Abstract

Two intracavity laser absorption techniques for ultralow concentration detection of chemicals in solution are compared. The first consists of a laser diode in a grating extended cavity, which produces a linear calibration curve for parts in 109 (ppb) concentrations corresponding to 17  nM. By replacing the grating with a highly reflective mirror, parts in 1012 (ppt) concentration detection is achieved, which corresponds to 340   pM. We report, to our knowledge for the first time, ppt detection of analyte concentration in liquid solution demonstrating good agreement between theory and experiment.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy: Experimental schemes and applications," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Xu, G. SHa, and J. XIe, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy in the liquid phase," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 255-258 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. J. Alexander, E. S. F. Berman, and R. N. Zare, "Use of broadband, continuous wave diode lasers in cavity ring down spectroscopy for liquid samples," Spec. Tech. 57, 571-573 (2003).
  4. A. J. Alexander, "Flowing liquid-sheet jet for cavity ring-down absorption measurements," Anal. Chem. 78, 5597-5600 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. van der Aneppen, A. Wiskerke, F. Ariese, C. Gooijer, and W. Ubachs, "Improving the sensitivity of HPLC absorption detection by cavity ring-down spectroscopy in a liquid-only cavity," Anal. Chim. Acta 558, 2-6 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. K. N. Patel and A. C. Tam, "Pulsed optoacoustic spectroscopy of condensed matter," Rev. Mod. Phys. 53, 517-550 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, and R. E. Huei, "Evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a total-internal-reflection minicavity," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2978-2989 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. C. R. Pipino, "Monolithic folded resonator for evanescent wave cavity ringdown spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 39, 1449-1453 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. E. Long, R. L. Swofford, and A. C. Albrecht, "Thermal lens technique: a new method of absorption spectroscopy," Science 191, 183-185 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Ye, L. S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, "Ultrasensitive detection in atomic and molecular physics: demonstration in molecular overtone spectroscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 6-15 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. V. M. Baev, T. Latz, and P. E. Toschek, "Laser intracavity absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 69, 171-202 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. A. Kachanov, F. Stoeckel, A. Charvat, and J. J. O"Brien, "Intracavity laser absorption measurements at ultrahigh spectral resolution," Appl. Opt. 36, 18, 40624-4068 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. W. Hansch, A. L. Schawlow, and P. E. Toschek, "Ultrasensitive response of a cw dye laser to selective extinction," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 802-804 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. N. Antonov, V. G. Koloshnikov, and V. R. Mironenko, "Quantitative measurement of small absorption coefficients in intracavity absorption spectroscopy using a cw dye laser," Opt. Commun. 15, 99-103 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. Kleist and H. Bettermann, "Intracavity absorption measurements from liquid simples in an Ar+-ion laser," Opt. Lett. 13, 449-451 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. Hicks and G. Patonay, "Linearity consideration for near-infrared laser diode intracavity absorption spectrometer," Anal. Chem. 62, 1543-1545 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. W. Crowe and R. M. Craig, Jr., "GaAs laser linewidth measurements by heterodyne detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 72-73 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  18. W. Demtröder, Laser, Spectroscopy: Basic Concepts and Instrumentation, Vol. 5 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer, 1981).

2006

A. J. Alexander, "Flowing liquid-sheet jet for cavity ring-down absorption measurements," Anal. Chem. 78, 5597-5600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. van der Aneppen, A. Wiskerke, F. Ariese, C. Gooijer, and W. Ubachs, "Improving the sensitivity of HPLC absorption detection by cavity ring-down spectroscopy in a liquid-only cavity," Anal. Chim. Acta 558, 2-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. J. Alexander, E. S. F. Berman, and R. N. Zare, "Use of broadband, continuous wave diode lasers in cavity ring down spectroscopy for liquid samples," Spec. Tech. 57, 571-573 (2003).

2002

S. Xu, G. SHa, and J. XIe, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy in the liquid phase," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 255-258 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy: Experimental schemes and applications," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. C. R. Pipino, "Monolithic folded resonator for evanescent wave cavity ringdown spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 39, 1449-1453 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

V. M. Baev, T. Latz, and P. E. Toschek, "Laser intracavity absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 69, 171-202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

A. A. Kachanov, F. Stoeckel, A. Charvat, and J. J. O"Brien, "Intracavity laser absorption measurements at ultrahigh spectral resolution," Appl. Opt. 36, 18, 40624-4068 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, and R. E. Huei, "Evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a total-internal-reflection minicavity," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2978-2989 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1990

J. Hicks and G. Patonay, "Linearity consideration for near-infrared laser diode intracavity absorption spectrometer," Anal. Chem. 62, 1543-1545 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

1981

C. K. N. Patel and A. C. Tam, "Pulsed optoacoustic spectroscopy of condensed matter," Rev. Mod. Phys. 53, 517-550 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1976

M. E. Long, R. L. Swofford, and A. C. Albrecht, "Thermal lens technique: a new method of absorption spectroscopy," Science 191, 183-185 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975

E. N. Antonov, V. G. Koloshnikov, and V. R. Mironenko, "Quantitative measurement of small absorption coefficients in intracavity absorption spectroscopy using a cw dye laser," Opt. Commun. 15, 99-103 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1972

T. W. Hansch, A. L. Schawlow, and P. E. Toschek, "Ultrasensitive response of a cw dye laser to selective extinction," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 802-804 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1964

J. W. Crowe and R. M. Craig, Jr., "GaAs laser linewidth measurements by heterodyne detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 72-73 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Albrecht, A. C.

M. E. Long, R. L. Swofford, and A. C. Albrecht, "Thermal lens technique: a new method of absorption spectroscopy," Science 191, 183-185 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alexander, A. J.

A. J. Alexander, "Flowing liquid-sheet jet for cavity ring-down absorption measurements," Anal. Chem. 78, 5597-5600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Alexander, E. S. F. Berman, and R. N. Zare, "Use of broadband, continuous wave diode lasers in cavity ring down spectroscopy for liquid samples," Spec. Tech. 57, 571-573 (2003).

Antonov, E. N.

E. N. Antonov, V. G. Koloshnikov, and V. R. Mironenko, "Quantitative measurement of small absorption coefficients in intracavity absorption spectroscopy using a cw dye laser," Opt. Commun. 15, 99-103 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ariese, F.

L. van der Aneppen, A. Wiskerke, F. Ariese, C. Gooijer, and W. Ubachs, "Improving the sensitivity of HPLC absorption detection by cavity ring-down spectroscopy in a liquid-only cavity," Anal. Chim. Acta 558, 2-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baev, V. M.

V. M. Baev, T. Latz, and P. E. Toschek, "Laser intracavity absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 69, 171-202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Berden, G.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy: Experimental schemes and applications," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Berman, E. S. F.

A. J. Alexander, E. S. F. Berman, and R. N. Zare, "Use of broadband, continuous wave diode lasers in cavity ring down spectroscopy for liquid samples," Spec. Tech. 57, 571-573 (2003).

Bettermann, H.

Charvat, A.

A. A. Kachanov, F. Stoeckel, A. Charvat, and J. J. O"Brien, "Intracavity laser absorption measurements at ultrahigh spectral resolution," Appl. Opt. 36, 18, 40624-4068 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Craig, R. M.

J. W. Crowe and R. M. Craig, Jr., "GaAs laser linewidth measurements by heterodyne detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 72-73 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Crowe, J. W.

J. W. Crowe and R. M. Craig, Jr., "GaAs laser linewidth measurements by heterodyne detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 72-73 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Demtröder, W.

W. Demtröder, Laser, Spectroscopy: Basic Concepts and Instrumentation, Vol. 5 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer, 1981).

Gooijer, C.

L. van der Aneppen, A. Wiskerke, F. Ariese, C. Gooijer, and W. Ubachs, "Improving the sensitivity of HPLC absorption detection by cavity ring-down spectroscopy in a liquid-only cavity," Anal. Chim. Acta 558, 2-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

Hansch, T. W.

T. W. Hansch, A. L. Schawlow, and P. E. Toschek, "Ultrasensitive response of a cw dye laser to selective extinction," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 802-804 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Hicks, J.

J. Hicks and G. Patonay, "Linearity consideration for near-infrared laser diode intracavity absorption spectrometer," Anal. Chem. 62, 1543-1545 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hudgens, J. W.

A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, and R. E. Huei, "Evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a total-internal-reflection minicavity," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2978-2989 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huei, R. E.

A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, and R. E. Huei, "Evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a total-internal-reflection minicavity," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2978-2989 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kachanov, A. A.

A. A. Kachanov, F. Stoeckel, A. Charvat, and J. J. O"Brien, "Intracavity laser absorption measurements at ultrahigh spectral resolution," Appl. Opt. 36, 18, 40624-4068 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kleist, E.

Koloshnikov, V. G.

E. N. Antonov, V. G. Koloshnikov, and V. R. Mironenko, "Quantitative measurement of small absorption coefficients in intracavity absorption spectroscopy using a cw dye laser," Opt. Commun. 15, 99-103 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Latz, T.

V. M. Baev, T. Latz, and P. E. Toschek, "Laser intracavity absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 69, 171-202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Long, M. E.

M. E. Long, R. L. Swofford, and A. C. Albrecht, "Thermal lens technique: a new method of absorption spectroscopy," Science 191, 183-185 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, L. S.

Meijer, G.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy: Experimental schemes and applications," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mironenko, V. R.

E. N. Antonov, V. G. Koloshnikov, and V. R. Mironenko, "Quantitative measurement of small absorption coefficients in intracavity absorption spectroscopy using a cw dye laser," Opt. Commun. 15, 99-103 (1975).
[CrossRef]

O"Brien, J. J.

A. A. Kachanov, F. Stoeckel, A. Charvat, and J. J. O"Brien, "Intracavity laser absorption measurements at ultrahigh spectral resolution," Appl. Opt. 36, 18, 40624-4068 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Patel, C. K. N.

C. K. N. Patel and A. C. Tam, "Pulsed optoacoustic spectroscopy of condensed matter," Rev. Mod. Phys. 53, 517-550 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Patonay, G.

J. Hicks and G. Patonay, "Linearity consideration for near-infrared laser diode intracavity absorption spectrometer," Anal. Chem. 62, 1543-1545 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Peeters, R.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy: Experimental schemes and applications," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pipino, A. C. R.

A. C. R. Pipino, "Monolithic folded resonator for evanescent wave cavity ringdown spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 39, 1449-1453 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, and R. E. Huei, "Evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a total-internal-reflection minicavity," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2978-2989 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schawlow, A. L.

T. W. Hansch, A. L. Schawlow, and P. E. Toschek, "Ultrasensitive response of a cw dye laser to selective extinction," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 802-804 (1972).
[CrossRef]

SHa, G.

S. Xu, G. SHa, and J. XIe, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy in the liquid phase," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 255-258 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stoeckel, F.

A. A. Kachanov, F. Stoeckel, A. Charvat, and J. J. O"Brien, "Intracavity laser absorption measurements at ultrahigh spectral resolution," Appl. Opt. 36, 18, 40624-4068 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Swofford, R. L.

M. E. Long, R. L. Swofford, and A. C. Albrecht, "Thermal lens technique: a new method of absorption spectroscopy," Science 191, 183-185 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tam, A. C.

C. K. N. Patel and A. C. Tam, "Pulsed optoacoustic spectroscopy of condensed matter," Rev. Mod. Phys. 53, 517-550 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Toschek, P. E.

V. M. Baev, T. Latz, and P. E. Toschek, "Laser intracavity absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 69, 171-202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Hansch, A. L. Schawlow, and P. E. Toschek, "Ultrasensitive response of a cw dye laser to selective extinction," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 802-804 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ubachs, W.

L. van der Aneppen, A. Wiskerke, F. Ariese, C. Gooijer, and W. Ubachs, "Improving the sensitivity of HPLC absorption detection by cavity ring-down spectroscopy in a liquid-only cavity," Anal. Chim. Acta 558, 2-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van der Aneppen, L.

L. van der Aneppen, A. Wiskerke, F. Ariese, C. Gooijer, and W. Ubachs, "Improving the sensitivity of HPLC absorption detection by cavity ring-down spectroscopy in a liquid-only cavity," Anal. Chim. Acta 558, 2-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wiskerke, A.

L. van der Aneppen, A. Wiskerke, F. Ariese, C. Gooijer, and W. Ubachs, "Improving the sensitivity of HPLC absorption detection by cavity ring-down spectroscopy in a liquid-only cavity," Anal. Chim. Acta 558, 2-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

XIe, J.

S. Xu, G. SHa, and J. XIe, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy in the liquid phase," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 255-258 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S.

S. Xu, G. SHa, and J. XIe, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy in the liquid phase," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 255-258 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

Zare, R. N.

A. J. Alexander, E. S. F. Berman, and R. N. Zare, "Use of broadband, continuous wave diode lasers in cavity ring down spectroscopy for liquid samples," Spec. Tech. 57, 571-573 (2003).

Anal. Chem.

A. J. Alexander, "Flowing liquid-sheet jet for cavity ring-down absorption measurements," Anal. Chem. 78, 5597-5600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hicks and G. Patonay, "Linearity consideration for near-infrared laser diode intracavity absorption spectrometer," Anal. Chem. 62, 1543-1545 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chim. Acta

L. van der Aneppen, A. Wiskerke, F. Ariese, C. Gooijer, and W. Ubachs, "Improving the sensitivity of HPLC absorption detection by cavity ring-down spectroscopy in a liquid-only cavity," Anal. Chim. Acta 558, 2-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

A. C. R. Pipino, "Monolithic folded resonator for evanescent wave cavity ringdown spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 39, 1449-1453 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kachanov, F. Stoeckel, A. Charvat, and J. J. O"Brien, "Intracavity laser absorption measurements at ultrahigh spectral resolution," Appl. Opt. 36, 18, 40624-4068 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

V. M. Baev, T. Latz, and P. E. Toschek, "Laser intracavity absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 69, 171-202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. W. Crowe and R. M. Craig, Jr., "GaAs laser linewidth measurements by heterodyne detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 72-73 (1964).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

T. W. Hansch, A. L. Schawlow, and P. E. Toschek, "Ultrasensitive response of a cw dye laser to selective extinction," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 802-804 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Int. Rev. Phys. Chem.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy: Experimental schemes and applications," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

E. N. Antonov, V. G. Koloshnikov, and V. R. Mironenko, "Quantitative measurement of small absorption coefficients in intracavity absorption spectroscopy using a cw dye laser," Opt. Commun. 15, 99-103 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Rev. Mod. Phys.

C. K. N. Patel and A. C. Tam, "Pulsed optoacoustic spectroscopy of condensed matter," Rev. Mod. Phys. 53, 517-550 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, and R. E. Huei, "Evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a total-internal-reflection minicavity," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2978-2989 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Xu, G. SHa, and J. XIe, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy in the liquid phase," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 255-258 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Science

M. E. Long, R. L. Swofford, and A. C. Albrecht, "Thermal lens technique: a new method of absorption spectroscopy," Science 191, 183-185 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spec. Tech.

A. J. Alexander, E. S. F. Berman, and R. N. Zare, "Use of broadband, continuous wave diode lasers in cavity ring down spectroscopy for liquid samples," Spec. Tech. 57, 571-573 (2003).

Other

W. Demtröder, Laser, Spectroscopy: Basic Concepts and Instrumentation, Vol. 5 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer, 1981).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of single-mode intracavity spectroscopy detection of an extended cavity (a) with a grating and (b) with a mirror. LD, laser diode; AR, antireflection coated facet; M1 and M2, resonator mirrors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Characteristic curves of a broadband laser diode (squares), an ECDL with a grating (circles) and an ECDL with a HR mirror (triangles).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) (a) Absorbance units versus IR-140 dye concentrations in ethanol at different input currents for an ECDL formed with grating and (b) comparison of the intracavity (multiple pass) and single-pass absorption detections.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Absorbance versus IR-140 dye concentrations in ethanol solutions at different input currents for an ECDL with HR mirror.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Absorbance values for a batch of analyte concentrations versus the input current of a single-mode intracavity laser for an ECDL (a) with a grating and (b) with a HR mirror.

Equations (1)

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F = G 0 ( G 0 γ ) 1 ( γ + Δ γ ) ,

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