Abstract

The role of minerogenic particles in light scattering in several lakes and a river (total of ten sites) in central New York, which represent a robust range of scattering conditions, was evaluated based on an individual particle analysis technique of scanning electron microscopy interfaced with automated x-ray microanalysis and image analysis (SAX), in situ bulk measurements of particle scattering and backscattering coefficients (bp and bbp), and laboratory analyses of common indicators of scattering. SAX provided characterizations of the elemental x-ray composition, number concentration, particle size distribution (PSD), shape, and projected area concentration of minerogenic particles (PAVm) of sizes >0.4  μm. Mie theory was applied to calculate the minerogenic components of bp(bm) and bbp(bb,m) with SAX data. Differences in PAVm, associated primarily with clay minerals and CaCO3, were responsible for most of the measured differences in both bp and bbp across the study sites. Contributions of the specified minerogenic particle classes to bm were found to correspond approximately to their contributions to PAVm. The estimates of bm represented substantial fractions of bp, whereas those of bb,m were the dominant component of bbp. The representativeness of the estimates of bm and bb,m was supported by their consistency with the bulk measurements. Greater uncertainty prevails for the bb,m estimates than those for bm, associated primarily with reported deviations in particle shapes from sphericity. The PSDs were well represented by the “B” component of the two-component model or a three parameter generalized gamma distribution [Deep-Sea Res. Part I 40, 1459 (1993)]. The widely applied Junge (hyperbolic) function performed poorly in representing the PSDs and the size dependency of light scattering in these systems, by overrepresenting the concentrations of submicrometer particles especially. Submicrometer particles were not important contributors to bm or bb,m.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. Stramski and D. A. Kiefer, "Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean," Prog. Oceanogr. 28, 343-383 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Jonasz and G. Fournier, "Approximation of the size distribution of marine particles by a sum of log-normal functions," Limnol. Oceanogr. 41, 744-754 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, "Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf," J. Geophys. Res. , [Oceans] 106, 9509-9516 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Risovi?, "Effect of suspended particulate-size distribution on the backscattering ratio in the remote sensing of seawater," Appl. Opt. 41, 7092-7101 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, "Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843-859 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, "Light scattering by polydispersions of randomly oriented spheroids with sizes comparable to wavelengths of observation," Appl. Opt. 33, 7206-7225 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, "Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community," Appl. Opt. 40, 2929-2945 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, "The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean," Prog. Oceanogr. 61, 27-56 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, K. Y. Kondratyev, and D. V. Pozdnyakov, Optical Properties and Remote Sensing of Inland and Coastal Waters (CRC, 1995).
  10. J. T. O. Kirk, Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems (Cambridge U. Press, 1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, 1994).
  12. S. W. Effler and M. G. Perkins, "An optics model for Onondaga Lake," Lake Reserv. Manage. 12, 115-125 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. W. Effler, Limnological and Engineering Analysis of a Polluted Urban Lake: Prelude to Environmental Management of Onondaga Lake, New York (Springer, 1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Jonasz, "Nonsphericity of suspended marine particles and its influence on light scattering," Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 1059-1065 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. Peng and S. W. Effler, "Suspended minerogenic particles in a reservoir: light-scattering features from individual particle analysis," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 204-216 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. W. Effler and C. F. Carter, "Spatial variability in selected physical characteristics and processes in Cross Lake, New York," Water Resour. Bull. 23, 243-250 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. W. Effler, D. A. Matthews, C. M. Brooks-Matthews, M. Perkins, C. A. Siegfried, and J. M. Hassett, "Water quality impacts and indicators of metabolic activity of the zebra mussel invasion of the Seneca River," J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 40, 737-754 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. S. Clesceri, A. E. Greenberg, and A. D. Eaton, eds., Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation, 1998).
  19. T. R. Parsons, Y. Maita, and C. M. Lalli, A Manual of Chemical and Biological Methods for Seawater Analysis (Pergamon, 1984).
  20. A.-L. Barillé-Boyer, L. Barille, H. Masse, D. Razet, and M. Heral, "Correction for particulate organic matter as estimated by loss on ignition in estuarine ecosystems," Estuarine Coastal Shelf Sci. 58, 147-153 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. WET Labs, "Spectral absorption and attenuation meter ac-s: user's guide" (Philomath, Oregon, USA, 2006).
  22. W. S. Pegau, D. Gray, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Absorption and attenuation of visible and near-infrared light in water: dependence on temperature and salinity," Appl. Opt. 36, 6035-6046 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. J. Piskozub, D. Stramski, E. Terrill, and W. K. Melville, "Influence of forward and multiple light scatter on the measurement of beam attenuation in highly scattering marine environments," Appl. Opt. 43, 4723-4731 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. WET Labs, "Scattering meter BB9: user's guide" (Philomath, Oregon, USA, 2007).
  25. E. Boss and W. S. Pegau, "Relationship of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient," Appl. Opt. 40, 5503-5507 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  26. F. Peng, D. L. Johnson, and S. W. Effler, "Suspensoids in New York city's drinking water reservoirs: Turbidity apportionment," J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 38, 1453-1465 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  27. F. Peng and S. W. Effler, "Inorganic tripton in the Finger Lakes of New York: importance to optical characteristics," Hydrobiologia 543, 259-277 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  28. D. L. Johnson, J. Jiao, S. G. DosSantos, and S. W. Effler, "Individual particle analysis of suspended materials in Onondaga Lake, New York," Environ. Sci. Technol. 25, 736-744 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  29. A. D. Weidemann, T. T. Bannister, S. W. Effler, and D. L. Johnson, "Particulate and optical properties during CaCO3 precipitation in Otisco Lake," Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 1078-1083 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. C. Russ, The Image Processing Handbook (CRC, 1998).
  31. Y. C. Agrawal and H. C. Pottsmith, "Instruments for particle size and settling velocity observations in sediment transport," Mar. Geol. 168, 89-114 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  32. D. Risovi?, "Two-component model of sea particle size distribution," Deep-Sea Res. , Part I 40, 1459-1473, doi:doi: (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  33. C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).
  34. P. F. Kerr and A. F. Rogers, Optical Mineralogy (McGraw-Hill, 1977).
  35. S. B. Wo?niak and D. Stramski, "Modeling the optical properties of mineral particles suspended in seawater and their influence on ocean reflectance and chlorophyll estimation from remote sensing algorithms," Appl. Opt. 43, 3489-3503 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. T. D. Proctor and G. W. Harris, "The turbidity of suspensions of irregular quartz particles," J. Aerosol Sci. 5, 81-90 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  37. H. Loisel and A. Morel, "Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: a reexamination," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847-858 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  38. A. Morel and S. Maritorena, "Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal," J. Geophys. Res. , [Oceans] 106, 7163-7180 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  39. H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, J.-F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, "Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 739-752 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  40. S. W. Effler, D. A. Matthews, M. Perkins, D. L. Johnson, F. Peng, M. R. Penn, and M. T. Auer, "Patterns and impacts of inorganic tripton in Cayuga Lake," Hydrobiologia 482, 137-150, doi: (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  41. S. W. Effler, C. M. Brooks, M. G. Perkins, N. K. Ohrazda, D. A. Matthews, D. L. Johnson, M. T. Auer, J. A. Bloomfield, and S. O. Quinn, "The effect of terrigenous inputs on spatial patterns of water quality indicators in South Lake, Lake Champlain," J. Great Lakes Res. 26, 366-383 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  42. S. W. Effler, M. G. Perkins, H. Greer, and D. L. Johnson, "Effect of 'whiting' on optical properties and turbidity in Owasco Lake, New York," Water Resour. Bull. 23, 189-196 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  43. C. T. Driscoll, S. W. Effler, and S. M. Doerr, "Changes in inorganic carbon chemistry and deposition of Onondaga Lake, New York," Environ. Sci. Technol. 28, 1211-1218 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. S. P. Madon, D. W. Schneider, J. A. Stoeckel, and R. E. Sparks, "Effects of inorganic sediment and food concentrations on energetic processes of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha: implications for growth in turbid rivers," Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 55, 401-413 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  45. S. W. Effler, R. K. Gelda, M. G. Perkins, and D. M. O'Donnell, "Modeling light attenuation, Secchi disk, and effects of tripton in Senaca River, New York, USA," J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 41, 971-984 (2005).
  46. C. Yin and D. L. Johnson, "An individual particle analysis and budget study of Onondaga Lake sediments," Limnol. Oceanogr. 29, 1193-1201 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  47. M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. , [Oceans] 106, 14129-14142 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  48. A. C. Holland and G. Gagne, "The scattering of polarized light by polydisperse systems of irregular particles," Appl. Opt. 9, 1113-1121 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  49. A. Mugnai and W. Wiscombe, "Scattering from nonspherical Chebyshev particles. 3. variability in angular scattering patterns," Appl. Opt. 28, 3061-3073 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  50. H. R. Gordon and T. Du, "Light scattering by nonspherical particles: application to coccoliths detached from Emiliania huxleyi," Limnol. Oceanogr. 46, 1438-1454 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  51. H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, "Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180-1197 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  52. H. R. Gordon and O. B. Brown, "A theoretical model of light scattering by Sargasso Sea particulates," Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 826-832 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  53. D. Stramski and S. B. Wo?niak, "On the role of colloidal particles in light scattering in the ocean," Limnol. Oceanogr. 50, 1581-1591 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  54. C. E. Lambert, C. Jehanno, N. Silverberg, J. C. Brun-Cottan, and R. Chesselet, "Lognormal distributions of suspended particles in the open ocean," J. Mar. Res. 39, 77-98 (1981).
  55. D. Risovi? and M. Martinis, "A comparative analysis of sea-particle-size distribution models," Fiz. B 4, 111-120 (1995).
  56. H. Bader, "The hyperbolic distribution of particle sizes," J. Geophys. Res. 75, 2822-2830 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  57. J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, P. L. Donaghay, and S. A. Freeman, "Use of optical scattering to discriminate particle types in coastal waters," Appl. Opt. 44, 1667-1680 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  58. F. P. Chavez, K. R. Buck, R. R. Bidigare, D. M. Karl, D. Hebel, M. Latasa, M. E. Ondrusek, L. Campbell, and J. Newton, "On the chlorophyll a retention properties of glass-fiber GF/F filters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 428-433 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  59. R. W. Sheldon, "Size separation of marine seston by membrane and glass-fiber filters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 494-498 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  60. R. H. Stavn and T. R. Keen, "Suspended minerogenic particle distributions in high-energy coastal environments: optical implications," J. Geophys. Res. 109, C05005, doi: (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  61. A. L. Whitmire, E. Boss, T. J. Cowles, and W. S. Pegau, "Spectral variability of the particulate backscattering ratio," Opt. Express 15, 7019-7031 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  62. X. Zhang, M. Lewis, M. Lee, B. Johnson, and G. Korotaev, "The volume scattering function of natural bubble populations," Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 1273-1282 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  63. D. M. Lavoie, "Computerized oceanic particle characterization using heavy metal staining, SEM, EDXS and image analysis," Deep-Sea Res. , Part A 39, 1655-1668 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (3)

F. Peng and S. W. Effler, "Suspended minerogenic particles in a reservoir: light-scattering features from individual particle analysis," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 204-216 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, J.-F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, "Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 739-752 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Whitmire, E. Boss, T. J. Cowles, and W. S. Pegau, "Spectral variability of the particulate backscattering ratio," Opt. Express 15, 7019-7031 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, P. L. Donaghay, and S. A. Freeman, "Use of optical scattering to discriminate particle types in coastal waters," Appl. Opt. 44, 1667-1680 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Effler, R. K. Gelda, M. G. Perkins, and D. M. O'Donnell, "Modeling light attenuation, Secchi disk, and effects of tripton in Senaca River, New York, USA," J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 41, 971-984 (2005).

D. Stramski and S. B. Wo?niak, "On the role of colloidal particles in light scattering in the ocean," Limnol. Oceanogr. 50, 1581-1591 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Peng and S. W. Effler, "Inorganic tripton in the Finger Lakes of New York: importance to optical characteristics," Hydrobiologia 543, 259-277 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

J. Piskozub, D. Stramski, E. Terrill, and W. K. Melville, "Influence of forward and multiple light scatter on the measurement of beam attenuation in highly scattering marine environments," Appl. Opt. 43, 4723-4731 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Wo?niak and D. Stramski, "Modeling the optical properties of mineral particles suspended in seawater and their influence on ocean reflectance and chlorophyll estimation from remote sensing algorithms," Appl. Opt. 43, 3489-3503 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Effler, D. A. Matthews, C. M. Brooks-Matthews, M. Perkins, C. A. Siegfried, and J. M. Hassett, "Water quality impacts and indicators of metabolic activity of the zebra mussel invasion of the Seneca River," J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 40, 737-754 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, "The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean," Prog. Oceanogr. 61, 27-56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stavn and T. R. Keen, "Suspended minerogenic particle distributions in high-energy coastal environments: optical implications," J. Geophys. Res. 109, C05005, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, "Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843-859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A.-L. Barillé-Boyer, L. Barille, H. Masse, D. Razet, and M. Heral, "Correction for particulate organic matter as estimated by loss on ignition in estuarine ecosystems," Estuarine Coastal Shelf Sci. 58, 147-153 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

F. Peng, D. L. Johnson, and S. W. Effler, "Suspensoids in New York city's drinking water reservoirs: Turbidity apportionment," J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 38, 1453-1465 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Risovi?, "Effect of suspended particulate-size distribution on the backscattering ratio in the remote sensing of seawater," Appl. Opt. 41, 7092-7101 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, M. Lewis, M. Lee, B. Johnson, and G. Korotaev, "The volume scattering function of natural bubble populations," Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 1273-1282 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (6)

H. R. Gordon and T. Du, "Light scattering by nonspherical particles: application to coccoliths detached from Emiliania huxleyi," Limnol. Oceanogr. 46, 1438-1454 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. , [Oceans] 106, 14129-14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, "Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal," J. Geophys. Res. , [Oceans] 106, 7163-7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, "Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf," J. Geophys. Res. , [Oceans] 106, 9509-9516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, "Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community," Appl. Opt. 40, 2929-2945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss and W. S. Pegau, "Relationship of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient," Appl. Opt. 40, 5503-5507 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

Y. C. Agrawal and H. C. Pottsmith, "Instruments for particle size and settling velocity observations in sediment transport," Mar. Geol. 168, 89-114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Effler, C. M. Brooks, M. G. Perkins, N. K. Ohrazda, D. A. Matthews, D. L. Johnson, M. T. Auer, J. A. Bloomfield, and S. O. Quinn, "The effect of terrigenous inputs on spatial patterns of water quality indicators in South Lake, Lake Champlain," J. Great Lakes Res. 26, 366-383 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (5)

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, "Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180-1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Madon, D. W. Schneider, J. A. Stoeckel, and R. E. Sparks, "Effects of inorganic sediment and food concentrations on energetic processes of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha: implications for growth in turbid rivers," Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 55, 401-413 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Russ, The Image Processing Handbook (CRC, 1998).

H. Loisel and A. Morel, "Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: a reexamination," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847-858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Clesceri, A. E. Greenberg, and A. D. Eaton, eds., Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation, 1998).

1997 (1)

1996 (3)

S. W. Effler and M. G. Perkins, "An optics model for Onondaga Lake," Lake Reserv. Manage. 12, 115-125 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Effler, Limnological and Engineering Analysis of a Polluted Urban Lake: Prelude to Environmental Management of Onondaga Lake, New York (Springer, 1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Jonasz and G. Fournier, "Approximation of the size distribution of marine particles by a sum of log-normal functions," Limnol. Oceanogr. 41, 744-754 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, K. Y. Kondratyev, and D. V. Pozdnyakov, Optical Properties and Remote Sensing of Inland and Coastal Waters (CRC, 1995).

D. Risovi? and M. Martinis, "A comparative analysis of sea-particle-size distribution models," Fiz. B 4, 111-120 (1995).

F. P. Chavez, K. R. Buck, R. R. Bidigare, D. M. Karl, D. Hebel, M. Latasa, M. E. Ondrusek, L. Campbell, and J. Newton, "On the chlorophyll a retention properties of glass-fiber GF/F filters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 428-433 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (4)

C. T. Driscoll, S. W. Effler, and S. M. Doerr, "Changes in inorganic carbon chemistry and deposition of Onondaga Lake, New York," Environ. Sci. Technol. 28, 1211-1218 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. O. Kirk, Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems (Cambridge U. Press, 1994).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, 1994).

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, "Light scattering by polydispersions of randomly oriented spheroids with sizes comparable to wavelengths of observation," Appl. Opt. 33, 7206-7225 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

D. Risovi?, "Two-component model of sea particle size distribution," Deep-Sea Res. , Part I 40, 1459-1473, doi:doi: (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

D. M. Lavoie, "Computerized oceanic particle characterization using heavy metal staining, SEM, EDXS and image analysis," Deep-Sea Res. , Part A 39, 1655-1668 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

D. L. Johnson, J. Jiao, S. G. DosSantos, and S. W. Effler, "Individual particle analysis of suspended materials in Onondaga Lake, New York," Environ. Sci. Technol. 25, 736-744 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski and D. A. Kiefer, "Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean," Prog. Oceanogr. 28, 343-383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1987 (3)

S. W. Effler, M. G. Perkins, H. Greer, and D. L. Johnson, "Effect of 'whiting' on optical properties and turbidity in Owasco Lake, New York," Water Resour. Bull. 23, 189-196 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. Jonasz, "Nonsphericity of suspended marine particles and its influence on light scattering," Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 1059-1065 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Effler and C. F. Carter, "Spatial variability in selected physical characteristics and processes in Cross Lake, New York," Water Resour. Bull. 23, 243-250 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

A. D. Weidemann, T. T. Bannister, S. W. Effler, and D. L. Johnson, "Particulate and optical properties during CaCO3 precipitation in Otisco Lake," Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 1078-1083 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

T. R. Parsons, Y. Maita, and C. M. Lalli, A Manual of Chemical and Biological Methods for Seawater Analysis (Pergamon, 1984).

C. Yin and D. L. Johnson, "An individual particle analysis and budget study of Onondaga Lake sediments," Limnol. Oceanogr. 29, 1193-1201 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

1981 (1)

C. E. Lambert, C. Jehanno, N. Silverberg, J. C. Brun-Cottan, and R. Chesselet, "Lognormal distributions of suspended particles in the open ocean," J. Mar. Res. 39, 77-98 (1981).

1977 (1)

P. F. Kerr and A. F. Rogers, Optical Mineralogy (McGraw-Hill, 1977).

1974 (1)

T. D. Proctor and G. W. Harris, "The turbidity of suspensions of irregular quartz particles," J. Aerosol Sci. 5, 81-90 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (2)

H. R. Gordon and O. B. Brown, "A theoretical model of light scattering by Sargasso Sea particulates," Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 826-832 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Sheldon, "Size separation of marine seston by membrane and glass-fiber filters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 494-498 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1970 (2)

Agrawal, Y. C.

Y. C. Agrawal and H. C. Pottsmith, "Instruments for particle size and settling velocity observations in sediment transport," Mar. Geol. 168, 89-114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Auer, M. T.

S. W. Effler, C. M. Brooks, M. G. Perkins, N. K. Ohrazda, D. A. Matthews, D. L. Johnson, M. T. Auer, J. A. Bloomfield, and S. O. Quinn, "The effect of terrigenous inputs on spatial patterns of water quality indicators in South Lake, Lake Champlain," J. Great Lakes Res. 26, 366-383 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Effler, D. A. Matthews, M. Perkins, D. L. Johnson, F. Peng, M. R. Penn, and M. T. Auer, "Patterns and impacts of inorganic tripton in Cayuga Lake," Hydrobiologia 482, 137-150, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Babin, M.

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, "Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843-859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bader, H.

H. Bader, "The hyperbolic distribution of particle sizes," J. Geophys. Res. 75, 2822-2830 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Bannister, T. T.

A. D. Weidemann, T. T. Bannister, S. W. Effler, and D. L. Johnson, "Particulate and optical properties during CaCO3 precipitation in Otisco Lake," Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 1078-1083 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Barille, L.

A.-L. Barillé-Boyer, L. Barille, H. Masse, D. Razet, and M. Heral, "Correction for particulate organic matter as estimated by loss on ignition in estuarine ecosystems," Estuarine Coastal Shelf Sci. 58, 147-153 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barillé-Boyer, A.-L.

A.-L. Barillé-Boyer, L. Barille, H. Masse, D. Razet, and M. Heral, "Correction for particulate organic matter as estimated by loss on ignition in estuarine ecosystems," Estuarine Coastal Shelf Sci. 58, 147-153 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, A. H.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, "Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf," J. Geophys. Res. , [Oceans] 106, 9509-9516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. , [Oceans] 106, 14129-14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Berthon, J.-F.

H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, J.-F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, "Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 739-752 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bidigare, R. R.

F. P. Chavez, K. R. Buck, R. R. Bidigare, D. M. Karl, D. Hebel, M. Latasa, M. E. Ondrusek, L. Campbell, and J. Newton, "On the chlorophyll a retention properties of glass-fiber GF/F filters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 428-433 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bloomfield, J. A.

S. W. Effler, C. M. Brooks, M. G. Perkins, N. K. Ohrazda, D. A. Matthews, D. L. Johnson, M. T. Auer, J. A. Bloomfield, and S. O. Quinn, "The effect of terrigenous inputs on spatial patterns of water quality indicators in South Lake, Lake Champlain," J. Great Lakes Res. 26, 366-383 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bogucki, D.

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, "The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean," Prog. Oceanogr. 61, 27-56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Boss, E.

A. L. Whitmire, E. Boss, T. J. Cowles, and W. S. Pegau, "Spectral variability of the particulate backscattering ratio," Opt. Express 15, 7019-7031 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, "The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean," Prog. Oceanogr. 61, 27-56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss and W. S. Pegau, "Relationship of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient," Appl. Opt. 40, 5503-5507 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, "Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf," J. Geophys. Res. , [Oceans] 106, 9509-9516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. , [Oceans] 106, 14129-14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bricaud, A.

Brooks, C. M.

S. W. Effler, C. M. Brooks, M. G. Perkins, N. K. Ohrazda, D. A. Matthews, D. L. Johnson, M. T. Auer, J. A. Bloomfield, and S. O. Quinn, "The effect of terrigenous inputs on spatial patterns of water quality indicators in South Lake, Lake Champlain," J. Great Lakes Res. 26, 366-383 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brooks-Matthews, C. M.

S. W. Effler, D. A. Matthews, C. M. Brooks-Matthews, M. Perkins, C. A. Siegfried, and J. M. Hassett, "Water quality impacts and indicators of metabolic activity of the zebra mussel invasion of the Seneca River," J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 40, 737-754 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon and O. B. Brown, "A theoretical model of light scattering by Sargasso Sea particulates," Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 826-832 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Brun-Cottan, J. C.

C. E. Lambert, C. Jehanno, N. Silverberg, J. C. Brun-Cottan, and R. Chesselet, "Lognormal distributions of suspended particles in the open ocean," J. Mar. Res. 39, 77-98 (1981).

Buck, K. R.

F. P. Chavez, K. R. Buck, R. R. Bidigare, D. M. Karl, D. Hebel, M. Latasa, M. E. Ondrusek, L. Campbell, and J. Newton, "On the chlorophyll a retention properties of glass-fiber GF/F filters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 428-433 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bukata, R. P.

R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, K. Y. Kondratyev, and D. V. Pozdnyakov, Optical Properties and Remote Sensing of Inland and Coastal Waters (CRC, 1995).

Campbell, L.

F. P. Chavez, K. R. Buck, R. R. Bidigare, D. M. Karl, D. Hebel, M. Latasa, M. E. Ondrusek, L. Campbell, and J. Newton, "On the chlorophyll a retention properties of glass-fiber GF/F filters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 428-433 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Carter, C. F.

S. W. Effler and C. F. Carter, "Spatial variability in selected physical characteristics and processes in Cross Lake, New York," Water Resour. Bull. 23, 243-250 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chang, G. C.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, "Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf," J. Geophys. Res. , [Oceans] 106, 9509-9516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Charlton, F.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, "Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180-1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chavez, F. P.

F. P. Chavez, K. R. Buck, R. R. Bidigare, D. M. Karl, D. Hebel, M. Latasa, M. E. Ondrusek, L. Campbell, and J. Newton, "On the chlorophyll a retention properties of glass-fiber GF/F filters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 428-433 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chesselet, R.

C. E. Lambert, C. Jehanno, N. Silverberg, J. C. Brun-Cottan, and R. Chesselet, "Lognormal distributions of suspended particles in the open ocean," J. Mar. Res. 39, 77-98 (1981).

Clesceri, L. S.

L. S. Clesceri, A. E. Greenberg, and A. D. Eaton, eds., Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation, 1998).

Cowles, T. J.

de Haan, J. F.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, "Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180-1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dekker, A. G.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, "Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180-1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dickey, T. D.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, "Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf," J. Geophys. Res. , [Oceans] 106, 9509-9516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Doerr, S. M.

C. T. Driscoll, S. W. Effler, and S. M. Doerr, "Changes in inorganic carbon chemistry and deposition of Onondaga Lake, New York," Environ. Sci. Technol. 28, 1211-1218 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donaghay, P. L.

DosSantos, S. G.

D. L. Johnson, J. Jiao, S. G. DosSantos, and S. W. Effler, "Individual particle analysis of suspended materials in Onondaga Lake, New York," Environ. Sci. Technol. 25, 736-744 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Driscoll, C. T.

C. T. Driscoll, S. W. Effler, and S. M. Doerr, "Changes in inorganic carbon chemistry and deposition of Onondaga Lake, New York," Environ. Sci. Technol. 28, 1211-1218 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du, T.

H. R. Gordon and T. Du, "Light scattering by nonspherical particles: application to coccoliths detached from Emiliania huxleyi," Limnol. Oceanogr. 46, 1438-1454 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Eaton, A. D.

L. S. Clesceri, A. E. Greenberg, and A. D. Eaton, eds., Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation, 1998).

Effler, S. W.

F. Peng and S. W. Effler, "Suspended minerogenic particles in a reservoir: light-scattering features from individual particle analysis," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 204-216 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Peng and S. W. Effler, "Inorganic tripton in the Finger Lakes of New York: importance to optical characteristics," Hydrobiologia 543, 259-277 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Effler, R. K. Gelda, M. G. Perkins, and D. M. O'Donnell, "Modeling light attenuation, Secchi disk, and effects of tripton in Senaca River, New York, USA," J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 41, 971-984 (2005).

S. W. Effler, D. A. Matthews, C. M. Brooks-Matthews, M. Perkins, C. A. Siegfried, and J. M. Hassett, "Water quality impacts and indicators of metabolic activity of the zebra mussel invasion of the Seneca River," J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 40, 737-754 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Peng, D. L. Johnson, and S. W. Effler, "Suspensoids in New York city's drinking water reservoirs: Turbidity apportionment," J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 38, 1453-1465 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Effler, C. M. Brooks, M. G. Perkins, N. K. Ohrazda, D. A. Matthews, D. L. Johnson, M. T. Auer, J. A. Bloomfield, and S. O. Quinn, "The effect of terrigenous inputs on spatial patterns of water quality indicators in South Lake, Lake Champlain," J. Great Lakes Res. 26, 366-383 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Effler, Limnological and Engineering Analysis of a Polluted Urban Lake: Prelude to Environmental Management of Onondaga Lake, New York (Springer, 1996).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Effler and M. G. Perkins, "An optics model for Onondaga Lake," Lake Reserv. Manage. 12, 115-125 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Driscoll, S. W. Effler, and S. M. Doerr, "Changes in inorganic carbon chemistry and deposition of Onondaga Lake, New York," Environ. Sci. Technol. 28, 1211-1218 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Johnson, J. Jiao, S. G. DosSantos, and S. W. Effler, "Individual particle analysis of suspended materials in Onondaga Lake, New York," Environ. Sci. Technol. 25, 736-744 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Effler, M. G. Perkins, H. Greer, and D. L. Johnson, "Effect of 'whiting' on optical properties and turbidity in Owasco Lake, New York," Water Resour. Bull. 23, 189-196 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Effler and C. F. Carter, "Spatial variability in selected physical characteristics and processes in Cross Lake, New York," Water Resour. Bull. 23, 243-250 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Weidemann, T. T. Bannister, S. W. Effler, and D. L. Johnson, "Particulate and optical properties during CaCO3 precipitation in Otisco Lake," Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 1078-1083 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Effler, D. A. Matthews, M. Perkins, D. L. Johnson, F. Peng, M. R. Penn, and M. T. Auer, "Patterns and impacts of inorganic tripton in Cayuga Lake," Hydrobiologia 482, 137-150, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fell, F.

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, "Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843-859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fournier, G.

M. Jonasz and G. Fournier, "Approximation of the size distribution of marine particles by a sum of log-normal functions," Limnol. Oceanogr. 41, 744-754 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fournier-Sicre, V.

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, "Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843-859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, S. A.

Gagne, G.

Gardner, W. D.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, "Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf," J. Geophys. Res. , [Oceans] 106, 9509-9516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gelda, R. K.

S. W. Effler, R. K. Gelda, M. G. Perkins, and D. M. O'Donnell, "Modeling light attenuation, Secchi disk, and effects of tripton in Senaca River, New York, USA," J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 41, 971-984 (2005).

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon and T. Du, "Light scattering by nonspherical particles: application to coccoliths detached from Emiliania huxleyi," Limnol. Oceanogr. 46, 1438-1454 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon and O. B. Brown, "A theoretical model of light scattering by Sargasso Sea particulates," Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 826-832 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Gray, D.

Greenberg, A. E.

L. S. Clesceri, A. E. Greenberg, and A. D. Eaton, eds., Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation, 1998).

Greer, H.

S. W. Effler, M. G. Perkins, H. Greer, and D. L. Johnson, "Effect of 'whiting' on optical properties and turbidity in Owasco Lake, New York," Water Resour. Bull. 23, 189-196 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Harris, G. W.

T. D. Proctor and G. W. Harris, "The turbidity of suspensions of irregular quartz particles," J. Aerosol Sci. 5, 81-90 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hassett, J. M.

S. W. Effler, D. A. Matthews, C. M. Brooks-Matthews, M. Perkins, C. A. Siegfried, and J. M. Hassett, "Water quality impacts and indicators of metabolic activity of the zebra mussel invasion of the Seneca River," J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 40, 737-754 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hebel, D.

F. P. Chavez, K. R. Buck, R. R. Bidigare, D. M. Karl, D. Hebel, M. Latasa, M. E. Ondrusek, L. Campbell, and J. Newton, "On the chlorophyll a retention properties of glass-fiber GF/F filters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 428-433 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Heral, M.

A.-L. Barillé-Boyer, L. Barille, H. Masse, D. Razet, and M. Heral, "Correction for particulate organic matter as estimated by loss on ignition in estuarine ecosystems," Estuarine Coastal Shelf Sci. 58, 147-153 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Holland, A. C.

Hoogenboom, H. J.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, "Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180-1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hovenier, J. W.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, "Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180-1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Jehanno, C.

C. E. Lambert, C. Jehanno, N. Silverberg, J. C. Brun-Cottan, and R. Chesselet, "Lognormal distributions of suspended particles in the open ocean," J. Mar. Res. 39, 77-98 (1981).

Jerome, J. H.

R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, K. Y. Kondratyev, and D. V. Pozdnyakov, Optical Properties and Remote Sensing of Inland and Coastal Waters (CRC, 1995).

Jiao, J.

D. L. Johnson, J. Jiao, S. G. DosSantos, and S. W. Effler, "Individual particle analysis of suspended materials in Onondaga Lake, New York," Environ. Sci. Technol. 25, 736-744 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, B.

X. Zhang, M. Lewis, M. Lee, B. Johnson, and G. Korotaev, "The volume scattering function of natural bubble populations," Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 1273-1282 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. L.

F. Peng, D. L. Johnson, and S. W. Effler, "Suspensoids in New York city's drinking water reservoirs: Turbidity apportionment," J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 38, 1453-1465 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Effler, C. M. Brooks, M. G. Perkins, N. K. Ohrazda, D. A. Matthews, D. L. Johnson, M. T. Auer, J. A. Bloomfield, and S. O. Quinn, "The effect of terrigenous inputs on spatial patterns of water quality indicators in South Lake, Lake Champlain," J. Great Lakes Res. 26, 366-383 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Johnson, J. Jiao, S. G. DosSantos, and S. W. Effler, "Individual particle analysis of suspended materials in Onondaga Lake, New York," Environ. Sci. Technol. 25, 736-744 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Effler, M. G. Perkins, H. Greer, and D. L. Johnson, "Effect of 'whiting' on optical properties and turbidity in Owasco Lake, New York," Water Resour. Bull. 23, 189-196 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Weidemann, T. T. Bannister, S. W. Effler, and D. L. Johnson, "Particulate and optical properties during CaCO3 precipitation in Otisco Lake," Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 1078-1083 (1985).
[CrossRef]

C. Yin and D. L. Johnson, "An individual particle analysis and budget study of Onondaga Lake sediments," Limnol. Oceanogr. 29, 1193-1201 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Effler, D. A. Matthews, M. Perkins, D. L. Johnson, F. Peng, M. R. Penn, and M. T. Auer, "Patterns and impacts of inorganic tripton in Cayuga Lake," Hydrobiologia 482, 137-150, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jonasz, M.

M. Jonasz and G. Fournier, "Approximation of the size distribution of marine particles by a sum of log-normal functions," Limnol. Oceanogr. 41, 744-754 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Jonasz, "Nonsphericity of suspended marine particles and its influence on light scattering," Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 1059-1065 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Karl, D. M.

F. P. Chavez, K. R. Buck, R. R. Bidigare, D. M. Karl, D. Hebel, M. Latasa, M. E. Ondrusek, L. Campbell, and J. Newton, "On the chlorophyll a retention properties of glass-fiber GF/F filters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 428-433 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Keen, T. R.

R. H. Stavn and T. R. Keen, "Suspended minerogenic particle distributions in high-energy coastal environments: optical implications," J. Geophys. Res. 109, C05005, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kerr, P. F.

P. F. Kerr and A. F. Rogers, Optical Mineralogy (McGraw-Hill, 1977).

Kiefer, D. A.

D. Stramski and D. A. Kiefer, "Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean," Prog. Oceanogr. 28, 343-383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kirk, J. T. O.

J. T. O. Kirk, Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems (Cambridge U. Press, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Kondratyev, K. Y.

R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, K. Y. Kondratyev, and D. V. Pozdnyakov, Optical Properties and Remote Sensing of Inland and Coastal Waters (CRC, 1995).

Korotaev, G.

X. Zhang, M. Lewis, M. Lee, B. Johnson, and G. Korotaev, "The volume scattering function of natural bubble populations," Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 1273-1282 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lalli, C. M.

T. R. Parsons, Y. Maita, and C. M. Lalli, A Manual of Chemical and Biological Methods for Seawater Analysis (Pergamon, 1984).

Lambert, C. E.

C. E. Lambert, C. Jehanno, N. Silverberg, J. C. Brun-Cottan, and R. Chesselet, "Lognormal distributions of suspended particles in the open ocean," J. Mar. Res. 39, 77-98 (1981).

Latasa, M.

F. P. Chavez, K. R. Buck, R. R. Bidigare, D. M. Karl, D. Hebel, M. Latasa, M. E. Ondrusek, L. Campbell, and J. Newton, "On the chlorophyll a retention properties of glass-fiber GF/F filters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 428-433 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lavoie, D. M.

D. M. Lavoie, "Computerized oceanic particle characterization using heavy metal staining, SEM, EDXS and image analysis," Deep-Sea Res. , Part A 39, 1655-1668 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

X. Zhang, M. Lewis, M. Lee, B. Johnson, and G. Korotaev, "The volume scattering function of natural bubble populations," Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 1273-1282 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, M.

X. Zhang, M. Lewis, M. Lee, B. Johnson, and G. Korotaev, "The volume scattering function of natural bubble populations," Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 1273-1282 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Loisel, H.

H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, J.-F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, "Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 739-752 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel and A. Morel, "Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: a reexamination," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847-858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Macdonald, J. B.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. , [Oceans] 106, 14129-14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Madon, S. P.

S. P. Madon, D. W. Schneider, J. A. Stoeckel, and R. E. Sparks, "Effects of inorganic sediment and food concentrations on energetic processes of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha: implications for growth in turbid rivers," Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 55, 401-413 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Maita, Y.

T. R. Parsons, Y. Maita, and C. M. Lalli, A Manual of Chemical and Biological Methods for Seawater Analysis (Pergamon, 1984).

Maritorena, S.

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, "Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal," J. Geophys. Res. , [Oceans] 106, 7163-7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Martinis, M.

D. Risovi? and M. Martinis, "A comparative analysis of sea-particle-size distribution models," Fiz. B 4, 111-120 (1995).

Masse, H.

A.-L. Barillé-Boyer, L. Barille, H. Masse, D. Razet, and M. Heral, "Correction for particulate organic matter as estimated by loss on ignition in estuarine ecosystems," Estuarine Coastal Shelf Sci. 58, 147-153 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matthews, D. A.

S. W. Effler, D. A. Matthews, C. M. Brooks-Matthews, M. Perkins, C. A. Siegfried, and J. M. Hassett, "Water quality impacts and indicators of metabolic activity of the zebra mussel invasion of the Seneca River," J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 40, 737-754 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Effler, C. M. Brooks, M. G. Perkins, N. K. Ohrazda, D. A. Matthews, D. L. Johnson, M. T. Auer, J. A. Bloomfield, and S. O. Quinn, "The effect of terrigenous inputs on spatial patterns of water quality indicators in South Lake, Lake Champlain," J. Great Lakes Res. 26, 366-383 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Effler, D. A. Matthews, M. Perkins, D. L. Johnson, F. Peng, M. R. Penn, and M. T. Auer, "Patterns and impacts of inorganic tripton in Cayuga Lake," Hydrobiologia 482, 137-150, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Melville, W. K.

Mériaux, X.

H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, J.-F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, "Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 739-752 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mishchenko, M. I.

Mobley, C. D.

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, 1994).

Morel, A.

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, "Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843-859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, "Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community," Appl. Opt. 40, 2929-2945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, "Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal," J. Geophys. Res. , [Oceans] 106, 7163-7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel and A. Morel, "Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: a reexamination," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847-858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mugnai, A.

Newton, J.

F. P. Chavez, K. R. Buck, R. R. Bidigare, D. M. Karl, D. Hebel, M. Latasa, M. E. Ondrusek, L. Campbell, and J. Newton, "On the chlorophyll a retention properties of glass-fiber GF/F filters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 428-433 (1995).
[CrossRef]

O'Donnell, D. M.

S. W. Effler, R. K. Gelda, M. G. Perkins, and D. M. O'Donnell, "Modeling light attenuation, Secchi disk, and effects of tripton in Senaca River, New York, USA," J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 41, 971-984 (2005).

Ohrazda, N. K.

S. W. Effler, C. M. Brooks, M. G. Perkins, N. K. Ohrazda, D. A. Matthews, D. L. Johnson, M. T. Auer, J. A. Bloomfield, and S. O. Quinn, "The effect of terrigenous inputs on spatial patterns of water quality indicators in South Lake, Lake Champlain," J. Great Lakes Res. 26, 366-383 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ondrusek, M. E.

F. P. Chavez, K. R. Buck, R. R. Bidigare, D. M. Karl, D. Hebel, M. Latasa, M. E. Ondrusek, L. Campbell, and J. Newton, "On the chlorophyll a retention properties of glass-fiber GF/F filters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 428-433 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Parsons, T. R.

T. R. Parsons, Y. Maita, and C. M. Lalli, A Manual of Chemical and Biological Methods for Seawater Analysis (Pergamon, 1984).

Pegau, W. S.

A. L. Whitmire, E. Boss, T. J. Cowles, and W. S. Pegau, "Spectral variability of the particulate backscattering ratio," Opt. Express 15, 7019-7031 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Boss and W. S. Pegau, "Relationship of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient," Appl. Opt. 40, 5503-5507 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, "Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf," J. Geophys. Res. , [Oceans] 106, 9509-9516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. , [Oceans] 106, 14129-14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, D. Gray, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Absorption and attenuation of visible and near-infrared light in water: dependence on temperature and salinity," Appl. Opt. 36, 6035-6046 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, F.

F. Peng and S. W. Effler, "Suspended minerogenic particles in a reservoir: light-scattering features from individual particle analysis," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 204-216 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Peng and S. W. Effler, "Inorganic tripton in the Finger Lakes of New York: importance to optical characteristics," Hydrobiologia 543, 259-277 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Peng, D. L. Johnson, and S. W. Effler, "Suspensoids in New York city's drinking water reservoirs: Turbidity apportionment," J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 38, 1453-1465 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Effler, D. A. Matthews, M. Perkins, D. L. Johnson, F. Peng, M. R. Penn, and M. T. Auer, "Patterns and impacts of inorganic tripton in Cayuga Lake," Hydrobiologia 482, 137-150, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Penn, M. R.

S. W. Effler, D. A. Matthews, M. Perkins, D. L. Johnson, F. Peng, M. R. Penn, and M. T. Auer, "Patterns and impacts of inorganic tripton in Cayuga Lake," Hydrobiologia 482, 137-150, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Perkins, M.

S. W. Effler, D. A. Matthews, C. M. Brooks-Matthews, M. Perkins, C. A. Siegfried, and J. M. Hassett, "Water quality impacts and indicators of metabolic activity of the zebra mussel invasion of the Seneca River," J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 40, 737-754 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Effler, D. A. Matthews, M. Perkins, D. L. Johnson, F. Peng, M. R. Penn, and M. T. Auer, "Patterns and impacts of inorganic tripton in Cayuga Lake," Hydrobiologia 482, 137-150, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Perkins, M. G.

S. W. Effler, R. K. Gelda, M. G. Perkins, and D. M. O'Donnell, "Modeling light attenuation, Secchi disk, and effects of tripton in Senaca River, New York, USA," J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 41, 971-984 (2005).

S. W. Effler, C. M. Brooks, M. G. Perkins, N. K. Ohrazda, D. A. Matthews, D. L. Johnson, M. T. Auer, J. A. Bloomfield, and S. O. Quinn, "The effect of terrigenous inputs on spatial patterns of water quality indicators in South Lake, Lake Champlain," J. Great Lakes Res. 26, 366-383 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Effler and M. G. Perkins, "An optics model for Onondaga Lake," Lake Reserv. Manage. 12, 115-125 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Effler, M. G. Perkins, H. Greer, and D. L. Johnson, "Effect of 'whiting' on optical properties and turbidity in Owasco Lake, New York," Water Resour. Bull. 23, 189-196 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Piskozub, J.

Poteau, A.

H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, J.-F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, "Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 739-752 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pottsmith, H. C.

Y. C. Agrawal and H. C. Pottsmith, "Instruments for particle size and settling velocity observations in sediment transport," Mar. Geol. 168, 89-114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pozdnyakov, D. V.

R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, K. Y. Kondratyev, and D. V. Pozdnyakov, Optical Properties and Remote Sensing of Inland and Coastal Waters (CRC, 1995).

Proctor, T. D.

T. D. Proctor and G. W. Harris, "The turbidity of suspensions of irregular quartz particles," J. Aerosol Sci. 5, 81-90 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Quinn, S. O.

S. W. Effler, C. M. Brooks, M. G. Perkins, N. K. Ohrazda, D. A. Matthews, D. L. Johnson, M. T. Auer, J. A. Bloomfield, and S. O. Quinn, "The effect of terrigenous inputs on spatial patterns of water quality indicators in South Lake, Lake Champlain," J. Great Lakes Res. 26, 366-383 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Razet, D.

A.-L. Barillé-Boyer, L. Barille, H. Masse, D. Razet, and M. Heral, "Correction for particulate organic matter as estimated by loss on ignition in estuarine ecosystems," Estuarine Coastal Shelf Sci. 58, 147-153 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Risovic, D.

D. Risovi?, "Effect of suspended particulate-size distribution on the backscattering ratio in the remote sensing of seawater," Appl. Opt. 41, 7092-7101 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Risovi? and M. Martinis, "A comparative analysis of sea-particle-size distribution models," Fiz. B 4, 111-120 (1995).

D. Risovi?, "Two-component model of sea particle size distribution," Deep-Sea Res. , Part I 40, 1459-1473, doi:doi: (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, A. F.

P. F. Kerr and A. F. Rogers, Optical Mineralogy (McGraw-Hill, 1977).

Russ, J. C.

J. C. Russ, The Image Processing Handbook (CRC, 1998).

Schneider, D. W.

S. P. Madon, D. W. Schneider, J. A. Stoeckel, and R. E. Sparks, "Effects of inorganic sediment and food concentrations on energetic processes of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha: implications for growth in turbid rivers," Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 55, 401-413 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schreurs, R.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, "Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180-1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sheldon, R. W.

R. W. Sheldon, "Size separation of marine seston by membrane and glass-fiber filters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 494-498 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Siegfried, C. A.

S. W. Effler, D. A. Matthews, C. M. Brooks-Matthews, M. Perkins, C. A. Siegfried, and J. M. Hassett, "Water quality impacts and indicators of metabolic activity of the zebra mussel invasion of the Seneca River," J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 40, 737-754 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Silverberg, N.

C. E. Lambert, C. Jehanno, N. Silverberg, J. C. Brun-Cottan, and R. Chesselet, "Lognormal distributions of suspended particles in the open ocean," J. Mar. Res. 39, 77-98 (1981).

Sparks, R. E.

S. P. Madon, D. W. Schneider, J. A. Stoeckel, and R. E. Sparks, "Effects of inorganic sediment and food concentrations on energetic processes of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha: implications for growth in turbid rivers," Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 55, 401-413 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stavn, R. H.

R. H. Stavn and T. R. Keen, "Suspended minerogenic particle distributions in high-energy coastal environments: optical implications," J. Geophys. Res. 109, C05005, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stoeckel, J. A.

S. P. Madon, D. W. Schneider, J. A. Stoeckel, and R. E. Sparks, "Effects of inorganic sediment and food concentrations on energetic processes of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha: implications for growth in turbid rivers," Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 55, 401-413 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stramski, D.

D. Stramski and S. B. Wo?niak, "On the role of colloidal particles in light scattering in the ocean," Limnol. Oceanogr. 50, 1581-1591 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Wo?niak and D. Stramski, "Modeling the optical properties of mineral particles suspended in seawater and their influence on ocean reflectance and chlorophyll estimation from remote sensing algorithms," Appl. Opt. 43, 3489-3503 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Piskozub, D. Stramski, E. Terrill, and W. K. Melville, "Influence of forward and multiple light scatter on the measurement of beam attenuation in highly scattering marine environments," Appl. Opt. 43, 4723-4731 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, "The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean," Prog. Oceanogr. 61, 27-56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, "Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843-859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, "Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community," Appl. Opt. 40, 2929-2945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski and D. A. Kiefer, "Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean," Prog. Oceanogr. 28, 343-383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, J. M.

Terrill, E.

Travis, L. D.

Twardowski, M. S.

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, P. L. Donaghay, and S. A. Freeman, "Use of optical scattering to discriminate particle types in coastal waters," Appl. Opt. 44, 1667-1680 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, "Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf," J. Geophys. Res. , [Oceans] 106, 9509-9516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. , [Oceans] 106, 14129-14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vassen, W.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, "Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180-1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Volten, H.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, "Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180-1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Voss, K. J.

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, "The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean," Prog. Oceanogr. 61, 27-56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weidemann, A. D.

A. D. Weidemann, T. T. Bannister, S. W. Effler, and D. L. Johnson, "Particulate and optical properties during CaCO3 precipitation in Otisco Lake," Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 1078-1083 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Whitmire, A. L.

Wiscombe, W.

Wouts, R.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, "Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180-1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wozniak, S. B.

Yin, C.

C. Yin and D. L. Johnson, "An individual particle analysis and budget study of Onondaga Lake sediments," Limnol. Oceanogr. 29, 1193-1201 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. , [Oceans] 106, 14129-14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, "Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf," J. Geophys. Res. , [Oceans] 106, 9509-9516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, D. Gray, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Absorption and attenuation of visible and near-infrared light in water: dependence on temperature and salinity," Appl. Opt. 36, 6035-6046 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, M. Lewis, M. Lee, B. Johnson, and G. Korotaev, "The volume scattering function of natural bubble populations," Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 1273-1282 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (10)

A. C. Holland and G. Gagne, "The scattering of polarized light by polydisperse systems of irregular particles," Appl. Opt. 9, 1113-1121 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mugnai and W. Wiscombe, "Scattering from nonspherical Chebyshev particles. 3. variability in angular scattering patterns," Appl. Opt. 28, 3061-3073 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, "Light scattering by polydispersions of randomly oriented spheroids with sizes comparable to wavelengths of observation," Appl. Opt. 33, 7206-7225 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Pegau, D. Gray, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Absorption and attenuation of visible and near-infrared light in water: dependence on temperature and salinity," Appl. Opt. 36, 6035-6046 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, "Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community," Appl. Opt. 40, 2929-2945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss and W. S. Pegau, "Relationship of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient," Appl. Opt. 40, 5503-5507 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Risovi?, "Effect of suspended particulate-size distribution on the backscattering ratio in the remote sensing of seawater," Appl. Opt. 41, 7092-7101 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Wo?niak and D. Stramski, "Modeling the optical properties of mineral particles suspended in seawater and their influence on ocean reflectance and chlorophyll estimation from remote sensing algorithms," Appl. Opt. 43, 3489-3503 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Piskozub, D. Stramski, E. Terrill, and W. K. Melville, "Influence of forward and multiple light scatter on the measurement of beam attenuation in highly scattering marine environments," Appl. Opt. 43, 4723-4731 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, P. L. Donaghay, and S. A. Freeman, "Use of optical scattering to discriminate particle types in coastal waters," Appl. Opt. 44, 1667-1680 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. (1)

S. P. Madon, D. W. Schneider, J. A. Stoeckel, and R. E. Sparks, "Effects of inorganic sediment and food concentrations on energetic processes of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha: implications for growth in turbid rivers," Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 55, 401-413 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Deep-Sea Res. (2)

D. Risovi?, "Two-component model of sea particle size distribution," Deep-Sea Res. , Part I 40, 1459-1473, doi:doi: (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Lavoie, "Computerized oceanic particle characterization using heavy metal staining, SEM, EDXS and image analysis," Deep-Sea Res. , Part A 39, 1655-1668 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Environ. Sci. Technol. (2)

D. L. Johnson, J. Jiao, S. G. DosSantos, and S. W. Effler, "Individual particle analysis of suspended materials in Onondaga Lake, New York," Environ. Sci. Technol. 25, 736-744 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Driscoll, S. W. Effler, and S. M. Doerr, "Changes in inorganic carbon chemistry and deposition of Onondaga Lake, New York," Environ. Sci. Technol. 28, 1211-1218 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Estuarine Coastal Shelf Sci. (1)

A.-L. Barillé-Boyer, L. Barille, H. Masse, D. Razet, and M. Heral, "Correction for particulate organic matter as estimated by loss on ignition in estuarine ecosystems," Estuarine Coastal Shelf Sci. 58, 147-153 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fiz. B (1)

D. Risovi? and M. Martinis, "A comparative analysis of sea-particle-size distribution models," Fiz. B 4, 111-120 (1995).

Hydrobiologia (2)

S. W. Effler, D. A. Matthews, M. Perkins, D. L. Johnson, F. Peng, M. R. Penn, and M. T. Auer, "Patterns and impacts of inorganic tripton in Cayuga Lake," Hydrobiologia 482, 137-150, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Peng and S. W. Effler, "Inorganic tripton in the Finger Lakes of New York: importance to optical characteristics," Hydrobiologia 543, 259-277 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Aerosol Sci. (1)

T. D. Proctor and G. W. Harris, "The turbidity of suspensions of irregular quartz particles," J. Aerosol Sci. 5, 81-90 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. (3)

F. Peng, D. L. Johnson, and S. W. Effler, "Suspensoids in New York city's drinking water reservoirs: Turbidity apportionment," J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 38, 1453-1465 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Effler, R. K. Gelda, M. G. Perkins, and D. M. O'Donnell, "Modeling light attenuation, Secchi disk, and effects of tripton in Senaca River, New York, USA," J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 41, 971-984 (2005).

S. W. Effler, D. A. Matthews, C. M. Brooks-Matthews, M. Perkins, C. A. Siegfried, and J. M. Hassett, "Water quality impacts and indicators of metabolic activity of the zebra mussel invasion of the Seneca River," J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 40, 737-754 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (5)

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, "Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf," J. Geophys. Res. , [Oceans] 106, 9509-9516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, "Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal," J. Geophys. Res. , [Oceans] 106, 7163-7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Bader, "The hyperbolic distribution of particle sizes," J. Geophys. Res. 75, 2822-2830 (1970).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. , [Oceans] 106, 14129-14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stavn and T. R. Keen, "Suspended minerogenic particle distributions in high-energy coastal environments: optical implications," J. Geophys. Res. 109, C05005, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Great Lakes Res. (1)

S. W. Effler, C. M. Brooks, M. G. Perkins, N. K. Ohrazda, D. A. Matthews, D. L. Johnson, M. T. Auer, J. A. Bloomfield, and S. O. Quinn, "The effect of terrigenous inputs on spatial patterns of water quality indicators in South Lake, Lake Champlain," J. Great Lakes Res. 26, 366-383 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Mar. Res. (1)

C. E. Lambert, C. Jehanno, N. Silverberg, J. C. Brun-Cottan, and R. Chesselet, "Lognormal distributions of suspended particles in the open ocean," J. Mar. Res. 39, 77-98 (1981).

Lake Reserv. Manage. (1)

S. W. Effler and M. G. Perkins, "An optics model for Onondaga Lake," Lake Reserv. Manage. 12, 115-125 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (15)

M. Jonasz, "Nonsphericity of suspended marine particles and its influence on light scattering," Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 1059-1065 (1987).
[CrossRef]

F. Peng and S. W. Effler, "Suspended minerogenic particles in a reservoir: light-scattering features from individual particle analysis," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 204-216 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, "Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843-859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Jonasz and G. Fournier, "Approximation of the size distribution of marine particles by a sum of log-normal functions," Limnol. Oceanogr. 41, 744-754 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, J.-F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, "Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 739-752 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Yin and D. L. Johnson, "An individual particle analysis and budget study of Onondaga Lake sediments," Limnol. Oceanogr. 29, 1193-1201 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Weidemann, T. T. Bannister, S. W. Effler, and D. L. Johnson, "Particulate and optical properties during CaCO3 precipitation in Otisco Lake," Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 1078-1083 (1985).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel and A. Morel, "Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: a reexamination," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847-858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, M. Lewis, M. Lee, B. Johnson, and G. Korotaev, "The volume scattering function of natural bubble populations," Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 1273-1282 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon and T. Du, "Light scattering by nonspherical particles: application to coccoliths detached from Emiliania huxleyi," Limnol. Oceanogr. 46, 1438-1454 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, "Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180-1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon and O. B. Brown, "A theoretical model of light scattering by Sargasso Sea particulates," Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 826-832 (1972).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski and S. B. Wo?niak, "On the role of colloidal particles in light scattering in the ocean," Limnol. Oceanogr. 50, 1581-1591 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Chavez, K. R. Buck, R. R. Bidigare, D. M. Karl, D. Hebel, M. Latasa, M. E. Ondrusek, L. Campbell, and J. Newton, "On the chlorophyll a retention properties of glass-fiber GF/F filters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 428-433 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Sheldon, "Size separation of marine seston by membrane and glass-fiber filters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 494-498 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Mar. Geol. (1)

Y. C. Agrawal and H. C. Pottsmith, "Instruments for particle size and settling velocity observations in sediment transport," Mar. Geol. 168, 89-114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Prog. Oceanogr. (2)

D. Stramski and D. A. Kiefer, "Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean," Prog. Oceanogr. 28, 343-383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, "The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean," Prog. Oceanogr. 61, 27-56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Water Resour. Bull. (2)

S. W. Effler and C. F. Carter, "Spatial variability in selected physical characteristics and processes in Cross Lake, New York," Water Resour. Bull. 23, 243-250 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Effler, M. G. Perkins, H. Greer, and D. L. Johnson, "Effect of 'whiting' on optical properties and turbidity in Owasco Lake, New York," Water Resour. Bull. 23, 189-196 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Other (11)

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

P. F. Kerr and A. F. Rogers, Optical Mineralogy (McGraw-Hill, 1977).

J. C. Russ, The Image Processing Handbook (CRC, 1998).

S. W. Effler, Limnological and Engineering Analysis of a Polluted Urban Lake: Prelude to Environmental Management of Onondaga Lake, New York (Springer, 1996).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, K. Y. Kondratyev, and D. V. Pozdnyakov, Optical Properties and Remote Sensing of Inland and Coastal Waters (CRC, 1995).

J. T. O. Kirk, Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems (Cambridge U. Press, 1994).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, 1994).

WET Labs, "Scattering meter BB9: user's guide" (Philomath, Oregon, USA, 2007).

L. S. Clesceri, A. E. Greenberg, and A. D. Eaton, eds., Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation, 1998).

T. R. Parsons, Y. Maita, and C. M. Lalli, A Manual of Chemical and Biological Methods for Seawater Analysis (Pergamon, 1984).

WET Labs, "Spectral absorption and attenuation meter ac-s: user's guide" (Philomath, Oregon, USA, 2006).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Study area and sites in central New York. See Table 1 for site abbreviations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Bulk water quality metrics for study sites related to light scattering: (a) c(660) and turbidity, (b) suspended solids, and (c) chlorophyll concentration, Chl. See site abbreviations in Table 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Micrographs of particles from study sites: (a) Seneca River, quartz ( d 2   μm ) in upper left, clay mineral particles ( d 6 8   μm ) lower right and upper third∕left of center, and Ca-agg particle ( d 2   μm ) lower half∕left of center, (b) Onondaga Lake, large ( > 15   μm ) centric diatom (on edge) on the left, calcite particle ( d 8   μm ) on lower right, (c) Onondaga Lake, algae, two centric diatoms, a pennate diatom (Asterionella sp.) in center, and Scenedesmus sp. (Organics) center∕right, and (d) Owasco Lake, Phacotus sp. ( d 10   μm ) lower left, dendritic calcite particle upper center, and large filamentous diatom (centric) on right.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

PSDs for minerogenic particles: (a) five lake sites, Owasco Lake, Skaneateles Lake, north and south sites on Otisco Lake, and Onondaga Lake, (b) Seneca River system, including river buoy 424, north and south sites on Cross Lake, and river buoys 409 and 317, and (c) an example of PSD function fits [Junge (j = 2.97, with j = 4 added for reference) and 2C-B; OtS]. See Table 1 for site abbreviations.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relationships between b p ( λ ) and b p ( 650 ) , and between b p ( 555 ) and b p ( 650 ) , for study sites, with equivalence (1:1) line for reference.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparisons of bulk in situ measurements of scattering and calculated minerogenic scattering based on SAX results: (a) b p ( 650 ) and b m ( 650 ) , with estimation of b o ( 650 ) illustrated, and an example of b m ( 650 ) adjusted for the lying flat effect (inset), (b) b b p ( 650 ) and b b , m ( 650 ) , and (c) measured and minerogenic b ˜ b p ( 650 ) . See Table 1 for site abbreviations.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Evaluation of relationships between measures, estimates, and indicators of scattering for the study sites: (a) b p ( 650 ) versus TSS, (b) b b p ( 650 ) versus TSS, (c) b p ( 650 ) versus PAV m (B424 as outlier in regression analysis), (d) b b p ( 650 ) versus PAV m (B424 as outlier in regression analysis), (e) b m ( 650 ) versus FSS corr , (f) b b , m ( 650 ) versus FSS corr , (g) b m ( 650 ) / b p ( 650 ) versus FSS corr / TSS , (h) b b , m ( 650 ) / b b p ( 650 ) versus FSS corr / TSS , (i) b ˜ b p ( 650 ) versus FSS corr / TSS , (j) b o ( 650 ) versus VSS corr , (k) b o ( 650 ) versus PAV o , and (l) b o ( 650 ) versus b o ,Chl ( 650 ) . See Table 1 for site abbreviations.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Size dependencies of scattering coefficients as cumulative plots, based on observations (symbols) from Seneca River at buoy 424, and simulations from three cases of PSDs (observed, and Junge with best fitted j and invoked j = 4; curves) with uniform m = 1.17–0.0005i: (a) b m ( 650 ) , and (b) b b , m ( 650 ) .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Scattering as functions of n (with n = 0.0005 ), for observed minerogenic PSD at Owasco Lake, for Junge PSDs with fitted j values of 2.68 and commonly invoked 4: (a) b m ( 650 ) as percentages of the values calculated for n = 1.25 (0.41, 0.45, and 0.22 m 1 for the three cases of PSDs, respectively), and (b) b b , m ( 650 ) as percentages of the values calculated for n = 1.25 (0.016, 0.016, and 0.0092 m 1 for the three cases of PSDs, respectively).

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Characteristics of Study Systems and Location of Sites

Tables Icon

Table 2 Specification of Generic Particle Types, According to X-Ray Characteristics, and the Complex Refractive Indices (Relative to Water) Used in Mie Calculations

Tables Icon

Table 3 Summary of PAV Measurements for Study Sites According to Geochemical Classes with Contributions to Total PAV and PAV m

Tables Icon

Table 4 Statistics (Mean ± Standard Deviation) of Minerogenic Particle Shapes as Described by ASP (Aspect Ratio) for Study Sites

Tables Icon

Table 5 2C- B PSD Fitting Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 6 Mean Scattering Efficiencies, Q b,m (650), a of Minerogenic Particle Types for Study Sites

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

b p ( λ ) = 2 π 0 π β p ( θ , λ ) sin θ d θ ,
b ( λ ) = b p ( λ ) + b w ( λ ) ,
b p ( λ ) = b o ( λ ) + b m ( λ ) .
b p ( λ ) = i = 1 N o b o , i ( λ ) + j = 1 N m b m , j ( λ ) ,
F ( d ) = C A d μ A exp ( 52 d γ A ) + C B d μ B exp ( 17 d γ B ) ,
b m ( λ ) = i = 1 N m Q b m , i ( m i , λ , d i ) PA * m , i ,
b o ,Chl ( λ ) = 0.347 [ Chl ] 0.766 ( 660 / λ ) 0.97.
c ( 660 ) = ( 0.713 × TSS ) + 0.613 ,
c ( 660 ) = ( 0.558 × FSS corr ) + ( 1.227 × VSS corr ) + 0.105 ,

Metrics