. Marchesini, “Development of simulated pigmented lesions in an optical skin-tissue phantom: experimental measurements in the visible and near infrared,” J. Laser Appl. 14, 122-127 (2002).
[CrossRef]

MacMillan, M. B.

K. Deka, M. B. MacMillan, A. V. Ouriadov, I. V. Mastikhin, J. J. Young, P. M. Glover, G. R. Ziegler, and B. J. Balcom, “Quantitative density profiling with pure phase encoding and a dedicated 1D gradient,” J. Magn. Reson. 178, 25-32 (2006).
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M. Shimomura, Y. Maeda, and Y. Tanabe, “Mechanical properties of polyoxymethylene whiskers/polyoxymethylene resin composite films,” J. Mater. Sci. 24, 2245-2249 (1989).
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Mahon, R.

Maitland, D. J.

Mantulin, W. W.

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, K. T. Moesta, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, “Frequency-domain optical mammography: edge effect corrections,” Med. Phys. 23, 149-157 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marchesini, R.

M. Lualdi, A. Colombo, A. Mari, S. Tomatis, and R. Marchesini, “Development of simulated pigmented lesions in an optical skin-tissue phantom: experimental measurements in the visible and near infrared,” J. Laser Appl. 14, 122-127 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mari, A.

M. Lualdi, A. Colombo, A. Mari, S. Tomatis, and R. Marchesini, “Development of simulated pigmented lesions in an optical skin-tissue phantom: experimental measurements in the visible and near infrared,” J. Laser Appl. 14, 122-127 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mastikhin, I. V.

K. Deka, M. B. MacMillan, A. V. Ouriadov, I. V. Mastikhin, J. J. Young, P. M. Glover, G. R. Ziegler, and B. J. Balcom, “Quantitative density profiling with pure phase encoding and a dedicated 1D gradient,” J. Magn. Reson. 178, 25-32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matcher, S. J.

Mattis, C.

J. L. Humm, D. Ballon, Y. C. Hu, S. Ruan, C. Chui, P. K. Tulipano, A. Erdi, J. Koutcher, K. Zakian, M. Urano, P. Zanzonico, C. Mattis, J. Dyke, Y. Chen, P Harrington, J. A. O'Donoghue, and C. C. Ling, “A stereotactic method for the three-dimensional registration of multi-modality biologic images in animals: NMR, PET, histology, and autoradiography,” Med. Phys. 30, 2303-2314 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCray, P. B.

McLennan, G.

Mitic, G.

Moesta, K. T.

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, K. T. Moesta, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, “Frequency-domain optical mammography: edge effect corrections,” Med. Phys. 23, 149-157 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moon, J. A.

Nardo, L.

A. Andreoni, L. Nardo, A. Brega, and M. Bondani, “Optical profiles with 180 μm resolution of objects hidden in scattering media,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 024921/1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Newton, M.

G. Harding, M. Newton, and J. Kosanetzky, “Energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 35, 33-41 (1990).
[CrossRef]

O'Donoghue, J. A.

J. L. Humm, D. Ballon, Y. C. Hu, S. Ruan, C. Chui, P. K. Tulipano, A. Erdi, J. Koutcher, K. Zakian, M. Urano, P. Zanzonico, C. Mattis, J. Dyke, Y. Chen, P Harrington, J. A. O'Donoghue, and C. C. Ling, “A stereotactic method for the three-dimensional registration of multi-modality biologic images in animals: NMR, PET, histology, and autoradiography,” Med. Phys. 30, 2303-2314 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohmi, M.

H. Zhao, F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, Y. Onodera, M. Ohmi, M. Haruna, and Y. Yamada, “Imaging of in vitro chicken leg using time-resolved near infrared optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 1979-1993 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Onodera, Y.

H. Zhao, F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, Y. Onodera, M. Ohmi, M. Haruna, and Y. Yamada, “Imaging of in vitro chicken leg using time-resolved near infrared optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 1979-1993 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Otto, J.

Ouriadov, A. V.

K. Deka, M. B. MacMillan, A. V. Ouriadov, I. V. Mastikhin, J. J. Young, P. M. Glover, G. R. Ziegler, and B. J. Balcom, “Quantitative density profiling with pure phase encoding and a dedicated 1D gradient,” J. Magn. Reson. 178, 25-32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Paleari, F.

A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, A. Brega, F. Paleari, A. S. Spinelli, and G. Zambra, “Detection of nondelayed photons in the forward-scattering of picosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2457-2459 (2004).
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B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J Biomed. Opt. 11, 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Peters, D. R. Wyman, M. S. Patterson, and G. L. Frank, “Optical properties of normal and diseased human breast tissues in the visible and near infrared,” Phys. Med. Biol. 35, 1317-1334 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peters, V. G.

V. G. Peters, D. R. Wyman, M. S. Patterson, and G. L. Frank, “Optical properties of normal and diseased human breast tissues in the visible and near infrared,” Phys. Med. Biol. 35, 1317-1334 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pettersson, H.

O. Jarlman, R. Berg, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, and H. Pettersson, “Time-resolved white light transillumination for optical imaging,” Acta Radiologica 38, 185-189 (1997).
[PubMed]

Pifferi, A.

A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, and R. Cubeddu, “Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances,” J Biomed. Opt. 9, 1143-1151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, “A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1971-1979 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plies, E.

Pogue, B. W.

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J Biomed. Opt. 11, 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Porbeni, F. E.

M. Wei, W. Davis, B. Urban, Y. Song, F. E. Porbeni, X. Wang, J. L. White, C. M. Balik, C. C. Rusa, J. Fox, and A. E. Tonelli, “Manipulation of Nylon-6 crystal structures with its α-Cyclodextrin inclusion complex,” Macromolecules 35, 8039-8044 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Price, B. D.

J. C. Hebden, B. D. Price, A. P. Gibson, and G. Royle, “A soft deformable tissue-equivalent phantom for diffuse optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 5581-5590 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puiggalì, J.

J. Puiggalì, L. Franco, C. Aleman, and J. A. Subirana, “Crystal structures of Nylon 5,6. A model with two hydrogen bond directions for Nylons derived from odd diamidines,” Macromolecules 31, 8540-8548 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Reintjes, J.

Royle, G.

J. C. Hebden, B. D. Price, A. P. Gibson, and G. Royle, “A soft deformable tissue-equivalent phantom for diffuse optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 5581-5590 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruan, S.

J. L. Humm, D. Ballon, Y. C. Hu, S. Ruan, C. Chui, P. K. Tulipano, A. Erdi, J. Koutcher, K. Zakian, M. Urano, P. Zanzonico, C. Mattis, J. Dyke, Y. Chen, P Harrington, J. A. O'Donoghue, and C. C. Ling, “A stereotactic method for the three-dimensional registration of multi-modality biologic images in animals: NMR, PET, histology, and autoradiography,” Med. Phys. 30, 2303-2314 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rusa, C. C.

M. Wei, W. Davis, B. Urban, Y. Song, F. E. Porbeni, X. Wang, J. L. White, C. M. Balik, C. C. Rusa, J. Fox, and A. E. Tonelli, “Manipulation of Nylon-6 crystal structures with its α-Cyclodextrin inclusion complex,” Macromolecules 35, 8039-8044 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sankaran, V.

Schlag, P. M.

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, K. T. Moesta, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, “Frequency-domain optical mammography: edge effect corrections,” Med. Phys. 23, 149-157 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimomura, M.

M. Shimomura, Y. Maeda, and Y. Tanabe, “Mechanical properties of polyoxymethylene whiskers/polyoxymethylene resin composite films,” J. Mater. Sci. 24, 2245-2249 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, C. R.

C. R. Simpson, M. Kohl, M. Essenpreis, and M. Cope, “Near-infrared optical properties of ex vivo human skin and subcutaneous tissues measured using the Monte Carlo inversion technique,” Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 2465-2478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, P. D.

I. Gannot, R. F. Bonner, G. Gannot, P. C. Fox, P. D. Smith, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Optical simulations of a noninvasive technique for the diagnosis of diseased salivary glands in situ,” Med. Phys. 25, 1139-1144 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sölkner, G.

Song, Y.

M. Wei, W. Davis, B. Urban, Y. Song, F. E. Porbeni, X. Wang, J. L. White, C. M. Balik, C. C. Rusa, J. Fox, and A. E. Tonelli, “Manipulation of Nylon-6 crystal structures with its α-Cyclodextrin inclusion complex,” Macromolecules 35, 8039-8044 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Spinelli, A. S.

A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, A. Brega, F. Paleari, A. S. Spinelli, and G. Zambra, “Detection of nondelayed photons in the forward-scattering of picosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2457-2459 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Star, W. M.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Laser Surg. Med. 12, 510-519 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, D. K.

D. A. Benaron and D. K. Stevenson, “Optical time-of-flight and absorbance imaging of biologic media,” Science 259, 1463-1466 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strömberg, T.

M. Sundberg, T. Lindbergh, and T. Strömberg, “Monte Carlo simulations of backscattered light intensity from convex and concave surfaces with an optical fiber array sensor,” Proc. SPIE 6084, 608404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Subirana, J. A.

J. Puiggalì, L. Franco, C. Aleman, and J. A. Subirana, “Crystal structures of Nylon 5,6. A model with two hydrogen bond directions for Nylons derived from odd diamidines,” Macromolecules 31, 8540-8548 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sun, M.

Sundberg, M.

M. Sundberg, T. Lindbergh, and T. Strömberg, “Monte Carlo simulations of backscattered light intensity from convex and concave surfaces with an optical fiber array sensor,” Proc. SPIE 6084, 608404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Svanberg, S.

S. Svanberg, “Some applications of ultrashort laser pulses in biology and medicine,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1777-1783 (2001) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

O. Jarlman, R. Berg, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, and H. Pettersson, “Time-resolved white light transillumination for optical imaging,” Acta Radiologica 38, 185-189 (1997).
[PubMed]

R. Berg, S. Andersson-Engels, O. Jarlman, and S. Svanberg, “Time-gated viewing studies on tissuelike phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 35, 3432-3440 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swartling, J.

A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, and R. Cubeddu, “Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances,” J Biomed. Opt. 9, 1143-1151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanabe, Y.

M. Shimomura, Y. Maeda, and Y. Tanabe, “Mechanical properties of polyoxymethylene whiskers/polyoxymethylene resin composite films,” J. Mater. Sci. 24, 2245-2249 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tanikawa, Y.

H. Zhao, F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, Y. Onodera, M. Ohmi, M. Haruna, and Y. Yamada, “Imaging of in vitro chicken leg using time-resolved near infrared optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 1979-1993 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taroni, P.

A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, and R. Cubeddu, “Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances,” J Biomed. Opt. 9, 1143-1151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, “A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1971-1979 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thennadil, S. N.

T. L. Troy and S. N. Thennadil, “Optical properties of human skin in the near infrared wavelength range of 1000 to 2200 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 167-176 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tian, J.

Tomatis, S.

M. Lualdi, A. Colombo, A. Mari, S. Tomatis, and R. Marchesini, “Development of simulated pigmented lesions in an optical skin-tissue phantom: experimental measurements in the visible and near infrared,” J. Laser Appl. 14, 122-127 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tonelli, A. E.

M. Wei, W. Davis, B. Urban, Y. Song, F. E. Porbeni, X. Wang, J. L. White, C. M. Balik, C. C. Rusa, J. Fox, and A. E. Tonelli, “Manipulation of Nylon-6 crystal structures with its α-Cyclodextrin inclusion complex,” Macromolecules 35, 8039-8044 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Torricelli, A.

A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, and R. Cubeddu, “Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances,” J Biomed. Opt. 9, 1143-1151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, “A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1971-1979 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Troy, T. L.

T. L. Troy and S. N. Thennadil, “Optical properties of human skin in the near infrared wavelength range of 1000 to 2200 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 167-176 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tulipano, P. K.

J. L. Humm, D. Ballon, Y. C. Hu, S. Ruan, C. Chui, P. K. Tulipano, A. Erdi, J. Koutcher, K. Zakian, M. Urano, P. Zanzonico, C. Mattis, J. Dyke, Y. Chen, P Harrington, J. A. O'Donoghue, and C. C. Ling, “A stereotactic method for the three-dimensional registration of multi-modality biologic images in animals: NMR, PET, histology, and autoradiography,” Med. Phys. 30, 2303-2314 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Urano, M.

J. L. Humm, D. Ballon, Y. C. Hu, S. Ruan, C. Chui, P. K. Tulipano, A. Erdi, J. Koutcher, K. Zakian, M. Urano, P. Zanzonico, C. Mattis, J. Dyke, Y. Chen, P Harrington, J. A. O'Donoghue, and C. C. Ling, “A stereotactic method for the three-dimensional registration of multi-modality biologic images in animals: NMR, PET, histology, and autoradiography,” Med. Phys. 30, 2303-2314 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Urban, B.

M. Wei, W. Davis, B. Urban, Y. Song, F. E. Porbeni, X. Wang, J. L. White, C. M. Balik, C. C. Rusa, J. Fox, and A. E. Tonelli, “Manipulation of Nylon-6 crystal structures with its α-Cyclodextrin inclusion complex,” Macromolecules 35, 8039-8044 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Valentini, G.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, “A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1971-1979 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Laser Surg. Med. 12, 510-519 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, J. T.

Wang, G.

Wang, L.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769-771 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

Wang, N. G.

J. C. Haselgrove, N. G. Wang, and B. Chance, “Investigation of the nonlinear aspects of imaging through a highly scattering medium,” Med. Phys. 19, 17-23 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

M. Wei, W. Davis, B. Urban, Y. Song, F. E. Porbeni, X. Wang, J. L. White, C. M. Balik, C. C. Rusa, J. Fox, and A. E. Tonelli, “Manipulation of Nylon-6 crystal structures with its α-Cyclodextrin inclusion complex,” Macromolecules 35, 8039-8044 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wei, M.

M. Wei, W. Davis, B. Urban, Y. Song, F. E. Porbeni, X. Wang, J. L. White, C. M. Balik, C. C. Rusa, J. Fox, and A. E. Tonelli, “Manipulation of Nylon-6 crystal structures with its α-Cyclodextrin inclusion complex,” Macromolecules 35, 8039-8044 (2002).
[CrossRef]

White, J. L.

M. Wei, W. Davis, B. Urban, Y. Song, F. E. Porbeni, X. Wang, J. L. White, C. M. Balik, C. C. Rusa, J. Fox, and A. E. Tonelli, “Manipulation of Nylon-6 crystal structures with its α-Cyclodextrin inclusion complex,” Macromolecules 35, 8039-8044 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, B. C.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Laser Surg. Med. 12, 510-519 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wyman, D. R.

V. G. Peters, D. R. Wyman, M. S. Patterson, and G. L. Frank, “Optical properties of normal and diseased human breast tissues in the visible and near infrared,” Phys. Med. Biol. 35, 1317-1334 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakushin, M. I.

A. A. Borovikov, G. N. Khlybov, and M. I. Yakushin, “Optical properties of Teflon at high temperatures,” J. Appl. Mech. Tech. Phys. 15, 516-520 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, Y.

H. Zhao, F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, Y. Onodera, M. Ohmi, M. Haruna, and Y. Yamada, “Imaging of in vitro chicken leg using time-resolved near infrared optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 1979-1993 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, D.

Y. Li, D. Yan, and G. Zhang, “Crystalline structure and thermal behavior of Nylon-10,14,” J. Polym. Sci. B 41, 1422-1427 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, K. M.

Young, J. J.

K. Deka, M. B. MacMillan, A. V. Ouriadov, I. V. Mastikhin, J. J. Young, P. M. Glover, G. R. Ziegler, and B. J. Balcom, “Quantitative density profiling with pure phase encoding and a dedicated 1D gradient,” J. Magn. Reson. 178, 25-32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zabner, J.

Zakian, K.

J. L. Humm, D. Ballon, Y. C. Hu, S. Ruan, C. Chui, P. K. Tulipano, A. Erdi, J. Koutcher, K. Zakian, M. Urano, P. Zanzonico, C. Mattis, J. Dyke, Y. Chen, P Harrington, J. A. O'Donoghue, and C. C. Ling, “A stereotactic method for the three-dimensional registration of multi-modality biologic images in animals: NMR, PET, histology, and autoradiography,” Med. Phys. 30, 2303-2314 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zambra, G.

A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, A. Brega, F. Paleari, A. S. Spinelli, and G. Zambra, “Detection of nondelayed photons in the forward-scattering of picosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2457-2459 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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J. L. Humm, D. Ballon, Y. C. Hu, S. Ruan, C. Chui, P. K. Tulipano, A. Erdi, J. Koutcher, K. Zakian, M. Urano, P. Zanzonico, C. Mattis, J. Dyke, Y. Chen, P Harrington, J. A. O'Donoghue, and C. C. Ling, “A stereotactic method for the three-dimensional registration of multi-modality biologic images in animals: NMR, PET, histology, and autoradiography,” Med. Phys. 30, 2303-2314 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.

Zhang, G.

Y. Li, D. Yan, and G. Zhang, “Crystalline structure and thermal behavior of Nylon-10,14,” J. Polym. Sci. B 41, 1422-1427 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769-771 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, H.

H. Zhao, F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, Y. Onodera, M. Ohmi, M. Haruna, and Y. Yamada, “Imaging of in vitro chicken leg using time-resolved near infrared optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 1979-1993 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. Deka, M. B. MacMillan, A. V. Ouriadov, I. V. Mastikhin, J. J. Young, P. M. Glover, G. R. Ziegler, and B. J. Balcom, “Quantitative density profiling with pure phase encoding and a dedicated 1D gradient,” J. Magn. Reson. 178, 25-32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zinth, W.

Acta Radiologica (1)

O. Jarlman, R. Berg, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, and H. Pettersson, “Time-resolved white light transillumination for optical imaging,” Acta Radiologica 38, 185-189 (1997).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, A. Brega, F. Paleari, A. S. Spinelli, and G. Zambra, “Detection of nondelayed photons in the forward-scattering of picosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2457-2459 (2004).
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Electron. Lett. (1)

A. L. Lacaita, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “Double epitaxy improves single-photon avalanche diode performance,” Electron. Lett. 25, 841-843 (1989).
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J Biomed. Opt. (2)

A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, and R. Cubeddu, “Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances,” J Biomed. Opt. 9, 1143-1151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J Biomed. Opt. 11, 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Mech. Tech. Phys. (1)

A. A. Borovikov, G. N. Khlybov, and M. I. Yakushin, “Optical properties of Teflon at high temperatures,” J. Appl. Mech. Tech. Phys. 15, 516-520 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Andreoni, L. Nardo, A. Brega, and M. Bondani, “Optical profiles with 180 μm resolution of objects hidden in scattering media,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 024921/1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

T. L. Troy and S. N. Thennadil, “Optical properties of human skin in the near infrared wavelength range of 1000 to 2200 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 167-176 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Laser Appl. (1)

M. Lualdi, A. Colombo, A. Mari, S. Tomatis, and R. Marchesini, “Development of simulated pigmented lesions in an optical skin-tissue phantom: experimental measurements in the visible and near infrared,” J. Laser Appl. 14, 122-127 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Macr. Sci. B: Physics (1)

E. S. Clark, “The crystal structure of polytetrafluoroethylene, forms I and IV,” J. Macr. Sci. B: Physics 45, 201-213 (2006).
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J. Magn. Reson. (1)

K. Deka, M. B. MacMillan, A. V. Ouriadov, I. V. Mastikhin, J. J. Young, P. M. Glover, G. R. Ziegler, and B. J. Balcom, “Quantitative density profiling with pure phase encoding and a dedicated 1D gradient,” J. Magn. Reson. 178, 25-32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

M. Shimomura, Y. Maeda, and Y. Tanabe, “Mechanical properties of polyoxymethylene whiskers/polyoxymethylene resin composite films,” J. Mater. Sci. 24, 2245-2249 (1989).
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J. Phys. D (1)

C. Dunsby and P. M. W. French, “Techniques for depth-resolved imaging through turbid media including coherence-gated imaging,” J. Phys. D 36, R207-R227 (2003).
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J. Polym. Sci. B (1)

Y. Li, D. Yan, and G. Zhang, “Crystalline structure and thermal behavior of Nylon-10,14,” J. Polym. Sci. B 41, 1422-1427 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Laser Surg. Med. (1)

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Laser Surg. Med. 12, 510-519 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (2)

M. Wei, W. Davis, B. Urban, Y. Song, F. E. Porbeni, X. Wang, J. L. White, C. M. Balik, C. C. Rusa, J. Fox, and A. E. Tonelli, “Manipulation of Nylon-6 crystal structures with its α-Cyclodextrin inclusion complex,” Macromolecules 35, 8039-8044 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Puiggalì, L. Franco, C. Aleman, and J. A. Subirana, “Crystal structures of Nylon 5,6. A model with two hydrogen bond directions for Nylons derived from odd diamidines,” Macromolecules 31, 8540-8548 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. Svanberg, “Some applications of ultrashort laser pulses in biology and medicine,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1777-1783 (2001) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys. (6)

I. Gannot, R. F. Bonner, G. Gannot, P. C. Fox, P. D. Smith, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, “Optical simulations of a noninvasive technique for the diagnosis of diseased salivary glands in situ,” Med. Phys. 25, 1139-1144 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, K. T. Moesta, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, “Frequency-domain optical mammography: edge effect corrections,” Med. Phys. 23, 149-157 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Haselgrove, N. G. Wang, and B. Chance, “Investigation of the nonlinear aspects of imaging through a highly scattering medium,” Med. Phys. 19, 17-23 (1992).
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J. C. Hebden, D. J. Hall, and D. T. Delpy, “The spatial resolution performance of a time-resolved optical imaging system using temporal extrapolation,” Med. Phys. 22, 201-208 (1995).
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J. L. Humm, D. Ballon, Y. C. Hu, S. Ruan, C. Chui, P. K. Tulipano, A. Erdi, J. Koutcher, K. Zakian, M. Urano, P. Zanzonico, C. Mattis, J. Dyke, Y. Chen, P Harrington, J. A. O'Donoghue, and C. C. Ling, “A stereotactic method for the three-dimensional registration of multi-modality biologic images in animals: NMR, PET, histology, and autoradiography,” Med. Phys. 30, 2303-2314 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Med. Biol. (8)

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T. Binzoni, T. S. Leung, D. Boggett, and D. Delphy, “Non-invasive laser Doppler perfusion measurements of large tissue volumes and human skeletal muscle blood RMS velocity,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 2527-2549 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, Y. Onodera, M. Ohmi, M. Haruna, and Y. Yamada, “Imaging of in vitro chicken leg using time-resolved near infrared optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 1979-1993 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, “A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1971-1979 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical imaging in medicine: I. Experimental techniques,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 825-840 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Simpson, M. Kohl, M. Essenpreis, and M. Cope, “Near-infrared optical properties of ex vivo human skin and subcutaneous tissues measured using the Monte Carlo inversion technique,” Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 2465-2478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Peters, D. R. Wyman, M. S. Patterson, and G. L. Frank, “Optical properties of normal and diseased human breast tissues in the visible and near infrared,” Phys. Med. Biol. 35, 1317-1334 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, B. D. Price, A. P. Gibson, and G. Royle, “A soft deformable tissue-equivalent phantom for diffuse optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 5581-5590 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Sundberg, T. Lindbergh, and T. Strömberg, “Monte Carlo simulations of backscattered light intensity from convex and concave surfaces with an optical fiber array sensor,” Proc. SPIE 6084, 608404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

D. A. Benaron and D. K. Stevenson, “Optical time-of-flight and absorbance imaging of biologic media,” Science 259, 1463-1466 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769-771 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

W. Becker, The bh TCSPC Handbook (Becker & Hickl GmbH, 2006).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Experimental TOF distributions at 532 nm for the 1 cm -slabs of Delrin (empty circles), Nylon (gray full dots), and Teflon (line). (b) Corresponding TOF distributions at 1064 nm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Experimental TOF distributions at 532 nm for the liquid phantom made of Intralipid and ink (empty circles) and for the solid phantom made of Agar, Intralipid, and ink (line). (b) Corresponding TOF distributions at 1064 nm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Experimental TOF distributions of pulses at 532 nm for slices of ex vivo tissues. (b) Corresponding TOF distributions at 1064 nm .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental TOF distributions for Delrin at 1064 nm collected with the single-mode fiber (empty circles) and its convolution with a Gaussian pulse response of 100 ps FWHM (gray line). TOF distributions for Delrin at 1064 nm collected with the 250 μm pinhole (black line) and without spatial filtering (gray full dots).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Experimental TOF distributions at 532 nm for slabs of Delrin of thickness 0.5 cm (black line), 1 cm (black full dots) and 2 cm (gray line). (b) Experimental TOF distributions at 532 nm for the same slab of Delrin of thickness 0.5 cm in (a) (black line) along with that obtained by misaligning the fiber (black full dots) and by displacing the fiber of 0.65 cm (gray line).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Experimental TOF distributions at 1064 nm for a Delrin disc of 1 cm thickness cut with a milling cutter (black line) and a slab of 0.8 thickness scratched with sandpaper. (b) Experimental TOF distributions at 1064 nm for a Delrin disc of 0.5 cm thickness cut with a milling cutter (black line) and a slab of 0.58 cm thickness abraded homogeneously abraded by HCl.

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