Abstract

Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) moiré method was used to study the surface structure of three kinds of butterfly wings: Papilio maackii Menetries, Euploea midamus (Linnaeus), and Stichophthalma howqua (Westwood). Gratings composed of curves with different orientations were found on scales. The planar characteristics of gratings and some other planar features of the surface structure of these wings were revealed, respectively, in terms of virtual strain. Experimental results demonstrate that SEM moiré method is a simple, nonlocal, economical, effective technique for determining which grating exists on one whole scale, measuring the dimension and the whole planar structural character of the grating on each scale, as well as characterizing the relationship between gratings on different scales of each butterfly wing. Thus, the SEM moiré method is a useful tool to assist with characterizing the structure of butterfly wings and explaining their excellent properties.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2006

2005

C. M. Liu and L. W. Chen, "Digital phase-shifting atomic force microscope moiré method," J. Phys. D 38, 1182-1189 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

Q. Cong, G. H. Chen, Y. Fang, and R. Luquan, "Superhydrophobic characteristics of butterfly wing surface," J. Bioeng. 1, 249-255 (2004).

2003

L. P. Biro, "Role of photonic-crystal-type structures in the thermal regulation of a Lycaenid butterfly sister species pair," Phys. Rev. E 67, 021907 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, "Development and application of computer-aided fringe analysis," Ph.D. dissertation (U. Maryland at College Park, 2003).

T.-H. Wong and M. C. Gupta, "Color generation in butterfly wings and fabrication of such structures," Opt. Lett. 28, 2342-2344 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

2001

B. Gralak, G. Tayeb, and S. Enoch, "Morpho butterflies wings color modeled with lamellar grating theory," Opt. Express 9, 567-578 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Vukusic and J. R. Sambles, "Shedding light on butterfly wings," Proc. SPIE 4438, 85-95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Han, D. Post, and P. Ifju, "Moiré interferometry for engineering mechanics: current practices and future developments," J. Strain Anal. Eng. Des. 36, 101-117 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen and D. Liu, "Advances in scanning electron microscope moire," Exp. Mech. 41, 165-173 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Janssen, A. Monteiro, and P. M. Brakefield, "Correlations between scale structure and pigmentation in butterfly wings," Evol. Dev. 3, 415-423 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

H. M. Xie, S. Kishimoto, and A. Asundi, "In-plane deformation measurement using the atomic force microscope moiré method," Nanotechnology 11, 24-29 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Xing, F. L. Dai, and W. Yang, "Experimental study about nano-deformation field near quasi-cleavage crack tip," Sci. China Ser. A: Math. Phys., Astron. 43, 963-968 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, "Colour mixing in wing scales of a butterfly," Nature 404, 457 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, C. R. Lawrence, and R. J. Wootton, "Quantified interference and diffraction in single Morpho butterfly scales," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 266, 1403-1411 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Brink and M. E. Lee, "Confined blue iridescence by a diffracting microstructure: an optical investigation of the Cynandra opis butterfly," Appl. Opt. 38, 5282-5289 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

1993

S. A. Khan, D. N. Qu, and R. E. Burge, "Experimental analysis of diffraction by wavelength-sized metallic gratings in the microwave region," Opt. Eng. 32, 3249-3253 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Kishimoto, M. Egashira, and N. Shinya, "Micro-creep deformation measurement by a moiré method using electron beam lithography and electron beam scan," Opt. Eng. 32, 522-526 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1983

Y. Meiwen, Optical Holography and Information Processing (Academic, 1983), pp. 193-195.

1975

H. Descimon, "Biology of pigmentation in Pieridae butterflies," in Chemistry and Biology of Pteridines, W. Pfleiderer, ed. (De Gruyter, Berlin, 1975), pp. 805-840.

R. B. Morris, "Iridescence from diffraction structures in the wing scales of Callophrys rubi, the Green Hairstreak," J. Entomol. Ser. A 49, 149-154 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1972

H. Ghiradella, D. Aneshansley, T. Eisner, R. Silberglied, and H. E. Hinton, "Ultraviolet reflection of a male butterfly: interference color caused by thin-layer elaboration of wing scales," Science 178, 1214-1217 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1948

R. Weller and B. M. Shepherd, "Displacement measurement by mechanical interferometry," Proc. Soc. Exp. Stress Anal. 6, 35-38 (1948).

Aneshansley, D.

H. Ghiradella, D. Aneshansley, T. Eisner, R. Silberglied, and H. E. Hinton, "Ultraviolet reflection of a male butterfly: interference color caused by thin-layer elaboration of wing scales," Science 178, 1214-1217 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asundi, A.

H. M. Xie, S. Kishimoto, and A. Asundi, "In-plane deformation measurement using the atomic force microscope moiré method," Nanotechnology 11, 24-29 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Biro, L. P.

L. P. Biro, "Role of photonic-crystal-type structures in the thermal regulation of a Lycaenid butterfly sister species pair," Phys. Rev. E 67, 021907 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brakefield, P. M.

J. M. Janssen, A. Monteiro, and P. M. Brakefield, "Correlations between scale structure and pigmentation in butterfly wings," Evol. Dev. 3, 415-423 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brink, J. L.

Burge, R. E.

S. A. Khan, D. N. Qu, and R. E. Burge, "Experimental analysis of diffraction by wavelength-sized metallic gratings in the microwave region," Opt. Eng. 32, 3249-3253 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G. H.

Q. Cong, G. H. Chen, Y. Fang, and R. Luquan, "Superhydrophobic characteristics of butterfly wing surface," J. Bioeng. 1, 249-255 (2004).

Chen, H.

H. Chen and D. Liu, "Advances in scanning electron microscope moire," Exp. Mech. 41, 165-173 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. W.

C. M. Liu and L. W. Chen, "Digital phase-shifting atomic force microscope moiré method," J. Phys. D 38, 1182-1189 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cong, Q.

Q. Cong, G. H. Chen, Y. Fang, and R. Luquan, "Superhydrophobic characteristics of butterfly wing surface," J. Bioeng. 1, 249-255 (2004).

Dai, F. L.

Y. M. Xing, F. L. Dai, and W. Yang, "Experimental study about nano-deformation field near quasi-cleavage crack tip," Sci. China Ser. A: Math. Phys., Astron. 43, 963-968 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Descimon, H.

H. Descimon, "Biology of pigmentation in Pieridae butterflies," in Chemistry and Biology of Pteridines, W. Pfleiderer, ed. (De Gruyter, Berlin, 1975), pp. 805-840.

Egashira, M.

S. Kishimoto, M. Egashira, and N. Shinya, "Micro-creep deformation measurement by a moiré method using electron beam lithography and electron beam scan," Opt. Eng. 32, 522-526 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Eisner, T.

H. Ghiradella, D. Aneshansley, T. Eisner, R. Silberglied, and H. E. Hinton, "Ultraviolet reflection of a male butterfly: interference color caused by thin-layer elaboration of wing scales," Science 178, 1214-1217 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enoch, S.

Fang, Y.

Q. Cong, G. H. Chen, Y. Fang, and R. Luquan, "Superhydrophobic characteristics of butterfly wing surface," J. Bioeng. 1, 249-255 (2004).

Ghiradella, H.

H. Ghiradella, D. Aneshansley, T. Eisner, R. Silberglied, and H. E. Hinton, "Ultraviolet reflection of a male butterfly: interference color caused by thin-layer elaboration of wing scales," Science 178, 1214-1217 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giraldol, M. A.

Gralak, B.

Gupta, M. C.

Han, B.

B. Han, D. Post, and P. Ifju, "Moiré interferometry for engineering mechanics: current practices and future developments," J. Strain Anal. Eng. Des. 36, 101-117 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. B.

Hinton, H. E.

H. Ghiradella, D. Aneshansley, T. Eisner, R. Silberglied, and H. E. Hinton, "Ultraviolet reflection of a male butterfly: interference color caused by thin-layer elaboration of wing scales," Science 178, 1214-1217 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoenders, B. J.

Hwang, R. B.

Ifju, P.

B. Han, D. Post, and P. Ifju, "Moiré interferometry for engineering mechanics: current practices and future developments," J. Strain Anal. Eng. Des. 36, 101-117 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Janssen, J. M.

J. M. Janssen, A. Monteiro, and P. M. Brakefield, "Correlations between scale structure and pigmentation in butterfly wings," Evol. Dev. 3, 415-423 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kang, Y. L.

Khan, S. A.

S. A. Khan, D. N. Qu, and R. E. Burge, "Experimental analysis of diffraction by wavelength-sized metallic gratings in the microwave region," Opt. Eng. 32, 3249-3253 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kishimoto, S.

B. Pan, H. Xie, S. Kishimoto, and Y. Xing, "Experimental study of moiré method in laser scanning confocal microscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 043101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Xie, S. Kishimoto, and A. Asundi, "In-plane deformation measurement using the atomic force microscope moiré method," Nanotechnology 11, 24-29 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Kishimoto, M. Egashira, and N. Shinya, "Micro-creep deformation measurement by a moiré method using electron beam lithography and electron beam scan," Opt. Eng. 32, 522-526 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, C.

Lawrence, C. R.

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, "Colour mixing in wing scales of a butterfly," Nature 404, 457 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, C. R. Lawrence, and R. J. Wootton, "Quantified interference and diffraction in single Morpho butterfly scales," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 266, 1403-1411 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. E.

Li, W. T.

Liu, C. M.

C. M. Liu and L. W. Chen, "Digital phase-shifting atomic force microscope moiré method," J. Phys. D 38, 1182-1189 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, D.

H. Chen and D. Liu, "Advances in scanning electron microscope moire," Exp. Mech. 41, 165-173 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Luquan, R.

Q. Cong, G. H. Chen, Y. Fang, and R. Luquan, "Superhydrophobic characteristics of butterfly wing surface," J. Bioeng. 1, 249-255 (2004).

Meiwen, Y.

Y. Meiwen, Optical Holography and Information Processing (Academic, 1983), pp. 193-195.

Monteiro, A.

J. M. Janssen, A. Monteiro, and P. M. Brakefield, "Correlations between scale structure and pigmentation in butterfly wings," Evol. Dev. 3, 415-423 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Morris, R. B.

R. B. Morris, "Iridescence from diffraction structures in the wing scales of Callophrys rubi, the Green Hairstreak," J. Entomol. Ser. A 49, 149-154 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Pan, B.

B. Pan, H. Xie, S. Kishimoto, and Y. Xing, "Experimental study of moiré method in laser scanning confocal microscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 043101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peng, S. T.

Post, D.

B. Han, D. Post, and P. Ifju, "Moiré interferometry for engineering mechanics: current practices and future developments," J. Strain Anal. Eng. Des. 36, 101-117 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Preist, T. W.

Qin, Q. H.

Qiu, W.

Qu, D. N.

S. A. Khan, D. N. Qu, and R. E. Burge, "Experimental analysis of diffraction by wavelength-sized metallic gratings in the microwave region," Opt. Eng. 32, 3249-3253 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sambles, J. R.

C. Lawrence, P. Vukusic, and J. R. Sambles, "Grazing-incidence iridescence from a butterfly wing," Appl. Opt. 41, 437-441 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Vukusic and J. R. Sambles, "Shedding light on butterfly wings," Proc. SPIE 4438, 85-95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, "Colour mixing in wing scales of a butterfly," Nature 404, 457 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, C. R. Lawrence, and R. J. Wootton, "Quantified interference and diffraction in single Morpho butterfly scales," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 266, 1403-1411 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Harris, T. W. Preist, J. R. Sambles, R. N. Thorpe, and R. A. Watts, "Optical response of bigratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 2041-2049 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, B. M.

R. Weller and B. M. Shepherd, "Displacement measurement by mechanical interferometry," Proc. Soc. Exp. Stress Anal. 6, 35-38 (1948).

Shinya, N.

S. Kishimoto, M. Egashira, and N. Shinya, "Micro-creep deformation measurement by a moiré method using electron beam lithography and electron beam scan," Opt. Eng. 32, 522-526 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Silberglied, R.

H. Ghiradella, D. Aneshansley, T. Eisner, R. Silberglied, and H. E. Hinton, "Ultraviolet reflection of a male butterfly: interference color caused by thin-layer elaboration of wing scales," Science 178, 1214-1217 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stavenga, D. G.

Tayeb, G.

Thorpe, R. N.

Vukusic, P.

C. Lawrence, P. Vukusic, and J. R. Sambles, "Grazing-incidence iridescence from a butterfly wing," Appl. Opt. 41, 437-441 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Vukusic and J. R. Sambles, "Shedding light on butterfly wings," Proc. SPIE 4438, 85-95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, "Colour mixing in wing scales of a butterfly," Nature 404, 457 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, C. R. Lawrence, and R. J. Wootton, "Quantified interference and diffraction in single Morpho butterfly scales," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 266, 1403-1411 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, "Development and application of computer-aided fringe analysis," Ph.D. dissertation (U. Maryland at College Park, 2003).

Watts, R. A.

Weller, R.

R. Weller and B. M. Shepherd, "Displacement measurement by mechanical interferometry," Proc. Soc. Exp. Stress Anal. 6, 35-38 (1948).

Wong, T.-H.

Wootton, R. J.

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, C. R. Lawrence, and R. J. Wootton, "Quantified interference and diffraction in single Morpho butterfly scales," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 266, 1403-1411 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xie, H.

B. Pan, H. Xie, S. Kishimoto, and Y. Xing, "Experimental study of moiré method in laser scanning confocal microscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 043101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xie, H. M.

H. M. Xie, S. Kishimoto, and A. Asundi, "In-plane deformation measurement using the atomic force microscope moiré method," Nanotechnology 11, 24-29 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xing, Y.

B. Pan, H. Xie, S. Kishimoto, and Y. Xing, "Experimental study of moiré method in laser scanning confocal microscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 043101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xing, Y. M.

Y. M. Xing, F. L. Dai, and W. Yang, "Experimental study about nano-deformation field near quasi-cleavage crack tip," Sci. China Ser. A: Math. Phys., Astron. 43, 963-968 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W.

Y. M. Xing, F. L. Dai, and W. Yang, "Experimental study about nano-deformation field near quasi-cleavage crack tip," Sci. China Ser. A: Math. Phys., Astron. 43, 963-968 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Evol. Dev.

J. M. Janssen, A. Monteiro, and P. M. Brakefield, "Correlations between scale structure and pigmentation in butterfly wings," Evol. Dev. 3, 415-423 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Mech.

H. Chen and D. Liu, "Advances in scanning electron microscope moire," Exp. Mech. 41, 165-173 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Bioeng.

Q. Cong, G. H. Chen, Y. Fang, and R. Luquan, "Superhydrophobic characteristics of butterfly wing surface," J. Bioeng. 1, 249-255 (2004).

J. Entomol. Ser. A

R. B. Morris, "Iridescence from diffraction structures in the wing scales of Callophrys rubi, the Green Hairstreak," J. Entomol. Ser. A 49, 149-154 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Phys. D

C. M. Liu and L. W. Chen, "Digital phase-shifting atomic force microscope moiré method," J. Phys. D 38, 1182-1189 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Strain Anal. Eng. Des.

B. Han, D. Post, and P. Ifju, "Moiré interferometry for engineering mechanics: current practices and future developments," J. Strain Anal. Eng. Des. 36, 101-117 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology

H. M. Xie, S. Kishimoto, and A. Asundi, "In-plane deformation measurement using the atomic force microscope moiré method," Nanotechnology 11, 24-29 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nature

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, and C. R. Lawrence, "Colour mixing in wing scales of a butterfly," Nature 404, 457 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng.

S. Kishimoto, M. Egashira, and N. Shinya, "Micro-creep deformation measurement by a moiré method using electron beam lithography and electron beam scan," Opt. Eng. 32, 522-526 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Khan, D. N. Qu, and R. E. Burge, "Experimental analysis of diffraction by wavelength-sized metallic gratings in the microwave region," Opt. Eng. 32, 3249-3253 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. E

L. P. Biro, "Role of photonic-crystal-type structures in the thermal regulation of a Lycaenid butterfly sister species pair," Phys. Rev. E 67, 021907 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, C. R. Lawrence, and R. J. Wootton, "Quantified interference and diffraction in single Morpho butterfly scales," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 266, 1403-1411 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Exp. Stress Anal.

R. Weller and B. M. Shepherd, "Displacement measurement by mechanical interferometry," Proc. Soc. Exp. Stress Anal. 6, 35-38 (1948).

Proc. SPIE

P. Vukusic and J. R. Sambles, "Shedding light on butterfly wings," Proc. SPIE 4438, 85-95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

B. Pan, H. Xie, S. Kishimoto, and Y. Xing, "Experimental study of moiré method in laser scanning confocal microscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 043101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sci. China Ser. A: Math. Phys., Astron.

Y. M. Xing, F. L. Dai, and W. Yang, "Experimental study about nano-deformation field near quasi-cleavage crack tip," Sci. China Ser. A: Math. Phys., Astron. 43, 963-968 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Science

H. Ghiradella, D. Aneshansley, T. Eisner, R. Silberglied, and H. E. Hinton, "Ultraviolet reflection of a male butterfly: interference color caused by thin-layer elaboration of wing scales," Science 178, 1214-1217 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

Y. Meiwen, Optical Holography and Information Processing (Academic, 1983), pp. 193-195.

Z. Wang, "Development and application of computer-aided fringe analysis," Ph.D. dissertation (U. Maryland at College Park, 2003).

H. Descimon, "Biology of pigmentation in Pieridae butterflies," in Chemistry and Biology of Pteridines, W. Pfleiderer, ed. (De Gruyter, Berlin, 1975), pp. 805-840.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sketch of formation principle of SEM moiré.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) SEM parallel moiré. (a) Specimen surface structure, (b) SEM scanning lines, (c) SEM parallel moiré.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) SEM regular rotation moiré. (a) Specimen surface structure, (b) SEM scanning lines, (c) SEM regular rotation moiré.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) SEM generalized rotation moiré. (a) Specimen surface structure, (b) SEM scanning lines, (c) SEM generalized rotation moiré.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Papilio maackii Menetries (a) color image recorded by TCLSCM, (b) microstructure of black scale recorded by SEM, (c) microstructure of green scale recorded by SEM, (d) moiré fringe pattern before and (e) after clockwise rotation when SEM scanning lines p r = 1.326 μ m , (f) thin moiré fringes before, and (g) after clockwise rotation of scale of number 5, (h) virtual strain fields of scale of number 5 before, and (i) after clockwise rotation relative to SEM scanning lines p r = 1.326 μ m , (j) full-field virtual strain fields of several scales before rotation relative to SEM scanning lines p r = 1.326 μ m .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Euploea midamus (Linnaeus) (a) color image recorded by TCLSCM, (b) microstructure of scales recorded by SEM, (c) moiré fringe pattern when SEM scanning lines p r = 1.213 μ m , (d) thin moiré fringes of scale *, (e) virtual strain fields of scale * relative to SEM scanning lines p r = 1.213 μ m .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Thaumantis diores (Doubleday) (a) color image recorded by TCLSCM, (b) microstructure of blue scales recorded by SEM, (c) microstructure of dark brown scales recorded by SEM, (d) moiré fringe pattern when SEM scanning lines p r = 0.801 μ m , (e) thin moiré fringes of scale *, (f) virtual strain fields of scale * relative to SEM scanning lines p r = 0.801 μ m .

Equations (12)

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y = m r p r ,
y = tan θ x + m s p s cos   θ .
m r = y p r ,
m s = y cos θ x sin θ p s .
ζ r = 1 + cos 2 π y p r = 1 + cos 2 π f r y = 1 + cos 2 π m r .
ζ s = 1 + cos 2 π y p s .
ζ s = 1 + cos 2 π y p s = 1 + cos 2 π x sin θ + y cos θ p s
= 1 + cos 2 π m s .
ψ = ψ 0 ζ s ζ r = ψ 0 ( 1 + cos 2 π m s ) ( 1 + cos 2 π m r )
= ψ 0 ( 1 + cos 2 π m s + cos 2 π m r + cos 2 π m s cos 2 π m r ) = ψ 0 [ 1 + cos 2 π m s + cos 2 π m r + 1 2 cos 2 π ( m s + m r ) + 1 2 cos 2 π ( m s m r ) ] .
m s m r = ± m .
ε y = ν y = p r m y ,

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