Abstract

A high-resolution liquid-nitrogen-free mid-infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) system was used to perform real-time measurement of acetaldehyde concentrations in human exhaled breath following ingestion of an alcoholic beverage. Acetaldehyde absorption features were measured near 5.79μm(1727cm1) using a IV–VI semiconductor laser, a 100  m long path optical gas cell, and second- harmonic detection coupled with wavelength modulation. Acetaldehyde levels were measured with a minimum detection limit of 80 ppb for 5 s integration time. The variations in exhaled acetaldehyde levels over time were analyzed prior to and following ingestion of two different amounts of white wine. A method to calibrate acetaldehyde measurements internally using water vapor absorption lines was investigated to eliminate the need for system calibration with gas standards. The potential of a TDLAS system to be used as a noninvasive clinical tool for measurements of large volatile compounds with possible applications in cancer detection is demonstrated.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [PubMed]
  2. C. N. Tassopoulos, D. Barnett, and T. R. Fraser, "Breath-acetone and blood-sugar measurements in diabetes," Lancet II, 1282-1286 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. R. Narasimhan, W. Goodman, C. Kumar, and N. Patel, "Correlation of breath ammonia with blood urea nitrogen and creatinine during hemodialysis," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 4617-4621 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Koivisto and M. Salaspuro, "Aldehyde dehydrogenases of the rat colon: comparison with other tissues of the alimentary tract and the liver," Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res. 20, 551-555 (1996).
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. D. Smith, T. Wang, J. Sule-Suso, P. Spanel, and A. E. Haj, "Quantification of acetaldehyde released by lung cancer cells in vitro using selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometry," Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 17, 845-850 (2003).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. C. M. Willis, S. M. Church, C. M. Guest, W. A. Cook, N. McCarthy, A. J. Bransbury, M. R. T. Church, and J. C. T. Church, "Olfactory detection of human bladder cancer by dogs: proof of principle study," Br. Med. J. 329(7468), 712-714 (2004).
  25. R. F. Machado, D. Laskowski, O. Deffenderfer, T. Burch, S. Zheng, P. J. Mazzone, T. Mekhail, C. Jennings, J. K. Stoller, J. Pyle, J. Duncan, R. A. Dweik, and S. C. Erzurum, "Detection of lung cancer by sensor array analyses of exhaled breath," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 171, 1286-1291 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. H. Hollenstein and Hs. H. Günthard, "Solid state and gas infrared spectra and normal coordinate analysis of 5 isotopic species of acetaldehyde," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 27, 2027-2060 (1971).
    [CrossRef]

2006

K. Namjou, C. B. Roller, T. E. Reich, J. D. Jeffers, G. L. Mcmillen, P. J. McCann, and M. A. Camp, "Determination of exhaled nitric oxide distributions in a diverse sample population using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 85, 427-435 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Turner, P. Spanel, and D. Smith, "A longitudinal study of ethanol and acetaldehyde in the exhaled breath of healthy volunteers using selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometry," Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 20, 61-68 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. McCulloch, T. Jezierski, M. Broffman, A. Hubbard, K. Turner, and T. Janecki, "Diagnostic accuracy of canine scent detection in early- and late-stage lung and breast cancers," Integr. Cancer Ther. 5, 30-39 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

R. F. Machado, D. Laskowski, O. Deffenderfer, T. Burch, S. Zheng, P. J. Mazzone, T. Mekhail, C. Jennings, J. K. Stoller, J. Pyle, J. Duncan, R. A. Dweik, and S. C. Erzurum, "Detection of lung cancer by sensor array analyses of exhaled breath," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 171, 1286-1291 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Skeldon, G. M. Gibson, C. A. Wyse, L. C. McMillan, S. D. Monk, C. Longbottom, and M. J. Padgett, "Development of high-resolution real-time sub-ppb ethane spectroscopy and some pilot studies in life science," Appl. Opt. 44, 4712-4721 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

D. Smith, T. Wang, J. Sule-Suso, P. Spanel, and A. E. Haj, "Quantification of acetaldehyde released by lung cancer cells in vitro using selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometry," Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 17, 845-850 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

2001

L. R. Narasimhan, W. Goodman, C. Kumar, and N. Patel, "Correlation of breath ammonia with blood urea nitrogen and creatinine during hemodialysis," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 4617-4621 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

K. Namjou, P. J. McCann, and W. T. Potter, "Breath testing with a Mid-IR laser spectrometer," in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Processing Monitoring II, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE 3758, 74-80 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

T. Nosova, K. Jokelainen, P. Kaihovaara, R. Heine, H. Jousimies-Somer, and M. Salaspuro, "Characteristics of aldehyde dehydrogenases of certain aerobic bacteria representing human colonic flora," Alcohol Alcohol 33, 273-280 (1998).
[PubMed]

1997

N. Homann, H. Jousimies-Somer, K. Jokelainen, R. Heine, and M. Salaspuro, "High acetaldehyde levels in saliva after ethanol consumption: methodological aspects and pathogenetic implications," Carcinogenesis 18, 1739-1743 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Salaspuro, "Microbial metabolism of ethanol and acetaldehyde and clinical consequences," Addict. Biol. 2, 35-46 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

T. Koivisto and M. Salaspuro, "Aldehyde dehydrogenases of the rat colon: comparison with other tissues of the alimentary tract and the liver," Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res. 20, 551-555 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Jokelainen, A. Siitonen, H. Jousimies-Somere, T. Nosova, R. Heine, and M. Salaspuro, "In vitro alcohol dehydrogenase-mediated acetaldehyde production by aerobic bacteria representing the normal colonic flora in man," Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res. 20, 967-972 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Salaspuro, "Bacteriocolonic pathway for ethanol oxidation: characteristics and implications," Ann. Med. 28, 195-200 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

A. W. Jones, "Measuring and reporting the concentration of acetaldehyde in human breath," Alcohol Alcohol . 30, 271-285 (1995).
[PubMed]

1994

K. Jokelainen, R. P. Roine, H. Väänänen, M. Färkkilä, and M. Salaspuro, "In vitro acetaldehyde formation by human colonic bacteria,"Gut. 35, 1271-1274 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

A. Manolis, "The diagnostic potential of breath analysis," Clin. Chem. 29, 5-15 (1983).
[PubMed]

1981

S. N. Wickramasinghe, A. N. Bond, H. A. Sloviter, and J. E. Saunders, "Metabolism of ethanol by human bone marrow cells," Acta Haematol. 66, 238-243 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971

H. Hollenstein and Hs. H. Günthard, "Solid state and gas infrared spectra and normal coordinate analysis of 5 isotopic species of acetaldehyde," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 27, 2027-2060 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969

C. N. Tassopoulos, D. Barnett, and T. R. Fraser, "Breath-acetone and blood-sugar measurements in diabetes," Lancet II, 1282-1286 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1965

G. Freund and P. J. O"Hollaren, "Acetaldehyde concentrations in alveolar air following a standard dose of ethanol in man," Lipid Res. 6, 471-477 (1965).

1938

L. F. Leloir and J. M. Munoz, "Ethyl alcohol metabolism in animal tissues," Biochem. J. 32, 299-307 (1938).
[PubMed]

Barnett, D.

C. N. Tassopoulos, D. Barnett, and T. R. Fraser, "Breath-acetone and blood-sugar measurements in diabetes," Lancet II, 1282-1286 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Bond, A. N.

S. N. Wickramasinghe, A. N. Bond, H. A. Sloviter, and J. E. Saunders, "Metabolism of ethanol by human bone marrow cells," Acta Haematol. 66, 238-243 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bransbury, A. J.

C. M. Willis, S. M. Church, C. M. Guest, W. A. Cook, N. McCarthy, A. J. Bransbury, M. R. T. Church, and J. C. T. Church, "Olfactory detection of human bladder cancer by dogs: proof of principle study," Br. Med. J. 329(7468), 712-714 (2004).

Broffman, M.

M. McCulloch, T. Jezierski, M. Broffman, A. Hubbard, K. Turner, and T. Janecki, "Diagnostic accuracy of canine scent detection in early- and late-stage lung and breast cancers," Integr. Cancer Ther. 5, 30-39 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burch, T.

R. F. Machado, D. Laskowski, O. Deffenderfer, T. Burch, S. Zheng, P. J. Mazzone, T. Mekhail, C. Jennings, J. K. Stoller, J. Pyle, J. Duncan, R. A. Dweik, and S. C. Erzurum, "Detection of lung cancer by sensor array analyses of exhaled breath," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 171, 1286-1291 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Camp, M.

Camp, M. A.

K. Namjou, C. B. Roller, T. E. Reich, J. D. Jeffers, G. L. Mcmillen, P. J. McCann, and M. A. Camp, "Determination of exhaled nitric oxide distributions in a diverse sample population using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 85, 427-435 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Church, J. C. T.

C. M. Willis, S. M. Church, C. M. Guest, W. A. Cook, N. McCarthy, A. J. Bransbury, M. R. T. Church, and J. C. T. Church, "Olfactory detection of human bladder cancer by dogs: proof of principle study," Br. Med. J. 329(7468), 712-714 (2004).

Church, M. R. T.

C. M. Willis, S. M. Church, C. M. Guest, W. A. Cook, N. McCarthy, A. J. Bransbury, M. R. T. Church, and J. C. T. Church, "Olfactory detection of human bladder cancer by dogs: proof of principle study," Br. Med. J. 329(7468), 712-714 (2004).

Church, S. M.

C. M. Willis, S. M. Church, C. M. Guest, W. A. Cook, N. McCarthy, A. J. Bransbury, M. R. T. Church, and J. C. T. Church, "Olfactory detection of human bladder cancer by dogs: proof of principle study," Br. Med. J. 329(7468), 712-714 (2004).

Cook, W. A.

C. M. Willis, S. M. Church, C. M. Guest, W. A. Cook, N. McCarthy, A. J. Bransbury, M. R. T. Church, and J. C. T. Church, "Olfactory detection of human bladder cancer by dogs: proof of principle study," Br. Med. J. 329(7468), 712-714 (2004).

Deffenderfer, O.

R. F. Machado, D. Laskowski, O. Deffenderfer, T. Burch, S. Zheng, P. J. Mazzone, T. Mekhail, C. Jennings, J. K. Stoller, J. Pyle, J. Duncan, R. A. Dweik, and S. C. Erzurum, "Detection of lung cancer by sensor array analyses of exhaled breath," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 171, 1286-1291 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duncan, J.

R. F. Machado, D. Laskowski, O. Deffenderfer, T. Burch, S. Zheng, P. J. Mazzone, T. Mekhail, C. Jennings, J. K. Stoller, J. Pyle, J. Duncan, R. A. Dweik, and S. C. Erzurum, "Detection of lung cancer by sensor array analyses of exhaled breath," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 171, 1286-1291 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dweik, R. A.

R. F. Machado, D. Laskowski, O. Deffenderfer, T. Burch, S. Zheng, P. J. Mazzone, T. Mekhail, C. Jennings, J. K. Stoller, J. Pyle, J. Duncan, R. A. Dweik, and S. C. Erzurum, "Detection of lung cancer by sensor array analyses of exhaled breath," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 171, 1286-1291 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erzurum, S. C.

R. F. Machado, D. Laskowski, O. Deffenderfer, T. Burch, S. Zheng, P. J. Mazzone, T. Mekhail, C. Jennings, J. K. Stoller, J. Pyle, J. Duncan, R. A. Dweik, and S. C. Erzurum, "Detection of lung cancer by sensor array analyses of exhaled breath," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 171, 1286-1291 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Färkkilä, M.

K. Jokelainen, R. P. Roine, H. Väänänen, M. Färkkilä, and M. Salaspuro, "In vitro acetaldehyde formation by human colonic bacteria,"Gut. 35, 1271-1274 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fraser, T. R.

C. N. Tassopoulos, D. Barnett, and T. R. Fraser, "Breath-acetone and blood-sugar measurements in diabetes," Lancet II, 1282-1286 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Freund, G.

G. Freund and P. J. O"Hollaren, "Acetaldehyde concentrations in alveolar air following a standard dose of ethanol in man," Lipid Res. 6, 471-477 (1965).

Gibson, G. M.

Goodman, W.

L. R. Narasimhan, W. Goodman, C. Kumar, and N. Patel, "Correlation of breath ammonia with blood urea nitrogen and creatinine during hemodialysis," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 4617-4621 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grego, J.

Guest, C. M.

C. M. Willis, S. M. Church, C. M. Guest, W. A. Cook, N. McCarthy, A. J. Bransbury, M. R. T. Church, and J. C. T. Church, "Olfactory detection of human bladder cancer by dogs: proof of principle study," Br. Med. J. 329(7468), 712-714 (2004).

Günthard, Hs. H.

H. Hollenstein and Hs. H. Günthard, "Solid state and gas infrared spectra and normal coordinate analysis of 5 isotopic species of acetaldehyde," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 27, 2027-2060 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Haj, A. E.

D. Smith, T. Wang, J. Sule-Suso, P. Spanel, and A. E. Haj, "Quantification of acetaldehyde released by lung cancer cells in vitro using selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometry," Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 17, 845-850 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heine, R.

T. Nosova, K. Jokelainen, P. Kaihovaara, R. Heine, H. Jousimies-Somer, and M. Salaspuro, "Characteristics of aldehyde dehydrogenases of certain aerobic bacteria representing human colonic flora," Alcohol Alcohol 33, 273-280 (1998).
[PubMed]

N. Homann, H. Jousimies-Somer, K. Jokelainen, R. Heine, and M. Salaspuro, "High acetaldehyde levels in saliva after ethanol consumption: methodological aspects and pathogenetic implications," Carcinogenesis 18, 1739-1743 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Jokelainen, A. Siitonen, H. Jousimies-Somere, T. Nosova, R. Heine, and M. Salaspuro, "In vitro alcohol dehydrogenase-mediated acetaldehyde production by aerobic bacteria representing the normal colonic flora in man," Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res. 20, 967-972 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hollenstein, H.

H. Hollenstein and Hs. H. Günthard, "Solid state and gas infrared spectra and normal coordinate analysis of 5 isotopic species of acetaldehyde," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 27, 2027-2060 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Homann, N.

N. Homann, H. Jousimies-Somer, K. Jokelainen, R. Heine, and M. Salaspuro, "High acetaldehyde levels in saliva after ethanol consumption: methodological aspects and pathogenetic implications," Carcinogenesis 18, 1739-1743 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hubbard, A.

M. McCulloch, T. Jezierski, M. Broffman, A. Hubbard, K. Turner, and T. Janecki, "Diagnostic accuracy of canine scent detection in early- and late-stage lung and breast cancers," Integr. Cancer Ther. 5, 30-39 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Janecki, T.

M. McCulloch, T. Jezierski, M. Broffman, A. Hubbard, K. Turner, and T. Janecki, "Diagnostic accuracy of canine scent detection in early- and late-stage lung and breast cancers," Integr. Cancer Ther. 5, 30-39 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeffers, J.

Jeffers, J. D.

K. Namjou, C. B. Roller, T. E. Reich, J. D. Jeffers, G. L. Mcmillen, P. J. McCann, and M. A. Camp, "Determination of exhaled nitric oxide distributions in a diverse sample population using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 85, 427-435 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Roller, K. Namjou, J. D. Jeffers, M. Camp, A. Mock, P. J. McCann, and J. Grego, "Nitric oxide breath testing by tunable-diode laser absorption spectroscopy: application in monitoring respiratory inflammation," Appl. Opt. 41, 6018-6029 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jennings, C.

R. F. Machado, D. Laskowski, O. Deffenderfer, T. Burch, S. Zheng, P. J. Mazzone, T. Mekhail, C. Jennings, J. K. Stoller, J. Pyle, J. Duncan, R. A. Dweik, and S. C. Erzurum, "Detection of lung cancer by sensor array analyses of exhaled breath," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 171, 1286-1291 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jezierski, T.

M. McCulloch, T. Jezierski, M. Broffman, A. Hubbard, K. Turner, and T. Janecki, "Diagnostic accuracy of canine scent detection in early- and late-stage lung and breast cancers," Integr. Cancer Ther. 5, 30-39 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jokelainen, K.

T. Nosova, K. Jokelainen, P. Kaihovaara, R. Heine, H. Jousimies-Somer, and M. Salaspuro, "Characteristics of aldehyde dehydrogenases of certain aerobic bacteria representing human colonic flora," Alcohol Alcohol 33, 273-280 (1998).
[PubMed]

N. Homann, H. Jousimies-Somer, K. Jokelainen, R. Heine, and M. Salaspuro, "High acetaldehyde levels in saliva after ethanol consumption: methodological aspects and pathogenetic implications," Carcinogenesis 18, 1739-1743 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Jokelainen, A. Siitonen, H. Jousimies-Somere, T. Nosova, R. Heine, and M. Salaspuro, "In vitro alcohol dehydrogenase-mediated acetaldehyde production by aerobic bacteria representing the normal colonic flora in man," Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res. 20, 967-972 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Jokelainen, R. P. Roine, H. Väänänen, M. Färkkilä, and M. Salaspuro, "In vitro acetaldehyde formation by human colonic bacteria,"Gut. 35, 1271-1274 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, A. W.

A. W. Jones, "Measuring and reporting the concentration of acetaldehyde in human breath," Alcohol Alcohol . 30, 271-285 (1995).
[PubMed]

Jousimies-Somer, H.

T. Nosova, K. Jokelainen, P. Kaihovaara, R. Heine, H. Jousimies-Somer, and M. Salaspuro, "Characteristics of aldehyde dehydrogenases of certain aerobic bacteria representing human colonic flora," Alcohol Alcohol 33, 273-280 (1998).
[PubMed]

N. Homann, H. Jousimies-Somer, K. Jokelainen, R. Heine, and M. Salaspuro, "High acetaldehyde levels in saliva after ethanol consumption: methodological aspects and pathogenetic implications," Carcinogenesis 18, 1739-1743 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jousimies-Somere, H.

K. Jokelainen, A. Siitonen, H. Jousimies-Somere, T. Nosova, R. Heine, and M. Salaspuro, "In vitro alcohol dehydrogenase-mediated acetaldehyde production by aerobic bacteria representing the normal colonic flora in man," Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res. 20, 967-972 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaihovaara, P.

T. Nosova, K. Jokelainen, P. Kaihovaara, R. Heine, H. Jousimies-Somer, and M. Salaspuro, "Characteristics of aldehyde dehydrogenases of certain aerobic bacteria representing human colonic flora," Alcohol Alcohol 33, 273-280 (1998).
[PubMed]

Koivisto, T.

T. Koivisto and M. Salaspuro, "Aldehyde dehydrogenases of the rat colon: comparison with other tissues of the alimentary tract and the liver," Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res. 20, 551-555 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, C.

L. R. Narasimhan, W. Goodman, C. Kumar, and N. Patel, "Correlation of breath ammonia with blood urea nitrogen and creatinine during hemodialysis," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 4617-4621 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laskowski, D.

R. F. Machado, D. Laskowski, O. Deffenderfer, T. Burch, S. Zheng, P. J. Mazzone, T. Mekhail, C. Jennings, J. K. Stoller, J. Pyle, J. Duncan, R. A. Dweik, and S. C. Erzurum, "Detection of lung cancer by sensor array analyses of exhaled breath," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 171, 1286-1291 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leloir, L. F.

L. F. Leloir and J. M. Munoz, "Ethyl alcohol metabolism in animal tissues," Biochem. J. 32, 299-307 (1938).
[PubMed]

Longbottom, C.

Machado, R. F.

R. F. Machado, D. Laskowski, O. Deffenderfer, T. Burch, S. Zheng, P. J. Mazzone, T. Mekhail, C. Jennings, J. K. Stoller, J. Pyle, J. Duncan, R. A. Dweik, and S. C. Erzurum, "Detection of lung cancer by sensor array analyses of exhaled breath," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 171, 1286-1291 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manolis, A.

A. Manolis, "The diagnostic potential of breath analysis," Clin. Chem. 29, 5-15 (1983).
[PubMed]

Mazzone, P. J.

R. F. Machado, D. Laskowski, O. Deffenderfer, T. Burch, S. Zheng, P. J. Mazzone, T. Mekhail, C. Jennings, J. K. Stoller, J. Pyle, J. Duncan, R. A. Dweik, and S. C. Erzurum, "Detection of lung cancer by sensor array analyses of exhaled breath," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 171, 1286-1291 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCann, P. J.

K. Namjou, C. B. Roller, T. E. Reich, J. D. Jeffers, G. L. Mcmillen, P. J. McCann, and M. A. Camp, "Determination of exhaled nitric oxide distributions in a diverse sample population using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 85, 427-435 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Roller, K. Namjou, J. D. Jeffers, M. Camp, A. Mock, P. J. McCann, and J. Grego, "Nitric oxide breath testing by tunable-diode laser absorption spectroscopy: application in monitoring respiratory inflammation," Appl. Opt. 41, 6018-6029 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Roller, K. Namjou, J. Jeffers, W. Potter, P. J. McCann, and J. Grego, "Simultaneous NO and CO2 measurement in human breath with a single IV-VI mid-infrared laser," Opt. Lett. 27, 107-109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Namjou, P. J. McCann, and W. T. Potter, "Breath testing with a Mid-IR laser spectrometer," in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Processing Monitoring II, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE 3758, 74-80 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McCarthy, N.

C. M. Willis, S. M. Church, C. M. Guest, W. A. Cook, N. McCarthy, A. J. Bransbury, M. R. T. Church, and J. C. T. Church, "Olfactory detection of human bladder cancer by dogs: proof of principle study," Br. Med. J. 329(7468), 712-714 (2004).

McCulloch, M.

M. McCulloch, T. Jezierski, M. Broffman, A. Hubbard, K. Turner, and T. Janecki, "Diagnostic accuracy of canine scent detection in early- and late-stage lung and breast cancers," Integr. Cancer Ther. 5, 30-39 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McMillan, L. C.

Mcmillen, G. L.

K. Namjou, C. B. Roller, T. E. Reich, J. D. Jeffers, G. L. Mcmillen, P. J. McCann, and M. A. Camp, "Determination of exhaled nitric oxide distributions in a diverse sample population using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 85, 427-435 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mekhail, T.

R. F. Machado, D. Laskowski, O. Deffenderfer, T. Burch, S. Zheng, P. J. Mazzone, T. Mekhail, C. Jennings, J. K. Stoller, J. Pyle, J. Duncan, R. A. Dweik, and S. C. Erzurum, "Detection of lung cancer by sensor array analyses of exhaled breath," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 171, 1286-1291 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mock, A.

Monk, S. D.

Munoz, J. M.

L. F. Leloir and J. M. Munoz, "Ethyl alcohol metabolism in animal tissues," Biochem. J. 32, 299-307 (1938).
[PubMed]

Namjou, K.

K. Namjou, C. B. Roller, T. E. Reich, J. D. Jeffers, G. L. Mcmillen, P. J. McCann, and M. A. Camp, "Determination of exhaled nitric oxide distributions in a diverse sample population using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 85, 427-435 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Roller, K. Namjou, J. D. Jeffers, M. Camp, A. Mock, P. J. McCann, and J. Grego, "Nitric oxide breath testing by tunable-diode laser absorption spectroscopy: application in monitoring respiratory inflammation," Appl. Opt. 41, 6018-6029 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Roller, K. Namjou, J. Jeffers, W. Potter, P. J. McCann, and J. Grego, "Simultaneous NO and CO2 measurement in human breath with a single IV-VI mid-infrared laser," Opt. Lett. 27, 107-109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Namjou, P. J. McCann, and W. T. Potter, "Breath testing with a Mid-IR laser spectrometer," in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Processing Monitoring II, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE 3758, 74-80 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Narasimhan, L. R.

L. R. Narasimhan, W. Goodman, C. Kumar, and N. Patel, "Correlation of breath ammonia with blood urea nitrogen and creatinine during hemodialysis," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 4617-4621 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nosova, T.

T. Nosova, K. Jokelainen, P. Kaihovaara, R. Heine, H. Jousimies-Somer, and M. Salaspuro, "Characteristics of aldehyde dehydrogenases of certain aerobic bacteria representing human colonic flora," Alcohol Alcohol 33, 273-280 (1998).
[PubMed]

K. Jokelainen, A. Siitonen, H. Jousimies-Somere, T. Nosova, R. Heine, and M. Salaspuro, "In vitro alcohol dehydrogenase-mediated acetaldehyde production by aerobic bacteria representing the normal colonic flora in man," Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res. 20, 967-972 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O"Hollaren, P. J.

G. Freund and P. J. O"Hollaren, "Acetaldehyde concentrations in alveolar air following a standard dose of ethanol in man," Lipid Res. 6, 471-477 (1965).

Padgett, M. J.

Patel, N.

L. R. Narasimhan, W. Goodman, C. Kumar, and N. Patel, "Correlation of breath ammonia with blood urea nitrogen and creatinine during hemodialysis," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 4617-4621 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potter, W.

Potter, W. T.

K. Namjou, P. J. McCann, and W. T. Potter, "Breath testing with a Mid-IR laser spectrometer," in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Processing Monitoring II, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE 3758, 74-80 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pyle, J.

R. F. Machado, D. Laskowski, O. Deffenderfer, T. Burch, S. Zheng, P. J. Mazzone, T. Mekhail, C. Jennings, J. K. Stoller, J. Pyle, J. Duncan, R. A. Dweik, and S. C. Erzurum, "Detection of lung cancer by sensor array analyses of exhaled breath," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 171, 1286-1291 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reich, T. E.

K. Namjou, C. B. Roller, T. E. Reich, J. D. Jeffers, G. L. Mcmillen, P. J. McCann, and M. A. Camp, "Determination of exhaled nitric oxide distributions in a diverse sample population using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 85, 427-435 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roine, R. P.

K. Jokelainen, R. P. Roine, H. Väänänen, M. Färkkilä, and M. Salaspuro, "In vitro acetaldehyde formation by human colonic bacteria,"Gut. 35, 1271-1274 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roller, C.

Roller, C. B.

K. Namjou, C. B. Roller, T. E. Reich, J. D. Jeffers, G. L. Mcmillen, P. J. McCann, and M. A. Camp, "Determination of exhaled nitric oxide distributions in a diverse sample population using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 85, 427-435 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Salaspuro, M.

T. Nosova, K. Jokelainen, P. Kaihovaara, R. Heine, H. Jousimies-Somer, and M. Salaspuro, "Characteristics of aldehyde dehydrogenases of certain aerobic bacteria representing human colonic flora," Alcohol Alcohol 33, 273-280 (1998).
[PubMed]

M. Salaspuro, "Microbial metabolism of ethanol and acetaldehyde and clinical consequences," Addict. Biol. 2, 35-46 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Homann, H. Jousimies-Somer, K. Jokelainen, R. Heine, and M. Salaspuro, "High acetaldehyde levels in saliva after ethanol consumption: methodological aspects and pathogenetic implications," Carcinogenesis 18, 1739-1743 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koivisto and M. Salaspuro, "Aldehyde dehydrogenases of the rat colon: comparison with other tissues of the alimentary tract and the liver," Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res. 20, 551-555 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Jokelainen, A. Siitonen, H. Jousimies-Somere, T. Nosova, R. Heine, and M. Salaspuro, "In vitro alcohol dehydrogenase-mediated acetaldehyde production by aerobic bacteria representing the normal colonic flora in man," Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res. 20, 967-972 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Salaspuro, "Bacteriocolonic pathway for ethanol oxidation: characteristics and implications," Ann. Med. 28, 195-200 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Jokelainen, R. P. Roine, H. Väänänen, M. Färkkilä, and M. Salaspuro, "In vitro acetaldehyde formation by human colonic bacteria,"Gut. 35, 1271-1274 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saunders, J. E.

S. N. Wickramasinghe, A. N. Bond, H. A. Sloviter, and J. E. Saunders, "Metabolism of ethanol by human bone marrow cells," Acta Haematol. 66, 238-243 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siitonen, A.

K. Jokelainen, A. Siitonen, H. Jousimies-Somere, T. Nosova, R. Heine, and M. Salaspuro, "In vitro alcohol dehydrogenase-mediated acetaldehyde production by aerobic bacteria representing the normal colonic flora in man," Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res. 20, 967-972 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skeldon, K. D.

Sloviter, H. A.

S. N. Wickramasinghe, A. N. Bond, H. A. Sloviter, and J. E. Saunders, "Metabolism of ethanol by human bone marrow cells," Acta Haematol. 66, 238-243 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D.

C. Turner, P. Spanel, and D. Smith, "A longitudinal study of ethanol and acetaldehyde in the exhaled breath of healthy volunteers using selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometry," Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 20, 61-68 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Smith, T. Wang, J. Sule-Suso, P. Spanel, and A. E. Haj, "Quantification of acetaldehyde released by lung cancer cells in vitro using selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometry," Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 17, 845-850 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Smith, T. Wang, and P. Spanel, "On-line, simultaneous quantification of ethanol, some metabolites and water vapour in breath following the ingestion of alcohol," Physiol. Meas. 23, 477-489 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spanel, P.

C. Turner, P. Spanel, and D. Smith, "A longitudinal study of ethanol and acetaldehyde in the exhaled breath of healthy volunteers using selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometry," Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 20, 61-68 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Smith, T. Wang, J. Sule-Suso, P. Spanel, and A. E. Haj, "Quantification of acetaldehyde released by lung cancer cells in vitro using selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometry," Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 17, 845-850 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Smith, T. Wang, and P. Spanel, "On-line, simultaneous quantification of ethanol, some metabolites and water vapour in breath following the ingestion of alcohol," Physiol. Meas. 23, 477-489 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoller, J. K.

R. F. Machado, D. Laskowski, O. Deffenderfer, T. Burch, S. Zheng, P. J. Mazzone, T. Mekhail, C. Jennings, J. K. Stoller, J. Pyle, J. Duncan, R. A. Dweik, and S. C. Erzurum, "Detection of lung cancer by sensor array analyses of exhaled breath," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 171, 1286-1291 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sule-Suso, J.

D. Smith, T. Wang, J. Sule-Suso, P. Spanel, and A. E. Haj, "Quantification of acetaldehyde released by lung cancer cells in vitro using selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometry," Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 17, 845-850 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tassopoulos, C. N.

C. N. Tassopoulos, D. Barnett, and T. R. Fraser, "Breath-acetone and blood-sugar measurements in diabetes," Lancet II, 1282-1286 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Turner, C.

C. Turner, P. Spanel, and D. Smith, "A longitudinal study of ethanol and acetaldehyde in the exhaled breath of healthy volunteers using selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometry," Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 20, 61-68 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Turner, K.

M. McCulloch, T. Jezierski, M. Broffman, A. Hubbard, K. Turner, and T. Janecki, "Diagnostic accuracy of canine scent detection in early- and late-stage lung and breast cancers," Integr. Cancer Ther. 5, 30-39 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Väänänen, H.

K. Jokelainen, R. P. Roine, H. Väänänen, M. Färkkilä, and M. Salaspuro, "In vitro acetaldehyde formation by human colonic bacteria,"Gut. 35, 1271-1274 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, T.

D. Smith, T. Wang, J. Sule-Suso, P. Spanel, and A. E. Haj, "Quantification of acetaldehyde released by lung cancer cells in vitro using selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometry," Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 17, 845-850 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Smith, T. Wang, and P. Spanel, "On-line, simultaneous quantification of ethanol, some metabolites and water vapour in breath following the ingestion of alcohol," Physiol. Meas. 23, 477-489 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wickramasinghe, S. N.

S. N. Wickramasinghe, A. N. Bond, H. A. Sloviter, and J. E. Saunders, "Metabolism of ethanol by human bone marrow cells," Acta Haematol. 66, 238-243 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willis, C. M.

C. M. Willis, S. M. Church, C. M. Guest, W. A. Cook, N. McCarthy, A. J. Bransbury, M. R. T. Church, and J. C. T. Church, "Olfactory detection of human bladder cancer by dogs: proof of principle study," Br. Med. J. 329(7468), 712-714 (2004).

Wyse, C. A.

Zheng, S.

R. F. Machado, D. Laskowski, O. Deffenderfer, T. Burch, S. Zheng, P. J. Mazzone, T. Mekhail, C. Jennings, J. K. Stoller, J. Pyle, J. Duncan, R. A. Dweik, and S. C. Erzurum, "Detection of lung cancer by sensor array analyses of exhaled breath," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 171, 1286-1291 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Haematol.

S. N. Wickramasinghe, A. N. Bond, H. A. Sloviter, and J. E. Saunders, "Metabolism of ethanol by human bone marrow cells," Acta Haematol. 66, 238-243 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Addict. Biol.

M. Salaspuro, "Microbial metabolism of ethanol and acetaldehyde and clinical consequences," Addict. Biol. 2, 35-46 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Alcohol Alcohol

A. W. Jones, "Measuring and reporting the concentration of acetaldehyde in human breath," Alcohol Alcohol . 30, 271-285 (1995).
[PubMed]

T. Nosova, K. Jokelainen, P. Kaihovaara, R. Heine, H. Jousimies-Somer, and M. Salaspuro, "Characteristics of aldehyde dehydrogenases of certain aerobic bacteria representing human colonic flora," Alcohol Alcohol 33, 273-280 (1998).
[PubMed]

Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res.

K. Jokelainen, A. Siitonen, H. Jousimies-Somere, T. Nosova, R. Heine, and M. Salaspuro, "In vitro alcohol dehydrogenase-mediated acetaldehyde production by aerobic bacteria representing the normal colonic flora in man," Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res. 20, 967-972 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koivisto and M. Salaspuro, "Aldehyde dehydrogenases of the rat colon: comparison with other tissues of the alimentary tract and the liver," Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res. 20, 551-555 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.

R. F. Machado, D. Laskowski, O. Deffenderfer, T. Burch, S. Zheng, P. J. Mazzone, T. Mekhail, C. Jennings, J. K. Stoller, J. Pyle, J. Duncan, R. A. Dweik, and S. C. Erzurum, "Detection of lung cancer by sensor array analyses of exhaled breath," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 171, 1286-1291 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Med.

M. Salaspuro, "Bacteriocolonic pathway for ethanol oxidation: characteristics and implications," Ann. Med. 28, 195-200 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

K. Namjou, C. B. Roller, T. E. Reich, J. D. Jeffers, G. L. Mcmillen, P. J. McCann, and M. A. Camp, "Determination of exhaled nitric oxide distributions in a diverse sample population using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 85, 427-435 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Biochem. J.

L. F. Leloir and J. M. Munoz, "Ethyl alcohol metabolism in animal tissues," Biochem. J. 32, 299-307 (1938).
[PubMed]

Carcinogenesis

N. Homann, H. Jousimies-Somer, K. Jokelainen, R. Heine, and M. Salaspuro, "High acetaldehyde levels in saliva after ethanol consumption: methodological aspects and pathogenetic implications," Carcinogenesis 18, 1739-1743 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Chem.

A. Manolis, "The diagnostic potential of breath analysis," Clin. Chem. 29, 5-15 (1983).
[PubMed]

Gut.

K. Jokelainen, R. P. Roine, H. Väänänen, M. Färkkilä, and M. Salaspuro, "In vitro acetaldehyde formation by human colonic bacteria,"Gut. 35, 1271-1274 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Integr. Cancer Ther.

M. McCulloch, T. Jezierski, M. Broffman, A. Hubbard, K. Turner, and T. Janecki, "Diagnostic accuracy of canine scent detection in early- and late-stage lung and breast cancers," Integr. Cancer Ther. 5, 30-39 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lancet

C. N. Tassopoulos, D. Barnett, and T. R. Fraser, "Breath-acetone and blood-sugar measurements in diabetes," Lancet II, 1282-1286 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Lipid Res.

G. Freund and P. J. O"Hollaren, "Acetaldehyde concentrations in alveolar air following a standard dose of ethanol in man," Lipid Res. 6, 471-477 (1965).

Opt. Lett.

Physiol. Meas.

D. Smith, T. Wang, and P. Spanel, "On-line, simultaneous quantification of ethanol, some metabolites and water vapour in breath following the ingestion of alcohol," Physiol. Meas. 23, 477-489 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

L. R. Narasimhan, W. Goodman, C. Kumar, and N. Patel, "Correlation of breath ammonia with blood urea nitrogen and creatinine during hemodialysis," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 4617-4621 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

K. Namjou, P. J. McCann, and W. T. Potter, "Breath testing with a Mid-IR laser spectrometer," in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Processing Monitoring II, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE 3758, 74-80 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.

C. Turner, P. Spanel, and D. Smith, "A longitudinal study of ethanol and acetaldehyde in the exhaled breath of healthy volunteers using selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometry," Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 20, 61-68 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Smith, T. Wang, J. Sule-Suso, P. Spanel, and A. E. Haj, "Quantification of acetaldehyde released by lung cancer cells in vitro using selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometry," Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 17, 845-850 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spectrochim. Acta

H. Hollenstein and Hs. H. Günthard, "Solid state and gas infrared spectra and normal coordinate analysis of 5 isotopic species of acetaldehyde," Spectrochim. Acta Part A 27, 2027-2060 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Other

C. M. Willis, S. M. Church, C. M. Guest, W. A. Cook, N. McCarthy, A. J. Bransbury, M. R. T. Church, and J. C. T. Church, "Olfactory detection of human bladder cancer by dogs: proof of principle study," Br. Med. J. 329(7468), 712-714 (2004).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

System schematic of the TDLAS spectrometer designed to measure acetaldehyde. Major components include a cryostat, Herriott multipass cell, electronics, and breath collection device.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Upper graph: Infrared absorption spectrum for acetaldehyde acquired using FTIR. Lower graphs: the 2f spectra acquired using the TDLAS system with H 2 O absorption lines matched with H 2 O lines in the HITRAN 2000 database to verify laser emission spectral regions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical 2f laser absorption spectra for (a) ambient air containing H 2 O absorption lines and (b) ambient air + 3.8 ppm acetaldehyde.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Acetaldehyde absorption feature near 1727.1 cm 1 was separated by 0.22 cm 1 from the nearest H 2 O line. The highlighted region in the subset was used to measure the breath acetaldehyde concentration upon ingestion of ethanol. The H 2 O absorption at 1727.32 cm 1 is used to align spectra and maintain wavelength stability.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Allan deviation plot acquired by measuring zero air devoid of C 2 H 4 O at every 0.5 s interval. The X axis refers to the integration time in seconds and the Y axis refers to the Allan deviation of the deduced acetaldehyde measured concentration. As can be seen the minimum detection limit is 30 ppb at 45 s integration time and 80 ppb at 5 s integration time.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic of the calibration system consisting of an acetaldehyde permeation tube, U-tube holder, and a flow controller. The calibration system was used as an acetaldehyde source of known concentration to quantify exhaled acetaldehyde measurements.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Variations in measured peak breath acetaldehyde concentration over time (in minutes) from a subject following the ingestion of 375 ml of ethanol. The initial peak is attributable to the mouth emissions, and the subsequent rise in acetaldehyde levels is attributable to the passage of acetaldehyde from stomach to blood.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Data trends of breath acetaldehyde levels measured following the consumption of two different concentrations of ethanol (375 and 187 ml) by the same subject.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measured breath acetaldehyde and H 2 O absorption trends following the consumption of two different amounts of wine (375 and 187 ml) by the same subject. (a) Trends of H 2 O and acetaldehyde absorption magnitudes when the laser power was relatively constant. The constant magnitude of the exhaled H 2 O absorption trends during exhalation indicates that the exhaled breath is consistently highly saturated with water vapor. (b) The effect of decreasing laser power on the H 2 O and acetaldehyde absorption trends.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Modified acetaldehyde absorption magnitudes using a correction factor derived from the changing water absorption trends from Fig. 9(b).

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