Abstract

An optically based technique is presented that produces merged spectra of normalized water-leaving radiances LWN by combining spectral data provided by independent satellite ocean color missions. The assessment of the merging technique is based on a four-year field data series collected by an autonomous above-water radiometer located on the Acqua Alta Oceanographic Tower in the Adriatic Sea. The uncertainties associated with the merged LWN obtained from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer are consistent with the validation statistics of the individual sensor products. The merging including the third mission Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer is also addressed for a reduced ensemble of matchups.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006 (6)

C. Pottier, V. Garçon, J. Sudre, G. Larnicol, P. Schaeffer, and P.-Y. Le Traon, "Merging SeaWiFS and MODIS/Aqua ocean color data in North and equatorial Atlantic using weighted averaging and objective analysis," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 3436-3451 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Mélin, M. Clerici, G. Zibordi, and B. Bulgarelli, "Aerosol variability in the Adriatic Sea from automated optical field measurements and SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 111, D22201, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, and J.-F. Berthon, "A time series of above-water radiometric measurements for coastal water monitoring and remote sensing product validation," IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 3, 120-124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, S. B. Hooker, F. Mélin, J.-F. Berthon, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, K. Rutledge, G. Schuster, and A. Al Mandoos, "A network for standardized ocean color validation measurements," EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 87, 293, 297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Bailey and P. J. Werdell, "A multi-sensor approach for the on-orbit validation of ocean color satellite data products," Remote Sens. Environ. 102, 12-23 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, and J.-F. Berthon, "Comparison of SeaWiFS, MODIS, and MERIS radiometric products at a coastal site," Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L06617, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, "The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS," in Proc. SPIE 5882, 5882-34 (2005).

F. Mélin and G. Zibordi, "Aerosol variability in the Po Valley analyzed from automated optical measurements," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L03810, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, K. D. Knobelspiesse, and C. R. McClain, "Study of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) aerosol optical property data over ocean in combination with the ocean color products," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S06, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Maritorena and D. A. Siegel, "Consistent merging of satellite ocean color data sets using a bio-optical model," Remote Sens. Environ. 94, 429-440 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Wang, E. Boss, and C. Roesler, "Uncertainties of inherent optical properties obtained from semianalytical inversions of ocean color," Appl. Opt. 44, 4074-4085 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, S. B. Hooker, and B. N. Holben, "An autonomous above-water system for the validation of ocean color radiance data," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 401-415 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Berthon and G. Zibordi, "Bio-optical relationships for the northern Adriatic Sea," Int. J. Remote Sens. 25, 1527-1532 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. M. Sullivan, and P. L. Donaghay, "Modeling the spectral shape of absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter," Mar. Chem. 89, 69-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (5)

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, "Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 3211, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, D. "Light scattering properties of marine particles on coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843-859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Anderson, R. J. Charlson, D. M. Winker, J. A. Ogren, and K. Holmén, "Mesocale variations of tropospheric aerosols," J. Atmos. Sci. 60, 119-136 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, and T. Foujols, "The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS 1-2-3 and EURECA missions," Sol. Phys. 214, 1-22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Kwiatkowska and G. S. Fargion, "Application of machine-learning techniques towards the creation of a consistent and calibrated chlorophyll concentration baseline dataset using remotely sensed ocean color data," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 2844-2860 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, B. Chatenet, and R. T. Pinker, "Diurnal variability of aerosol optical depth observed at AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) sites," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 2115, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Ciotti, M. R. Lewis, and J. J. Cullen, "Assessment of the relationships between dominant cell size in natural phytoplankton communities and the spectral shape of the absorption coefficient," Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 404-417 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, D. Antoine, and B. Gentili, "Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: accounting for Raman emission and varying particle scattering phase function," Appl. Opt. 41, 6289-6306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

2000 (1)

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, O. Dubovik, and I. Slutsker, "Cloud-screening and quality control algorithms for the AERONET database," Remote Sens. Environ. 73, 337-349 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (5)

D. Antoine and A. Morel, "A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean colour (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1875-1916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, and S. J. Lavender, "The atmospheric correction of water colour and the quantitative retrieval of suspended particulate matter in case II waters: Application to MERIS," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1713-1733 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Rast, J. L. Bezy, and S. Bruzzi, "The ESA Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer MERIS-A review of the instrument and its mission," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1681-1702 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, "Estimation of the remote-sensing reflectance from above-surface measurements," Appl. Opt. 38, 7442-7455 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, and P. M. Martinolich, "Spectral dependence of the scattering coefficient on case 1 and case 2 waters," Appl. Opt. 38, 2377-2383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (5)

W. W. Gregg and R. H. Woodward, "Improvements in coverage frequency of ocean color: Combining data from SeaWiFS and MODIS," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1350-1353 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Gregg, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, R. Frouin, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, and R. H. Woodward, "Coverage opportunities for global ocean color in a multimission era," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1620-1627 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "AERONET-A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Stuart, S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, H. Maas, and B. D. Irwin, "Pigments and species composition of natural phytoplankton populations: effect on the absorption spectra," J. Plankton Res. 20, 187-217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, "Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: Analysis and implications for bio-optical models," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31033-31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

S. A. Garver and D. A. Siegel, "Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation, 1, Time series from the Sargasso Sea," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607-18625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Pope and E. S. Fry, "Absorption spectrum (380-700 nm) of pure water, II. Integrating cavity measurements," Appl. Opt. 36, 8710-8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, "Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321-13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

1989 (1)

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, "MODIS: Advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 145-152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909-10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

Aiken, J.

G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, and S. J. Lavender, "The atmospheric correction of water colour and the quantitative retrieval of suspended particulate matter in case II waters: Application to MERIS," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1713-1733 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Gregg, J. Aiken, E. Kwiatkowska, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, H. Murakami, S. Pinnock, and C. Pottier, "Coordination of merged data sets," in International Ocean Colour Coordinating Group Report 6, W.W.Gregg, ed. (IOCCG, 2007).

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. A. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. E. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892 (2002), Vol. 11, pp. 9-23.

Al Mandoos, A.

G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, S. B. Hooker, F. Mélin, J.-F. Berthon, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, K. Rutledge, G. Schuster, and A. Al Mandoos, "A network for standardized ocean color validation measurements," EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 87, 293, 297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Alberotanza, L.

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, J.-P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, C. Targa, and L. Alberotanza, "Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS): A tower-based, long-term measurement program," in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892 (2002), Vol. 19, pp. 1-29.

Allali, K.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, "Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: Analysis and implications for bio-optical models," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31033-31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, T. L.

T. L. Anderson, R. J. Charlson, D. M. Winker, J. A. Ogren, and K. Holmén, "Mesocale variations of tropospheric aerosols," J. Atmos. Sci. 60, 119-136 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Antoine, D.

A. Morel, D. Antoine, and B. Gentili, "Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: accounting for Raman emission and varying particle scattering phase function," Appl. Opt. 41, 6289-6306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Antoine and A. Morel, "A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean colour (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1875-1916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, R. A.

Arrigo, K. R.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. A. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. E. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892 (2002), Vol. 11, pp. 9-23.

Babin, M.

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, D. "Light scattering properties of marine particles on coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843-859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, "Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 3211, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, "Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: Analysis and implications for bio-optical models," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31033-31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, "Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321-13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, S. W.

S. W. Bailey and P. J. Werdell, "A multi-sensor approach for the on-orbit validation of ocean color satellite data products," Remote Sens. Environ. 102, 12-23 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, "The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS," in Proc. SPIE 5882, 5882-34 (2005).

Baith, K. S.

G. Fu, K. S. Baith, and C. R. McClain, "SeaDAS: The SeaWiFS Data Analysis System," in Proceedings of The 4th Pacific Ocean Remote Sensing Conference (IEEE, 1998), pp. 73-79.
[PubMed]

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909-10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith and K. S. Baker, "Optical properties of the clearest natural waters," Appl. Opt. 20, 177-184 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, R. A.

Barnes, W. L.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, "MODIS: Advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 145-152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Berthon, J.-F.

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, and J.-F. Berthon, "A time series of above-water radiometric measurements for coastal water monitoring and remote sensing product validation," IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 3, 120-124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, and J.-F. Berthon, "Comparison of SeaWiFS, MODIS, and MERIS radiometric products at a coastal site," Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L06617, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, S. B. Hooker, F. Mélin, J.-F. Berthon, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, K. Rutledge, G. Schuster, and A. Al Mandoos, "A network for standardized ocean color validation measurements," EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 87, 293, 297 (2006).
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J.-F. Berthon and G. Zibordi, "Bio-optical relationships for the northern Adriatic Sea," Int. J. Remote Sens. 25, 1527-1532 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Mélin, G. Zibordi, and J.-F. Berthon, "Assessment of satellite ocean color products at a coastal site," (to be published).

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, J.-P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, C. Targa, and L. Alberotanza, "Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS): A tower-based, long-term measurement program," in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892 (2002), Vol. 19, pp. 1-29.

Bezy, J. L.

M. Rast, J. L. Bezy, and S. Bruzzi, "The ESA Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer MERIS-A review of the instrument and its mission," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1681-1702 (1999).
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Boss, E.

P. Wang, E. Boss, and C. Roesler, "Uncertainties of inherent optical properties obtained from semianalytical inversions of ocean color," Appl. Opt. 44, 4074-4085 (2005).
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M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. M. Sullivan, and P. L. Donaghay, "Modeling the spectral shape of absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter," Mar. Chem. 89, 69-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bricaud, A.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, "Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 3211, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, "Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: Analysis and implications for bio-optical models," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31033-31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, "Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321-13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909-10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909-10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bruzzi, S.

M. Rast, J. L. Bezy, and S. Bruzzi, "The ESA Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer MERIS-A review of the instrument and its mission," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1681-1702 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Buis, J. P.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "AERONET-A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bulgarelli, B.

F. Mélin, M. Clerici, G. Zibordi, and B. Bulgarelli, "Aerosol variability in the Adriatic Sea from automated optical field measurements and SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 111, D22201, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K. L.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, and C. O. Davis, "Model for interpretation of hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance," Appl. Opt. 33, 5721-5732 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. A. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. E. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892 (2002), Vol. 11, pp. 9-23.

Charlson, R. J.

T. L. Anderson, R. J. Charlson, D. M. Winker, J. A. Ogren, and K. Holmén, "Mesocale variations of tropospheric aerosols," J. Atmos. Sci. 60, 119-136 (2003).
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Chatenet, B.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, B. Chatenet, and R. T. Pinker, "Diurnal variability of aerosol optical depth observed at AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) sites," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 2115, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chavez, F. P.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. A. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. E. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892 (2002), Vol. 11, pp. 9-23.

Ciotti, A. M.

A. M. Ciotti, M. R. Lewis, and J. J. Cullen, "Assessment of the relationships between dominant cell size in natural phytoplankton communities and the spectral shape of the absorption coefficient," Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 404-417 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909-10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Claustre, H.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, "Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 3211, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, "Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: Analysis and implications for bio-optical models," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31033-31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, "Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321-13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Clerici, M.

F. Mélin, M. Clerici, G. Zibordi, and B. Bulgarelli, "Aerosol variability in the Adriatic Sea from automated optical field measurements and SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 111, D22201, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cota, G. F.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. A. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. E. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892 (2002), Vol. 11, pp. 9-23.

Cullen, J. J.

A. M. Ciotti, M. R. Lewis, and J. J. Cullen, "Assessment of the relationships between dominant cell size in natural phytoplankton communities and the spectral shape of the absorption coefficient," Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 404-417 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Culver, M.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. A. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. E. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892 (2002), Vol. 11, pp. 9-23.

Davis, C. O.

Djavidnia, S.

F. Mélin, G. Zibordi, and S. Djavidnia, "Development and validation of a technique for merging satellite derived aerosol optical depth from SeaWiFS and MODIS," Remote Sens. Environ. , doi: (to be published).

Donaghay, P. L.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. M. Sullivan, and P. L. Donaghay, "Modeling the spectral shape of absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter," Mar. Chem. 89, 69-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Doyle, J.-P.

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, J.-P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, C. Targa, and L. Alberotanza, "Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS): A tower-based, long-term measurement program," in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892 (2002), Vol. 19, pp. 1-29.

Dubovik, O.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, O. Dubovik, and I. Slutsker, "Cloud-screening and quality control algorithms for the AERONET database," Remote Sens. Environ. 73, 337-349 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eck, T. F.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, B. Chatenet, and R. T. Pinker, "Diurnal variability of aerosol optical depth observed at AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) sites," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 2115, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, O. Dubovik, and I. Slutsker, "Cloud-screening and quality control algorithms for the AERONET database," Remote Sens. Environ. 73, 337-349 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "AERONET-A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eplee, R. E.

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, "The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS," in Proc. SPIE 5882, 5882-34 (2005).

Esaias, W. E.

W. W. Gregg, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, R. Frouin, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, and R. H. Woodward, "Coverage opportunities for global ocean color in a multimission era," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1620-1627 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, and C. R. McClain, "An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color," in SeaWiFS Prelaunch Technical Report Series, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 1992-104566 (1992), Vol. 1, pp. 1-24.

Evans, R. H.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909-10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fargion, G. S.

E. J. Kwiatkowska and G. S. Fargion, "Application of machine-learning techniques towards the creation of a consistent and calibrated chlorophyll concentration baseline dataset using remotely sensed ocean color data," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 2844-2860 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, G. C.

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, "The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS," in Proc. SPIE 5882, 5882-34 (2005).

W. W. Gregg, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, R. Frouin, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, and R. H. Woodward, "Coverage opportunities for global ocean color in a multimission era," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1620-1627 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, and C. R. McClain, "An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color," in SeaWiFS Prelaunch Technical Report Series, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 1992-104566 (1992), Vol. 1, pp. 1-24.

Fell, F.

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, D. "Light scattering properties of marine particles on coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843-859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Feng, H.

G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, S. B. Hooker, F. Mélin, J.-F. Berthon, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, K. Rutledge, G. Schuster, and A. Al Mandoos, "A network for standardized ocean color validation measurements," EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 87, 293, 297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, G. M.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, "Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 3211, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C; The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U Press, 1992).

Foujols, T.

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, and T. Foujols, "The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS 1-2-3 and EURECA missions," Sol. Phys. 214, 1-22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fournier-Sicre, V.

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, D. "Light scattering properties of marine particles on coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843-859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Franz, B. A.

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, "The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS," in Proc. SPIE 5882, 5882-34 (2005).

M. Wang, B. A. Franz, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, "Effects of spectral bandpass on SeaWiFS-retrieved near-surface optical properties of the ocean," Appl. Opt. 40, 343-348 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Frouin, R.

W. W. Gregg, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, R. Frouin, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, and R. H. Woodward, "Coverage opportunities for global ocean color in a multimission era," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1620-1627 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fry, E. S.

Fu, G.

G. Fu, K. S. Baith, and C. R. McClain, "SeaDAS: The SeaWiFS Data Analysis System," in Proceedings of The 4th Pacific Ocean Remote Sensing Conference (IEEE, 1998), pp. 73-79.
[PubMed]

Garçon, V.

C. Pottier, V. Garçon, J. Sudre, G. Larnicol, P. Schaeffer, and P.-Y. Le Traon, "Merging SeaWiFS and MODIS/Aqua ocean color data in North and equatorial Atlantic using weighted averaging and objective analysis," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 3436-3451 (2006).
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Garver, S. A.

S. A. Garver and D. A. Siegel, "Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation, 1, Time series from the Sargasso Sea," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607-18625 (1997).
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Gentili, B.

Giles, D.

G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, S. B. Hooker, F. Mélin, J.-F. Berthon, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, K. Rutledge, G. Schuster, and A. Al Mandoos, "A network for standardized ocean color validation measurements," EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 87, 293, 297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gillotay, D.

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, and T. Foujols, "The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS 1-2-3 and EURECA missions," Sol. Phys. 214, 1-22 (2003).
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Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, "Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm," Appl. Opt. 33, 443-452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909-10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gould, R. W.

Gregg, W. W.

W. W. Gregg, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, R. Frouin, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, and R. H. Woodward, "Coverage opportunities for global ocean color in a multimission era," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1620-1627 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Gregg and R. H. Woodward, "Improvements in coverage frequency of ocean color: Combining data from SeaWiFS and MODIS," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1350-1353 (1998).
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W. W. Gregg, J. Aiken, E. Kwiatkowska, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, H. Murakami, S. Pinnock, and C. Pottier, "Coordination of merged data sets," in International Ocean Colour Coordinating Group Report 6, W.W.Gregg, ed. (IOCCG, 2007).

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, and C. R. McClain, "An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color," in SeaWiFS Prelaunch Technical Report Series, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 1992-104566 (1992), Vol. 1, pp. 1-24.

Grossi, S.

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, J.-P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, C. Targa, and L. Alberotanza, "Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS): A tower-based, long-term measurement program," in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892 (2002), Vol. 19, pp. 1-29.

Harding, L.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. A. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. E. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892 (2002), Vol. 11, pp. 9-23.

Hawes, S. K.

Hersé, M.

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, and T. Foujols, "The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS 1-2-3 and EURECA missions," Sol. Phys. 214, 1-22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hoepffner, N.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, "Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 3211, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Holben, B. N.

G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, S. B. Hooker, F. Mélin, J.-F. Berthon, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, K. Rutledge, G. Schuster, and A. Al Mandoos, "A network for standardized ocean color validation measurements," EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 87, 293, 297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, S. B. Hooker, and B. N. Holben, "An autonomous above-water system for the validation of ocean color radiance data," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 401-415 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, B. Chatenet, and R. T. Pinker, "Diurnal variability of aerosol optical depth observed at AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) sites," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 2115, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, O. Dubovik, and I. Slutsker, "Cloud-screening and quality control algorithms for the AERONET database," Remote Sens. Environ. 73, 337-349 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "AERONET-A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Holmén, K.

T. L. Anderson, R. J. Charlson, D. M. Winker, J. A. Ogren, and K. Holmén, "Mesocale variations of tropospheric aerosols," J. Atmos. Sci. 60, 119-136 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hooker, S. B.

G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, S. B. Hooker, F. Mélin, J.-F. Berthon, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, K. Rutledge, G. Schuster, and A. Al Mandoos, "A network for standardized ocean color validation measurements," EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 87, 293, 297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, S. B. Hooker, and B. N. Holben, "An autonomous above-water system for the validation of ocean color radiance data," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 401-415 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Gregg, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, R. Frouin, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, and R. H. Woodward, "Coverage opportunities for global ocean color in a multimission era," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1620-1627 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, and C. R. McClain, "An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color," in SeaWiFS Prelaunch Technical Report Series, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 1992-104566 (1992), Vol. 1, pp. 1-24.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. A. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. E. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892 (2002), Vol. 11, pp. 9-23.

Irwin, B. D.

V. Stuart, S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, H. Maas, and B. D. Irwin, "Pigments and species composition of natural phytoplankton populations: effect on the absorption spectra," J. Plankton Res. 20, 187-217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jankowiak, I.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "AERONET-A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kahru, M.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. A. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. E. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892 (2002), Vol. 11, pp. 9-23.

Kaufman, Y. J.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "AERONET-A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Knobelspiesse, K. D.

M. Wang, K. D. Knobelspiesse, and C. R. McClain, "Study of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) aerosol optical property data over ocean in combination with the ocean color products," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S06, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kwiatkowska, E.

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, "The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS," in Proc. SPIE 5882, 5882-34 (2005).

W. W. Gregg, J. Aiken, E. Kwiatkowska, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, H. Murakami, S. Pinnock, and C. Pottier, "Coordination of merged data sets," in International Ocean Colour Coordinating Group Report 6, W.W.Gregg, ed. (IOCCG, 2007).

Kwiatkowska, E. J.

E. J. Kwiatkowska and G. S. Fargion, "Application of machine-learning techniques towards the creation of a consistent and calibrated chlorophyll concentration baseline dataset using remotely sensed ocean color data," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 2844-2860 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Labs, D.

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, and T. Foujols, "The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS 1-2-3 and EURECA missions," Sol. Phys. 214, 1-22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Larnicol, G.

C. Pottier, V. Garçon, J. Sudre, G. Larnicol, P. Schaeffer, and P.-Y. Le Traon, "Merging SeaWiFS and MODIS/Aqua ocean color data in North and equatorial Atlantic using weighted averaging and objective analysis," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 3436-3451 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lavender, S. J.

G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, and S. J. Lavender, "The atmospheric correction of water colour and the quantitative retrieval of suspended particulate matter in case II waters: Application to MERIS," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1713-1733 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lavenu, F.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "AERONET-A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Le Traon, P.-Y.

C. Pottier, V. Garçon, J. Sudre, G. Larnicol, P. Schaeffer, and P.-Y. Le Traon, "Merging SeaWiFS and MODIS/Aqua ocean color data in North and equatorial Atlantic using weighted averaging and objective analysis," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 3436-3451 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Z. P.

Letelier, R.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. A. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. E. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892 (2002), Vol. 11, pp. 9-23.

Lewis, M. R.

A. M. Ciotti, M. R. Lewis, and J. J. Cullen, "Assessment of the relationships between dominant cell size in natural phytoplankton communities and the spectral shape of the absorption coefficient," Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 404-417 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Maas, H.

V. Stuart, S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, H. Maas, and B. D. Irwin, "Pigments and species composition of natural phytoplankton populations: effect on the absorption spectra," J. Plankton Res. 20, 187-217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Magnusson, A.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. A. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. E. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892 (2002), Vol. 11, pp. 9-23.

Mandel, H.

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, and T. Foujols, "The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS 1-2-3 and EURECA missions," Sol. Phys. 214, 1-22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maritorena, S.

S. Maritorena and D. A. Siegel, "Consistent merging of satellite ocean color data sets using a bio-optical model," Remote Sens. Environ. 94, 429-440 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, "Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters:a reappraisal," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163-7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Gregg, J. Aiken, E. Kwiatkowska, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, H. Murakami, S. Pinnock, and C. Pottier, "Coordination of merged data sets," in International Ocean Colour Coordinating Group Report 6, W.W.Gregg, ed. (IOCCG, 2007).

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. A. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. E. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892 (2002), Vol. 11, pp. 9-23.

Martinolich, P. M.

Maymon, P. W.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, "MODIS: Advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 145-152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C. R.

M. Wang, K. D. Knobelspiesse, and C. R. McClain, "Study of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) aerosol optical property data over ocean in combination with the ocean color products," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S06, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, "The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS," in Proc. SPIE 5882, 5882-34 (2005).

M. Wang, B. A. Franz, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, "Effects of spectral bandpass on SeaWiFS-retrieved near-surface optical properties of the ocean," Appl. Opt. 40, 343-348 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Gregg, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, R. Frouin, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, and R. H. Woodward, "Coverage opportunities for global ocean color in a multimission era," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1620-1627 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, and C. R. McClain, "An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color," in SeaWiFS Prelaunch Technical Report Series, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 1992-104566 (1992), Vol. 1, pp. 1-24.

G. Fu, K. S. Baith, and C. R. McClain, "SeaDAS: The SeaWiFS Data Analysis System," in Proceedings of The 4th Pacific Ocean Remote Sensing Conference (IEEE, 1998), pp. 73-79.
[PubMed]

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. A. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. E. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892 (2002), Vol. 11, pp. 9-23.

Meister, G.

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, "The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS," in Proc. SPIE 5882, 5882-34 (2005).

Mélin, F.

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, and J.-F. Berthon, "A time series of above-water radiometric measurements for coastal water monitoring and remote sensing product validation," IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 3, 120-124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Mélin, M. Clerici, G. Zibordi, and B. Bulgarelli, "Aerosol variability in the Adriatic Sea from automated optical field measurements and SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 111, D22201, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, and J.-F. Berthon, "Comparison of SeaWiFS, MODIS, and MERIS radiometric products at a coastal site," Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L06617, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, S. B. Hooker, F. Mélin, J.-F. Berthon, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, K. Rutledge, G. Schuster, and A. Al Mandoos, "A network for standardized ocean color validation measurements," EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 87, 293, 297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Mélin and G. Zibordi, "Aerosol variability in the Po Valley analyzed from automated optical measurements," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L03810, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, S. B. Hooker, and B. N. Holben, "An autonomous above-water system for the validation of ocean color radiance data," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 401-415 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Mélin, G. Zibordi, and S. Djavidnia, "Development and validation of a technique for merging satellite derived aerosol optical depth from SeaWiFS and MODIS," Remote Sens. Environ. , doi: (to be published).

F. Mélin, G. Zibordi, and J.-F. Berthon, "Assessment of satellite ocean color products at a coastal site," (to be published).

W. W. Gregg, J. Aiken, E. Kwiatkowska, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, H. Murakami, S. Pinnock, and C. Pottier, "Coordination of merged data sets," in International Ocean Colour Coordinating Group Report 6, W.W.Gregg, ed. (IOCCG, 2007).

Mitchell, B. G.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. A. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. E. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892 (2002), Vol. 11, pp. 9-23.

Mobley, C. D.

Montgomery, H. E.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, "MODIS: Advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 145-152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Moore, G. F.

G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, and S. J. Lavender, "The atmospheric correction of water colour and the quantitative retrieval of suspended particulate matter in case II waters: Application to MERIS," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1713-1733 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. A. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. E. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892 (2002), Vol. 11, pp. 9-23.

Morel, A.

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, D. "Light scattering properties of marine particles on coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843-859 (2003).
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A. Morel, D. Antoine, and B. Gentili, "Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: accounting for Raman emission and varying particle scattering phase function," Appl. Opt. 41, 6289-6306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, "Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters:a reappraisal," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163-7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Antoine and A. Morel, "A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean colour (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1875-1916 (1999).
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A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, "Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: Analysis and implications for bio-optical models," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31033-31044 (1998).
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A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, "Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321-13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mueller-Karger, F. E.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. A. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. E. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892 (2002), Vol. 11, pp. 9-23.

Murakami, H.

W. W. Gregg, J. Aiken, E. Kwiatkowska, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, H. Murakami, S. Pinnock, and C. Pottier, "Coordination of merged data sets," in International Ocean Colour Coordinating Group Report 6, W.W.Gregg, ed. (IOCCG, 2007).

Nakajima, T.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "AERONET-A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Obolensky, G.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, "Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 3211, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

O'Brien, M. C.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. A. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. E. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892 (2002), Vol. 11, pp. 9-23.

Ogren, J. A.

T. L. Anderson, R. J. Charlson, D. M. Winker, J. A. Ogren, and K. Holmén, "Mesocale variations of tropospheric aerosols," J. Atmos. Sci. 60, 119-136 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O'Reilly, J. E.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. A. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. E. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892 (2002), Vol. 11, pp. 9-23.

Ostrow, H.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, "MODIS: Advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 145-152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Patt, F. S.

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, "The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS," in Proc. SPIE 5882, 5882-34 (2005).

Peacock, T. G.

Phinney, D.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. A. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. E. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892 (2002), Vol. 11, pp. 9-23.

Pinker, R. T.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, B. Chatenet, and R. T. Pinker, "Diurnal variability of aerosol optical depth observed at AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) sites," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 2115, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pinnock, S.

W. W. Gregg, J. Aiken, E. Kwiatkowska, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, H. Murakami, S. Pinnock, and C. Pottier, "Coordination of merged data sets," in International Ocean Colour Coordinating Group Report 6, W.W.Gregg, ed. (IOCCG, 2007).

Platt, T.

V. Stuart, S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, H. Maas, and B. D. Irwin, "Pigments and species composition of natural phytoplankton populations: effect on the absorption spectra," J. Plankton Res. 20, 187-217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pope, R. M.

Pottier, C.

C. Pottier, V. Garçon, J. Sudre, G. Larnicol, P. Schaeffer, and P.-Y. Le Traon, "Merging SeaWiFS and MODIS/Aqua ocean color data in North and equatorial Atlantic using weighted averaging and objective analysis," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 3436-3451 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Gregg, J. Aiken, E. Kwiatkowska, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, H. Murakami, S. Pinnock, and C. Pottier, "Coordination of merged data sets," in International Ocean Colour Coordinating Group Report 6, W.W.Gregg, ed. (IOCCG, 2007).

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C; The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U Press, 1992).

Rast, M.

M. Rast, J. L. Bezy, and S. Bruzzi, "The ESA Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer MERIS-A review of the instrument and its mission," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1681-1702 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Reagan, J. A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "AERONET-A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Roesler, C.

Rutledge, K.

G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, S. B. Hooker, F. Mélin, J.-F. Berthon, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, K. Rutledge, G. Schuster, and A. Al Mandoos, "A network for standardized ocean color validation measurements," EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 87, 293, 297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Salomonson, V. V.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, "MODIS: Advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 145-152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sathyendranath, S.

V. Stuart, S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, H. Maas, and B. D. Irwin, "Pigments and species composition of natural phytoplankton populations: effect on the absorption spectra," J. Plankton Res. 20, 187-217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schaeffer, P.

C. Pottier, V. Garçon, J. Sudre, G. Larnicol, P. Schaeffer, and P.-Y. Le Traon, "Merging SeaWiFS and MODIS/Aqua ocean color data in North and equatorial Atlantic using weighted averaging and objective analysis," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 3436-3451 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schuster, G.

G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, S. B. Hooker, F. Mélin, J.-F. Berthon, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, K. Rutledge, G. Schuster, and A. Al Mandoos, "A network for standardized ocean color validation measurements," EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 87, 293, 297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Setzer, A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "AERONET-A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, D. A.

S. Maritorena and D. A. Siegel, "Consistent merging of satellite ocean color data sets using a bio-optical model," Remote Sens. Environ. 94, 429-440 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver and D. A. Siegel, "Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation, 1, Time series from the Sargasso Sea," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607-18625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. A. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. E. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892 (2002), Vol. 11, pp. 9-23.

Simon, P. C.

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, and T. Foujols, "The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS 1-2-3 and EURECA missions," Sol. Phys. 214, 1-22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Slutker, I.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "AERONET-A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Slutsker, I.

G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, S. B. Hooker, F. Mélin, J.-F. Berthon, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, K. Rutledge, G. Schuster, and A. Al Mandoos, "A network for standardized ocean color validation measurements," EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 87, 293, 297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, B. Chatenet, and R. T. Pinker, "Diurnal variability of aerosol optical depth observed at AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) sites," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 2115, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, O. Dubovik, and I. Slutsker, "Cloud-screening and quality control algorithms for the AERONET database," Remote Sens. Environ. 73, 337-349 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, A.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, B. Chatenet, and R. T. Pinker, "Diurnal variability of aerosol optical depth observed at AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) sites," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 2115, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, O. Dubovik, and I. Slutsker, "Cloud-screening and quality control algorithms for the AERONET database," Remote Sens. Environ. 73, 337-349 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "AERONET-A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909-10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith and K. S. Baker, "Optical properties of the clearest natural waters," Appl. Opt. 20, 177-184 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steward, R. G.

Stramski, D.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, "Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 3211, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, D. "Light scattering properties of marine particles on coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843-859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Strutton, P.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. A. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. E. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892 (2002), Vol. 11, pp. 9-23.

Stuart, V.

V. Stuart, S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, H. Maas, and B. D. Irwin, "Pigments and species composition of natural phytoplankton populations: effect on the absorption spectra," J. Plankton Res. 20, 187-217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sudre, J.

C. Pottier, V. Garçon, J. Sudre, G. Larnicol, P. Schaeffer, and P.-Y. Le Traon, "Merging SeaWiFS and MODIS/Aqua ocean color data in North and equatorial Atlantic using weighted averaging and objective analysis," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 3436-3451 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, J. M.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. M. Sullivan, and P. L. Donaghay, "Modeling the spectral shape of absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter," Mar. Chem. 89, 69-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tanré, D.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "AERONET-A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Targa, C.

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, J.-P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, C. Targa, and L. Alberotanza, "Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS): A tower-based, long-term measurement program," in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892 (2002), Vol. 19, pp. 1-29.

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C; The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U Press, 1992).

Thomas, D.

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, "The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS," in Proc. SPIE 5882, 5882-34 (2005).

Thuillier, G.

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, and T. Foujols, "The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS 1-2-3 and EURECA missions," Sol. Phys. 214, 1-22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Toole, D. A.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O'Brien, D. A. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. E. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, "Ocean color chlorophyll a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2, and OC4: Version 4," in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892 (2002), Vol. 11, pp. 9-23.

Twardowski, M. S.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. M. Sullivan, and P. L. Donaghay, "Modeling the spectral shape of absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter," Mar. Chem. 89, 69-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

van der Linde, D.

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, J.-P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, C. Targa, and L. Alberotanza, "Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS): A tower-based, long-term measurement program," in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892 (2002), Vol. 19, pp. 1-29.

Vandemark, D.

G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, S. B. Hooker, F. Mélin, J.-F. Berthon, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, K. Rutledge, G. Schuster, and A. Al Mandoos, "A network for standardized ocean color validation measurements," EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 87, 293, 297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vermote, E.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, "AERONET-A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization," Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1-16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C; The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U Press, 1992).

Wang, M.

Wang, P.

Werdell, P. J.

S. W. Bailey and P. J. Werdell, "A multi-sensor approach for the on-orbit validation of ocean color satellite data products," Remote Sens. Environ. 102, 12-23 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, "The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS," in Proc. SPIE 5882, 5882-34 (2005).

Winker, D. M.

T. L. Anderson, R. J. Charlson, D. M. Winker, J. A. Ogren, and K. Holmén, "Mesocale variations of tropospheric aerosols," J. Atmos. Sci. 60, 119-136 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Woodward, R. H.

W. W. Gregg and R. H. Woodward, "Improvements in coverage frequency of ocean color: Combining data from SeaWiFS and MODIS," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1350-1353 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Gregg, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, R. Frouin, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, and R. H. Woodward, "Coverage opportunities for global ocean color in a multimission era," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1620-1627 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zibordi, G.

G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, S. B. Hooker, F. Mélin, J.-F. Berthon, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, K. Rutledge, G. Schuster, and A. Al Mandoos, "A network for standardized ocean color validation measurements," EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 87, 293, 297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, and J.-F. Berthon, "A time series of above-water radiometric measurements for coastal water monitoring and remote sensing product validation," IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 3, 120-124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Mélin, M. Clerici, G. Zibordi, and B. Bulgarelli, "Aerosol variability in the Adriatic Sea from automated optical field measurements and SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 111, D22201, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, and J.-F. Berthon, "Comparison of SeaWiFS, MODIS, and MERIS radiometric products at a coastal site," Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L06617, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Mélin and G. Zibordi, "Aerosol variability in the Po Valley analyzed from automated optical measurements," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L03810, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, S. B. Hooker, and B. N. Holben, "An autonomous above-water system for the validation of ocean color radiance data," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 401-415 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Berthon and G. Zibordi, "Bio-optical relationships for the northern Adriatic Sea," Int. J. Remote Sens. 25, 1527-1532 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Mélin, G. Zibordi, and J.-F. Berthon, "Assessment of satellite ocean color products at a coastal site," (to be published).

G. Zibordi, J.-F. Berthon, J.-P. Doyle, S. Grossi, D. van der Linde, C. Targa, and L. Alberotanza, "Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS): A tower-based, long-term measurement program," in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 2002-206892 (2002), Vol. 19, pp. 1-29.

F. Mélin, G. Zibordi, and S. Djavidnia, "Development and validation of a technique for merging satellite derived aerosol optical depth from SeaWiFS and MODIS," Remote Sens. Environ. , doi: (to be published).

Appl. Opt. (9)

R. C. Smith and K. S. Baker, "Optical properties of the clearest natural waters," Appl. Opt. 20, 177-184 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, "Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm," Appl. Opt. 33, 443-452 (1994).
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Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, and C. O. Davis, "Model for interpretation of hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance," Appl. Opt. 33, 5721-5732 (1994).
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M. Wang, B. A. Franz, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, "Effects of spectral bandpass on SeaWiFS-retrieved near-surface optical properties of the ocean," Appl. Opt. 40, 343-348 (2001).
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P. Wang, E. Boss, and C. Roesler, "Uncertainties of inherent optical properties obtained from semianalytical inversions of ocean color," Appl. Opt. 44, 4074-4085 (2005).
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EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union (1)

G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, S. B. Hooker, F. Mélin, J.-F. Berthon, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, K. Rutledge, G. Schuster, and A. Al Mandoos, "A network for standardized ocean color validation measurements," EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 87, 293, 297 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (3)

F. Mélin and G. Zibordi, "Aerosol variability in the Po Valley analyzed from automated optical measurements," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L03810, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, and J.-F. Berthon, "Comparison of SeaWiFS, MODIS, and MERIS radiometric products at a coastal site," Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L06617, doi: (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, B. Chatenet, and R. T. Pinker, "Diurnal variability of aerosol optical depth observed at AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) sites," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 2115, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. (1)

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, and J.-F. Berthon, "A time series of above-water radiometric measurements for coastal water monitoring and remote sensing product validation," IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 3, 120-124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (6)

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, S. B. Hooker, and B. N. Holben, "An autonomous above-water system for the validation of ocean color radiance data," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 401-415 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, "MODIS: Advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 145-152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. Pottier, V. Garçon, J. Sudre, G. Larnicol, P. Schaeffer, and P.-Y. Le Traon, "Merging SeaWiFS and MODIS/Aqua ocean color data in North and equatorial Atlantic using weighted averaging and objective analysis," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 44, 3436-3451 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Gregg and R. H. Woodward, "Improvements in coverage frequency of ocean color: Combining data from SeaWiFS and MODIS," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1350-1353 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Gregg, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, R. Frouin, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, and R. H. Woodward, "Coverage opportunities for global ocean color in a multimission era," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1620-1627 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Kwiatkowska and G. S. Fargion, "Application of machine-learning techniques towards the creation of a consistent and calibrated chlorophyll concentration baseline dataset using remotely sensed ocean color data," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 2844-2860 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens. (4)

M. Rast, J. L. Bezy, and S. Bruzzi, "The ESA Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer MERIS-A review of the instrument and its mission," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1681-1702 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Berthon and G. Zibordi, "Bio-optical relationships for the northern Adriatic Sea," Int. J. Remote Sens. 25, 1527-1532 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Antoine and A. Morel, "A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean colour (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1875-1916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, and S. J. Lavender, "The atmospheric correction of water colour and the quantitative retrieval of suspended particulate matter in case II waters: Application to MERIS," Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1713-1733 (1999).
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J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

T. L. Anderson, R. J. Charlson, D. M. Winker, J. A. Ogren, and K. Holmén, "Mesocale variations of tropospheric aerosols," J. Atmos. Sci. 60, 119-136 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (8)

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909-10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver and D. A. Siegel, "Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation, 1, Time series from the Sargasso Sea," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607-18625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, K. D. Knobelspiesse, and C. R. McClain, "Study of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) aerosol optical property data over ocean in combination with the ocean color products," J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S06, doi: (2005).
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A. Morel and S. Maritorena, "Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters:a reappraisal," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163-7180 (2001).
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A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, "Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: Analysis and implications for bio-optical models," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31033-31044 (1998).
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M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, "Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe," J. Geophys. Res. 108, 3211, doi: (2003).
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A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, "Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321-13332 (1995).
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F. Mélin, M. Clerici, G. Zibordi, and B. Bulgarelli, "Aerosol variability in the Adriatic Sea from automated optical field measurements and SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 111, D22201, doi: (2006).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Example (23 March 2003, AAOT site) with L W N spectra derived from SeaWiFS, MODIS, MERIS and obtained by merging the spectra. The corresponding SeaPRISM L W N spectrum is also shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sensitivity of the merged outputs with respect to bio-optical parameters. The abscissa represents the merged outputs for each matchup averaged over the 100 tested bio-optical parameter sets (see text). The gray bars represent the envelope of minimum and maximum merged outputs for each matchup, and the black circles show the merged outputs for the parameters η = −0.3 , S = 0.018 nm 1 , and Chl a = 0.3 mg m 3 . For each set of bio-optical parameters, differences ( | ψ | and RMSD) are computed with respect to the average ensemble. The reported statistics indicate the mean and standard deviation of these differences computed over the 100 cases. Results are provided at three SeaPRISM wavelengths, 412, 500, and 675 nm , while at 440 and 555 nm , | ψ | is 1.7 % ± 0.9 % and 0.9 % ± 0.4 % , and RMSD is 0.019 ± 0.010 and 0.014 ± 0.006 , respectively. The merging is performed with SeaWiFS and MODIS L W N spectra in 186 cases for which the two satellite products are available together with field data. Units are mW cm 2 μ m 1 sr 1 on the axis and for RMSD.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scatter plots of MODIS (MOD) and SeaWiFS (SWF) derived L W N . The MODIS derived L W N are expressed at the SeaWiFS center wavelengths through a spectral correction (see text).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Scatter plots of the SeaPRISM (PRS) L W N and the merged (MRG) L W N , obtained from SeaWiFS and MODIS L W N and expressed at the SeaPRISM center wavelengths. Three types of matchups are distinguished by three different symbols, matchups for which both SeaWiFS and MODIS L W N are available (N = 186, circles), and for which only SeaWiFS (N = 95, + signs) or MODIS (N = 89, crosses) L W N are available. The merging was applied for all cases.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scatter plots of the SeaPRISM (PRS) L W N and the merged (MRG) L W N , obtained from SeaWiFS, MODIS, and MERIS L W N and expressed at the SeaPRISM center wavelengths. The number of matchups is N = 33. Units are mW   cm 2 μ m 1 sr 1 .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Upper panel: Time series of merged L W N ( 440 ) for the AAOT site. The three symbols represent situations with various inputs to the merger, with SeaWiFS (SWF) only (diamonds), MODIS (MOD) only (crosses), and both SeaWiFS and MODIS (circles), for a total of 481 daily records. The daily L W N ( 440 ) given by the SeaPRISM (PRS) measurements are also shown (open circles). Lower panel: Time series of the number of daily records per month provided by field measurements (dotted curve), and the satellite merged product. The crosses and diamonds represent the number of records per month obtained exclusively from MODIS and SeaWiFS, respectively; the circles represent the number of records per month obtained by the actual merging of SeaWiFS and MODIS L W N spectra; the stars represent the number of records per month given by the merged series based on all available information (SeaWiFS or MODIS). The crosses and diamonds are shifted by ± 7 days (with respect to the 15th of the month) to allow easier identification of overlapping symbols. For both panels, the first four months of 2005 are based on MODIS data only since the SeaWiFS LAC imagery was not available for that time period.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison Between SeaPRISM and Satellite Derived LWN

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Table 2 Comparison Between SeaWiFS and MODIS L WN

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Table 3 Comparison Between SeaPRISM and Merged SeaWiFS∕MODIS L WN

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Table 4 Comparison Between SeaPRISM and Merged SeaWiFS∕MODIS∕MERIS L WN

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L W N ( λ ) = L W N ( λ 0 ) E 0 ( λ ) E 0 ( λ 0 ) f ( λ ) Q ( λ ) Q ( λ 0 ) f ( λ 0 ) b b ( λ ) a ( λ ) a ( λ 0 ) b b ( λ 0 ) ,
ψ = 100 1 N i = 1 N y i x i x i ,
| ψ | = 100 1 N i = 1 N | y i x i | x i .
L W N ( λ ) = 0.54 [ l 1 b b ( λ ) b b ( λ ) + a ( λ ) + l 2 ( b b ( λ ) b b ( λ ) + a ( λ ) ) 2 ] E 0 ( λ ) ,
b b ( λ ) = b b w ( λ ) + b b p ( λ 0 ) ( λ λ 0 ) η .
a ( λ ) = a w ( λ ) + a p h * ( λ ) Chl a + a d s + d t ( λ 1 ) e S ( λ λ 1 ) .
| ψ | p = 100 1 N i = 1 N | L W N , i M R G , p ( λ ) L W N , i M R G , p p = 1 , 100 ( λ ) | L W N , i M R G , p p = 1 , 100 ( λ ) .

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