Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess hemodynamic changes by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during acute focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. The study also has evaluated the therapeutic effects of estrogen against vascular dysfunction. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced in nine bilaterally ovariectomized rats, using an endovascular occlusion technique of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Four out of nine rats had estrogen pretreatment before MCA occlusion (MCAO). The other five rats had MCAO with no pretreatment. The occlusion time was 60 min, followed by 40–60 min of reperfusion. Real-time monitoring of changes in hemoglobin concentrations was performed by a steady-state, two-channel, NIRS system through the period of occlusion and reperfusion. Both changes in total and oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations (Δ[HbT] and Δ[HbO2]) display apparent periodic fluctuations during occlusion for the rats without estrogen pretreatment, while no rhythmic fluctuation was observed in the rats with the pretreatment. This rhythmic fluctuation is a microvascular dysfunction. Fourier power spectral analysis was performed on the Δ[HbO2] profiles in both rat groups. The results show that the cumulative frequency power of Δ[HbO2] in the range of 0.00250.01  Hz for the rats without pretreatment is significantly higher than that with pretreatment. The study implies that the dysfunctional fluctuations disappear in the rats with estrogen pretreatment, demonstrating a new application of NIRS, i.e., to detect focal cerebral ischemia and to monitor cerebral responses to therapy against vascular dysfunction in animal models.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Sette, J. C. Baron, B. Mazoyer, M. Levasseur, S. Pappata, and C. Crouzel, "Local brain haemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in cerebrovascular disease: positron emission tomography," Brain 112, 931-951 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. N. W. Dorsch, "Therapeutic approaches to vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage," Curr. Opin. Crit. Care 8, 128-133 (2002).
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  5. M. Ohtake, S. Morino, T. Kaidoh, and T. Inoue, "Three-dimensional structural changes in cerebral microvessels after transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats: scanning electron microscopic study of corrosion casts," Neurophthology 24, 219-227 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Schuknecht, J. Fandino, C. Yuksel, Y. Yonekawa, and A. Valavanis, "Endovascular treatment of cerebral vasospasm: assessment of treatment effect by cerebral angiography and transcranial colour Doppler sonography," Neuroradiology 41, 453-462 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. S. Firlik, A. D. Firlik, and H. Yonas, "Xenon-enhanced computed tomography in the management of cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage," Keio J. Med. 49, A148-A150 (2000).
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  8. O. Shigeki, D. Isao, N. Masaaki, O. Keisuke, O. Kotaro, S. Tomomi, A. Shoji, N. Yoshifumi, Y. Nobuyoshi, and O. Takashi, "Three-dimensional analysis of vasospastic major cerebral arteries in rats with the corrosion cast technique," Stroke 28, 1631-1638 (1997).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. P. D. Hurn and I. M. Macrae, "Estrogen as a neuroprotectant in stroke," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 20, 631-652 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. P. S. Green, S. H. Yang, K. R. Nilsson, A. S. Kumar, D. F. Covery, and J. W. Simpkins, "The nonfeminizing enantiomer of 17beta-estradiol exerts protective effects in neuronal cultures and a rat model of cerebral ischemia," Endocrinology 142, 400-406 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  22. H. Liu, Y. Song, K. L. Worden, X. Jiang, A. Constantinescu, and R. P. Mason, "Noninvasive investigation of blood oxygenation dynamics of tumors by near-infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 39, 5231-5243 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Cope, "The application of near infrared spectroscopy to noninvasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation in the newborn infant," Ph.D. dissertation (University College London, 1991).
  24. V. D. Zee, M. Cope, S. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. Potter, A. Edward, J. Wyatt, D. McCormick, S. Roth, E. Reynolds, and D. T. Delpy, "Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult head, calf, and forearm and the head of the newborn infant as a function of inter optode spacing," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 316, 143-153 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. D. G. Buerk and C. E. Riva, "Vasomotion and spontaneous low-frequency oscillations in blood flow and nitric oxide in cat optic nerve head," Microvasc. Res. 55, 103-112 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. P. Smielewski, P. Kirkpatrick, P. Minhas, J. D. Pickard, and M. Czosnyka, "Can cerebralvascular reactivity be measured with near-infared spectroscopy?"Stroke 26, 2285-2292 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. J. G. Kim, D. Zhao, R. P. Mason, and H. Liu, "Acute effects of combretastatin A4 phosphate on breast tumor hemodynamics monitored by near infrared spectroscopy," in Biomedical Optics, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper SH9.
    [PubMed]
  28. M. Xia, V. Kodibagkar, H. Liu, and R. P. Mason, "Tumour oxygen dynamics measured simultaneously by near-infrared spectroscopy and 19F magnetic resonance imaging in rats," Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 45-60 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  29. V. Kiviniemi, J. Jauhiainen, O. Tervonen, E. Paakko, J. Oikarinen, V. Vainionpaa, H. Rantala, and B. Biswal, "Slow vasomotor fluctuation in fMRI of anesthetized child brain," Magn. Reson. Med. 44, 373-378 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. E. Dora and A. Kovach, "Metabolic and vascular volume oscillations in the cat brain cortex," Acta Physiol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 57, 261-275 (1981).
    [PubMed]
  31. P. Johnson and H. Wayland, "Regulation of blood flow in single capillaries," Am. J. Physiol. 212, 1405-1415 (1967).
    [PubMed]
  32. J. Simpkins, G. Rajakumar, Y. Zhang, C. Simpkins, D. Greenwald, C. Yu, N. Bodor, and A. Day, "Estrogens may reduce mortality and ischemic damage caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion in the female rat," J. Neurosurg. 87, 724-730 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. R. Liu, S. Yang, E. Perez, K. D. Yi, S. S. Wu, K. Eberst, L. Prokai, K. Prokai-Tatrai, Z. Y. Cai, D. F. Covey, A. L. Day, and J. W. Simpkins, "Neuroprotective effects of a novel non-receptor-binding estrogen analogue in vitro and in vivo analysis," Stroke 33, 2485-2491 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. P. D. Hurn, M. T. Littleton-Kearney, J. R. Kirsch, A. M. Dharmarajan, and R. J. Traystman, "Postischemic cerebral blood flow recovery in the female: effect of 17 beta-estradiol," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 15, 666-672 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

L. A. Nelson, J. C. McCann, A. W. Loepke, J. Wu, B. B. Dor, and C. D. Kurth, "Development and validation of a multiwavelength spatial domain near-infrared oximeter to detect cerebral hypoxia-ischemia," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064022 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Xia, V. Kodibagkar, H. Liu, and R. P. Mason, "Tumour oxygen dynamics measured simultaneously by near-infrared spectroscopy and 19F magnetic resonance imaging in rats," Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 45-60 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

H. Liu, Y. Gu, J. G. Kim, and R. P. Mason, "Near infrared spectroscopy and imaging of tumor vascular oxygenation," Methods Enzymol: Imaging 386, 349-378 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Kaul and H. Ito, "Microvasculature in acute myocardial ischemia: part II: evolving concepts in pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment," Circulation 109, 310-315 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ohtake, S. Morino, T. Kaidoh, and T. Inoue, "Three-dimensional structural changes in cerebral microvessels after transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats: scanning electron microscopic study of corrosion casts," Neurophthology 24, 219-227 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

L. D. MacCullough and P. D. Hurn, "Estrogen and ischemic neuroprotection: an integrated view," Trends Endocrinol. Metab. 14, 228-235 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

C. P. Derdeyn, T. O. Videen, K. D. Yundt, S. M. Fritsch, D. A. Carpenter, R. L. Grubb, and W. J. Powers, "Variability of cerebral blood volume and oxygen extraction: stages of cerebral haemodynamic impairment revisited," Brain 125, 597-607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. W. Dorsch, "Therapeutic approaches to vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage," Curr. Opin. Crit. Care 8, 128-133 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Liu, S. Yang, E. Perez, K. D. Yi, S. S. Wu, K. Eberst, L. Prokai, K. Prokai-Tatrai, Z. Y. Cai, D. F. Covey, A. L. Day, and J. W. Simpkins, "Neuroprotective effects of a novel non-receptor-binding estrogen analogue in vitro and in vivo analysis," Stroke 33, 2485-2491 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

P. S. Green, S. H. Yang, K. R. Nilsson, A. S. Kumar, D. F. Covery, and J. W. Simpkins, "The nonfeminizing enantiomer of 17beta-estradiol exerts protective effects in neuronal cultures and a rat model of cerebral ischemia," Endocrinology 142, 400-406 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (4)

H. Liu, Y. Song, K. L. Worden, X. Jiang, A. Constantinescu, and R. P. Mason, "Noninvasive investigation of blood oxygenation dynamics of tumors by near-infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 39, 5231-5243 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Kiviniemi, J. Jauhiainen, O. Tervonen, E. Paakko, J. Oikarinen, V. Vainionpaa, H. Rantala, and B. Biswal, "Slow vasomotor fluctuation in fMRI of anesthetized child brain," Magn. Reson. Med. 44, 373-378 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Firlik, A. D. Firlik, and H. Yonas, "Xenon-enhanced computed tomography in the management of cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage," Keio J. Med. 49, A148-A150 (2000).
[PubMed]

P. D. Hurn and I. M. Macrae, "Estrogen as a neuroprotectant in stroke," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 20, 631-652 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

B. Schuknecht, J. Fandino, C. Yuksel, Y. Yonekawa, and A. Valavanis, "Endovascular treatment of cerebral vasospasm: assessment of treatment effect by cerebral angiography and transcranial colour Doppler sonography," Neuroradiology 41, 453-462 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (3)

D. B. Dubal, M. L. Kashon, L. C. Pettigrew, and J. M. Ren, "Estradiol protects against ischemic injury," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 18, 1253-1258 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Lagalla, M. G. Ceravolo, L. Provinciali, M. A. Recchioni, A. Ducati, U. Pasquini, C. Piana, and U. Salvolini, "Transcranial Doppler sonographic monitoring during cerebral aneurysm embolization: a preliminary report," AJNR Am. J. Neuroradiol. 19, 1549-1553 (1998).
[PubMed]

D. G. Buerk and C. E. Riva, "Vasomotion and spontaneous low-frequency oscillations in blood flow and nitric oxide in cat optic nerve head," Microvasc. Res. 55, 103-112 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

J. Simpkins, G. Rajakumar, Y. Zhang, C. Simpkins, D. Greenwald, C. Yu, N. Bodor, and A. Day, "Estrogens may reduce mortality and ischemic damage caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion in the female rat," J. Neurosurg. 87, 724-730 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Shigeki, D. Isao, N. Masaaki, O. Keisuke, O. Kotaro, S. Tomomi, A. Shoji, N. Yoshifumi, Y. Nobuyoshi, and O. Takashi, "Three-dimensional analysis of vasospastic major cerebral arteries in rats with the corrosion cast technique," Stroke 28, 1631-1638 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

P. Smielewski, P. Kirkpatrick, P. Minhas, J. D. Pickard, and M. Czosnyka, "Can cerebralvascular reactivity be measured with near-infared spectroscopy?"Stroke 26, 2285-2292 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. D. Hurn, M. T. Littleton-Kearney, J. R. Kirsch, A. M. Dharmarajan, and R. J. Traystman, "Postischemic cerebral blood flow recovery in the female: effect of 17 beta-estradiol," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 15, 666-672 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

D. G. Grosset, J. Straiton, I. McDonald, and R. Bullock, "Angiographic and Doppler diagnosis of cerebral artery vasospasm following subarachnoid haemorrhage," Br. J. Neurosurg. 7, 291-298 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

V. D. Zee, M. Cope, S. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. Potter, A. Edward, J. Wyatt, D. McCormick, S. Roth, E. Reynolds, and D. T. Delpy, "Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult head, calf, and forearm and the head of the newborn infant as a function of inter optode spacing," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 316, 143-153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

J. E. Brazy, "Cerebral oxygen monitoring with near infrared spectroscopy: clinical application to neonates," J. Clin. Monit. 7, 325-334 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

H. J. Barnett, "Stroke in women," Can. J. Cardiol. 6, 11B-17B (1990).
[PubMed]

1989 (1)

G. Sette, J. C. Baron, B. Mazoyer, M. Levasseur, S. Pappata, and C. Crouzel, "Local brain haemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in cerebrovascular disease: positron emission tomography," Brain 112, 931-951 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

O. Hazeki and M. Tamura, "Quantitative analysis of hemoglobin oxygenation state of rat brain in situ by near-infrared spectrophotometry," J. Appl. Physiol. 64, 796-802 (1988).
[PubMed]

1987 (1)

D. T. Delpy, M. C. Cope, and E. B. Cady, "Cerebral monitoring in newborn infants by magnetic resonance and near infrared spectroscopy," Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 47, 9-17 (1987).

1986 (1)

J. S. Wyatt, M. C. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Quantification of cerebral oxygenation and haemodynamics in sick newborn infants by near infrared spectrophotometry," Lancet. 2, 1063-1066 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

E. Dora and A. Kovach, "Metabolic and vascular volume oscillations in the cat brain cortex," Acta Physiol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 57, 261-275 (1981).
[PubMed]

1967 (1)

P. Johnson and H. Wayland, "Regulation of blood flow in single capillaries," Am. J. Physiol. 212, 1405-1415 (1967).
[PubMed]

Acta Physiol. Acad. Sci. Hung. (1)

E. Dora and A. Kovach, "Metabolic and vascular volume oscillations in the cat brain cortex," Acta Physiol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 57, 261-275 (1981).
[PubMed]

Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (1)

V. D. Zee, M. Cope, S. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. Potter, A. Edward, J. Wyatt, D. McCormick, S. Roth, E. Reynolds, and D. T. Delpy, "Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult head, calf, and forearm and the head of the newborn infant as a function of inter optode spacing," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 316, 143-153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

AJNR Am. J. Neuroradiol. (1)

G. Lagalla, M. G. Ceravolo, L. Provinciali, M. A. Recchioni, A. Ducati, U. Pasquini, C. Piana, and U. Salvolini, "Transcranial Doppler sonographic monitoring during cerebral aneurysm embolization: a preliminary report," AJNR Am. J. Neuroradiol. 19, 1549-1553 (1998).
[PubMed]

Am. J. Physiol. (1)

P. Johnson and H. Wayland, "Regulation of blood flow in single capillaries," Am. J. Physiol. 212, 1405-1415 (1967).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Br. J. Neurosurg. (1)

D. G. Grosset, J. Straiton, I. McDonald, and R. Bullock, "Angiographic and Doppler diagnosis of cerebral artery vasospasm following subarachnoid haemorrhage," Br. J. Neurosurg. 7, 291-298 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brain (2)

C. P. Derdeyn, T. O. Videen, K. D. Yundt, S. M. Fritsch, D. A. Carpenter, R. L. Grubb, and W. J. Powers, "Variability of cerebral blood volume and oxygen extraction: stages of cerebral haemodynamic impairment revisited," Brain 125, 597-607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Sette, J. C. Baron, B. Mazoyer, M. Levasseur, S. Pappata, and C. Crouzel, "Local brain haemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in cerebrovascular disease: positron emission tomography," Brain 112, 931-951 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Can. J. Cardiol. (1)

H. J. Barnett, "Stroke in women," Can. J. Cardiol. 6, 11B-17B (1990).
[PubMed]

Circulation (1)

S. Kaul and H. Ito, "Microvasculature in acute myocardial ischemia: part II: evolving concepts in pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment," Circulation 109, 310-315 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Crit. Care (1)

N. W. Dorsch, "Therapeutic approaches to vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage," Curr. Opin. Crit. Care 8, 128-133 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Endocrinology (1)

P. S. Green, S. H. Yang, K. R. Nilsson, A. S. Kumar, D. F. Covery, and J. W. Simpkins, "The nonfeminizing enantiomer of 17beta-estradiol exerts protective effects in neuronal cultures and a rat model of cerebral ischemia," Endocrinology 142, 400-406 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Physiol. (1)

O. Hazeki and M. Tamura, "Quantitative analysis of hemoglobin oxygenation state of rat brain in situ by near-infrared spectrophotometry," J. Appl. Physiol. 64, 796-802 (1988).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

L. A. Nelson, J. C. McCann, A. W. Loepke, J. Wu, B. B. Dor, and C. D. Kurth, "Development and validation of a multiwavelength spatial domain near-infrared oximeter to detect cerebral hypoxia-ischemia," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064022 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (3)

D. B. Dubal, M. L. Kashon, L. C. Pettigrew, and J. M. Ren, "Estradiol protects against ischemic injury," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 18, 1253-1258 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. D. Hurn and I. M. Macrae, "Estrogen as a neuroprotectant in stroke," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 20, 631-652 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. D. Hurn, M. T. Littleton-Kearney, J. R. Kirsch, A. M. Dharmarajan, and R. J. Traystman, "Postischemic cerebral blood flow recovery in the female: effect of 17 beta-estradiol," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 15, 666-672 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Clin. Monit. (1)

J. E. Brazy, "Cerebral oxygen monitoring with near infrared spectroscopy: clinical application to neonates," J. Clin. Monit. 7, 325-334 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurosurg. (1)

J. Simpkins, G. Rajakumar, Y. Zhang, C. Simpkins, D. Greenwald, C. Yu, N. Bodor, and A. Day, "Estrogens may reduce mortality and ischemic damage caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion in the female rat," J. Neurosurg. 87, 724-730 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keio J. Med. (1)

K. S. Firlik, A. D. Firlik, and H. Yonas, "Xenon-enhanced computed tomography in the management of cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage," Keio J. Med. 49, A148-A150 (2000).
[PubMed]

Lancet. (1)

J. S. Wyatt, M. C. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Quantification of cerebral oxygenation and haemodynamics in sick newborn infants by near infrared spectrophotometry," Lancet. 2, 1063-1066 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magn. Reson. Med. (1)

V. Kiviniemi, J. Jauhiainen, O. Tervonen, E. Paakko, J. Oikarinen, V. Vainionpaa, H. Rantala, and B. Biswal, "Slow vasomotor fluctuation in fMRI of anesthetized child brain," Magn. Reson. Med. 44, 373-378 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Methods Enzymol: Imaging (1)

H. Liu, Y. Gu, J. G. Kim, and R. P. Mason, "Near infrared spectroscopy and imaging of tumor vascular oxygenation," Methods Enzymol: Imaging 386, 349-378 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Microvasc. Res. (1)

D. G. Buerk and C. E. Riva, "Vasomotion and spontaneous low-frequency oscillations in blood flow and nitric oxide in cat optic nerve head," Microvasc. Res. 55, 103-112 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neurophthology (1)

M. Ohtake, S. Morino, T. Kaidoh, and T. Inoue, "Three-dimensional structural changes in cerebral microvessels after transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats: scanning electron microscopic study of corrosion casts," Neurophthology 24, 219-227 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Neuroradiology (1)

B. Schuknecht, J. Fandino, C. Yuksel, Y. Yonekawa, and A. Valavanis, "Endovascular treatment of cerebral vasospasm: assessment of treatment effect by cerebral angiography and transcranial colour Doppler sonography," Neuroradiology 41, 453-462 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

M. Xia, V. Kodibagkar, H. Liu, and R. P. Mason, "Tumour oxygen dynamics measured simultaneously by near-infrared spectroscopy and 19F magnetic resonance imaging in rats," Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 45-60 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. (1)

D. T. Delpy, M. C. Cope, and E. B. Cady, "Cerebral monitoring in newborn infants by magnetic resonance and near infrared spectroscopy," Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 47, 9-17 (1987).

Stroke (3)

O. Shigeki, D. Isao, N. Masaaki, O. Keisuke, O. Kotaro, S. Tomomi, A. Shoji, N. Yoshifumi, Y. Nobuyoshi, and O. Takashi, "Three-dimensional analysis of vasospastic major cerebral arteries in rats with the corrosion cast technique," Stroke 28, 1631-1638 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Smielewski, P. Kirkpatrick, P. Minhas, J. D. Pickard, and M. Czosnyka, "Can cerebralvascular reactivity be measured with near-infared spectroscopy?"Stroke 26, 2285-2292 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Liu, S. Yang, E. Perez, K. D. Yi, S. S. Wu, K. Eberst, L. Prokai, K. Prokai-Tatrai, Z. Y. Cai, D. F. Covey, A. L. Day, and J. W. Simpkins, "Neuroprotective effects of a novel non-receptor-binding estrogen analogue in vitro and in vivo analysis," Stroke 33, 2485-2491 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trends Endocrinol. Metab. (1)

L. D. MacCullough and P. D. Hurn, "Estrogen and ischemic neuroprotection: an integrated view," Trends Endocrinol. Metab. 14, 228-235 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. G. Kim, D. Zhao, R. P. Mason, and H. Liu, "Acute effects of combretastatin A4 phosphate on breast tumor hemodynamics monitored by near infrared spectroscopy," in Biomedical Optics, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper SH9.
[PubMed]

M. Cope, "The application of near infrared spectroscopy to noninvasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation in the newborn infant," Ph.D. dissertation (University College London, 1991).

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Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) (a) Demonstration of the location of a monofilament suture that was placed through the internal carotid artery to create MCAO. (b) Schematic for the experimental setup for rat brain occlusion measurements. Optical probes were placed on the rat head to interrogate the brain occlusion region.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Temporal profiles of Δ [ HbO 2 ] and Δ [ HbT ] measured on (a) ischemic side and (b) nonischemic side of the rat during MCAO and reperfusion from a representative rat in the OVX group. MCAO starts at time of 0   min , while the reperfusion is introduced at time of 60   min .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Temporal profiles of Δ [ HbO 2 ] and Δ [ HbT ] measured on the ischemic hemisphere during ischemia and reperfusion from a representative rat in the OVX + E 2 group.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Δ [ HbO 2 ] at multiple time points (10, 30, 60, 70, and 90 min), averaged over OVX ( n = 5 ) and OVX+E2 ( n = 4 ) groups, respectively. The data were normalized at 60 min for the comparison between the two groups. Every data point is presented as mean plus SD.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Corresponding periodograms calculated from the Δ [ HbO 2 ] profiles (as given in Fig. 2) on the (a) ischemic side and (b) nonischemic side. A significant total power increase in the frequency range between 0.0025 and 0.01   Hz was observed in the (a) ischemic side compared to the (b) nonischemic side.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Estrogen treatment decreases ischemia-induced vasospasm. Power spectral analysis of Δ [ HbO 2 ] profiles, taken during the ischemic stroke, shows a significant decrease ( p < 0.05 ) in total power within the frequency range of 0.0025 0.10   Hz in the OVX + E 2 group ( n = 4 ) compared with the OVX group ( n = 5 ) .

Equations (2)

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Δ [ HbO 2 ] = 1.532   log ( A b A t ) 750 + 1.753   log ( A b A t ) 830 D P F d ,
Δ [ Hb ] = 1.758   log ( A b A t ) 750 0.92   log ( A b A t ) 830 D P F d ,

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