Abstract

Optical tomography is being developed as a means of detecting and specifying disease in the adult female breast. We present a series of clinical three-dimensional optical images obtained with a 32-channel time-resolved system and a liquid-coupled interface. Patients place their breasts in a hemispherical cup to which sources and detectors are coupled, and the remaining space is filled with a highly scattering fluid. A cohort of 38 patients has been scanned, with a variety of benign and malignant lesions. Images show that hypervascularization associated with tumors provides very high contrast due to increased absorption by hemoglobin. Only half of the fibroadenomas scanned could be observed, but of those that could be detected, all but one revealed an apparent increase in blood volume and a decrease in scatter and oxygen saturation.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006 (1)

R. Wiener, R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, S. M. Crinivas, J. R. Saffer, R. Freifelder, J. S. Karp, A. G. Yodh, and S. D. Konecky, "Diffuse optical tomography and positron emission tomography of human breast," in Biomedical Optics Topical Meeting (2006).

2005 (11)

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czernieki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, M. Möller, J. Mucke, H. Wabnitz, B. Gabauer, C. Stroszczynski, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Time-domain scanning optical mammography: I. Recording and assessment of mammograms of 154 patients," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2429-2449 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Grosenick, H. Wabnitz, K. T. Moesta, J. Mucke, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Time-domain scanning optical mammography: II. Optical properties and tissue parameters of 87 carcinomas," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2451-2468 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, A. Pifferi, F. Arpaia, G. Danesini, and R. Cubeddu, "Time-resolved optical mammography between 637 and 985 nm: clinical study on the detection and identification of breast lesions," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2469-2488 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, G. Danesini, and R. Cubeddu, "Characterization of female breast lesions from multi-wavelength time-resolved optical mammography," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2489-2502 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, T. D. Yates, A. Gibson, N. Everdell, S. R. Arridge, D. W. Chicken, M. Douek, and M. R. S. Keshtgar, "Monitoring recovery after laser surgery of the breast with optical tomography: a case study," Appl. Opt. 44, 1898-1904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. D. Yates, J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, L. Enfield, N. L. Everdell, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, "Time-resolved optical mammography using a liquid coupled interface," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 054011 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Zhang, T. I. Brukilacchio, A. Li, J. J. Scott, T. Chaves, E. Hillman, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, E. Rafferty, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, "Coregistered tomographic x-ray and optical breast imaging: initial results," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024033 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Tromberg, A. Cerussi, N. Shah, M. Compton, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and R. Mehta, "Diffuse optics in breast cancer: detecting tumours in pre-menopausal women and monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy," Breast Cancer Res. 7, 279-285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Schmitz, D. P. Klemer, R. Hardin, M. S. Katz, Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, M. B. Levin, R. D. Levina, N. A. Franco, W. B. Solomon, and R. L. Barbour, "Design and implementation of dynamic near-infrared optical tomographic imaging instrumentation for simultaneous dual-breast measurements," Appl. Opt. 44, 2140-2152 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. D. Yates, J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, N. L. Everdell, S. R. Arridge, and M. Douek, "Optical tomography of the breast using a multi-channel time-resolved imager," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2503-2517 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Characterization of hemoglobin, water and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 541-552 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Grosenick, H. Wabnitz, K. T. Moesta, J. Mucke, M. Moller, C. Stroszczynski, J. Stobel, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Concentration and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin of 50 breast tumours determined by time-domain optical mammography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1165-1181 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Taroni, G. Danesini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, and R. Cubeddu, "Clinical trial of time-resolved scanning optical mammography at 4 wavelengths between 683 and 975 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 464-473 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, X. Song, S. Srinivasan, H. Dehghani, K. D. Paulsen, T. D. Tosteson, C. Kogel, S. Soho, and S. P. Poplack, "Near-infrared scattering spectrum differences between benign and malignant breast tumours measured in vivo with diffuse tomography," in OSA Biomedical Topical Meeting (2004).

2003 (10)

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Multiwavelength three-dimensional near-infrared tomography of the breast: initial simulation, phantom and clinical results," Appl. Opt. 42, 135-145 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Intes, J. Ripoll, Y. Chen, S. Nioka, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, "In vivo continuous-wave optical breast imaging enhanced with Indocyanine Green," Med. Phys. 30, 1039-1047 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, H. Wabnitz, J. Mucke, C. Stroszczynski, R. Macdonlad, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Time-domain optical mammography: initial clinical results on detection and characterization of breast tumours," Appl. Opt. 42, 3170-3186 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Culver, R. Choe, M. J. Holboke, L. Zubkov, T. Durduran, A. Slemp, V. Ntziachristos, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain/continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 235-247 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. D. Pavic, M. D. Koomen, C. D. Kuzmiak, and E. D. Pisano, "Ultrasound in the management of breast disease," Curr. Womens Health Rep. 3, 156-164 (2003).
[PubMed]

L. Tabar, M.-F. Yen, B. Vitak, H.-H. Chen, R. A. Smith, and S. W. Duffy, "Mammography service screening and mortality in breast cancer patients: 20-year follow-up before and after introduction of screening," Lancet 361, 1405-1410 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Blamey, A. R. M. Wilson, and J. Patnick, "Screening for breast cancer," BMJ 689, 693 (2003).
[PubMed]

X. Cheng, J. Mao, R. Bush, D. B. Kopans, R. H. Moore, and M. Chorlton, "Breast cancer detection by mapping hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation," Appl. Opt. 42, 6412-6421 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, T. O. McBride, and K. D. Paulsen, "Quantative analysis of near-infrared tomography: sensitivity to the tissue-simulating precalibration phantom," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 308-315 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Li, E. L. Miller, M. Kilmer, T. J. Brukilacchio, T. Chaves, J. J. Stott, Q. Zhang, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, "Tomographic optical breast imaging guided by three-dimensional mammography," Appl. Opt. 42, 5181-5190 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

M. D. Schnall, "Application of magnetic resonance imaging to early detection of breast cancer," Breast Cancer Res. 3, 17-21 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Cerussi, A. I. Berger, F. Bevilacqua, N. Shah, D. Jakubowski, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, and B. J. Tromberg, "Sources of absorption and scattering contrast for near infrared optical mammography," Acad. Radiol. 8, 211-218 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, H. Dehghani, and D. T. Delpy, "A method for 3D time-resolved optical tomography," Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 11, 2-11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, E. D. Gerety, S. B. Poplack, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Spectroscopic diffuse optical tomography for the quantitative assessment of hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation in breast tissue," Appl. Opt. 38, 5480-5490 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Colak, M. B. van der Mark, G. W. Hooft, J. H. Hoogenraad, E. S. van der Linden, and F. A. Kuijpers, "Clinical optical tomography and NIR spectroscopy for breast cancer detection," IEEE Quantum Electron. 5, 1143-1158 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

S. Fantini, S. A. Walker, M. A. Franeschini, M. Kaschke, P. Schlag, and K. T. Moesta, "Assessment of the size, position and optical properties of breast tumors in vivo by noninvasive optical properties," Appl. Opt. 37, 1982-1989 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, and D. T. Delpy, "A 32-channel time-resolved instrument for medical optical tomography," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 256-265 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (3)

J. Schoberl, "NETGEN--an advancing front 2d/3D-mesh generator based on abstract rules," Comput. Vision Sci. 1, 41-52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Pogue, M. Testorf, T. McBride, U. Osterberg, and K. Paulsen, "Instrumentation and design of a frequency-domain diffuse optical tomography imager for breast cancer detection," Opt. Express 1, 391-403 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Young, M. Shnall, S. Zhao, S. Orel, C. Xie, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. Solin, "Optical imaging of breast tumour by means of continuous waves," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 441, 227-232 (1997).

1993 (1)

S. J. Matcher, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Use of the water absorption spectrum to quantify tissue chromophore concentration changes in near-infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 177-196 (1993).
[PubMed]

1990 (1)

V. G. Peters, D. R. Wyman, M. S. Patterson, and G. L. Frank, "Optical properties of normal and diseased human breast tissue in the visible and near infrared," Phys. Med. Biol. 35, 1317-1334 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arpaia, F.

P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, A. Pifferi, F. Arpaia, G. Danesini, and R. Cubeddu, "Time-resolved optical mammography between 637 and 985 nm: clinical study on the detection and identification of breast lesions," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2469-2488 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arridge, S. R.

T. D. Yates, J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, N. L. Everdell, S. R. Arridge, and M. Douek, "Optical tomography of the breast using a multi-channel time-resolved imager," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2503-2517 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czernieki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, T. D. Yates, A. Gibson, N. Everdell, S. R. Arridge, D. W. Chicken, M. Douek, and M. R. S. Keshtgar, "Monitoring recovery after laser surgery of the breast with optical tomography: a case study," Appl. Opt. 44, 1898-1904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. D. Yates, J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, L. Enfield, N. L. Everdell, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, "Time-resolved optical mammography using a liquid coupled interface," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 054011 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, H. Dehghani, and D. T. Delpy, "A method for 3D time-resolved optical tomography," Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 11, 2-11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Barbour, R. L.

Berger, A. I.

A. E. Cerussi, A. I. Berger, F. Bevilacqua, N. Shah, D. Jakubowski, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, and B. J. Tromberg, "Sources of absorption and scattering contrast for near infrared optical mammography," Acad. Radiol. 8, 211-218 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bevilacqua, F.

A. E. Cerussi, A. I. Berger, F. Bevilacqua, N. Shah, D. Jakubowski, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, and B. J. Tromberg, "Sources of absorption and scattering contrast for near infrared optical mammography," Acad. Radiol. 8, 211-218 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blamey, R. W.

R. W. Blamey, A. R. M. Wilson, and J. Patnick, "Screening for breast cancer," BMJ 689, 693 (2003).
[PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

O. Zhang, T. I. Brukilacchio, A. Li, J. J. Scott, T. Chaves, E. Hillman, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, E. Rafferty, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, "Coregistered tomographic x-ray and optical breast imaging: initial results," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024033 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Li, E. L. Miller, M. Kilmer, T. J. Brukilacchio, T. Chaves, J. J. Stott, Q. Zhang, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, "Tomographic optical breast imaging guided by three-dimensional mammography," Appl. Opt. 42, 5181-5190 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brukilacchio, T. I.

O. Zhang, T. I. Brukilacchio, A. Li, J. J. Scott, T. Chaves, E. Hillman, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, E. Rafferty, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, "Coregistered tomographic x-ray and optical breast imaging: initial results," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024033 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brukilacchio, T. J.

Bush, R.

Butler, J.

B. J. Tromberg, A. Cerussi, N. Shah, M. Compton, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and R. Mehta, "Diffuse optics in breast cancer: detecting tumours in pre-menopausal women and monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy," Breast Cancer Res. 7, 279-285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Cerussi, A. I. Berger, F. Bevilacqua, N. Shah, D. Jakubowski, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, and B. J. Tromberg, "Sources of absorption and scattering contrast for near infrared optical mammography," Acad. Radiol. 8, 211-218 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerussi, A.

B. J. Tromberg, A. Cerussi, N. Shah, M. Compton, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and R. Mehta, "Diffuse optics in breast cancer: detecting tumours in pre-menopausal women and monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy," Breast Cancer Res. 7, 279-285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cerussi, A. E.

A. E. Cerussi, A. I. Berger, F. Bevilacqua, N. Shah, D. Jakubowski, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, and B. J. Tromberg, "Sources of absorption and scattering contrast for near infrared optical mammography," Acad. Radiol. 8, 211-218 (2001).
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Chance, B.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czernieki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Intes, J. Ripoll, Y. Chen, S. Nioka, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, "In vivo continuous-wave optical breast imaging enhanced with Indocyanine Green," Med. Phys. 30, 1039-1047 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Culver, R. Choe, M. J. Holboke, L. Zubkov, T. Durduran, A. Slemp, V. Ntziachristos, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain/continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 235-247 (2003).
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Y. Young, M. Shnall, S. Zhao, S. Orel, C. Xie, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. Solin, "Optical imaging of breast tumour by means of continuous waves," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 441, 227-232 (1997).

Chaves, T.

O. Zhang, T. I. Brukilacchio, A. Li, J. J. Scott, T. Chaves, E. Hillman, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, E. Rafferty, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, "Coregistered tomographic x-ray and optical breast imaging: initial results," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024033 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Li, E. L. Miller, M. Kilmer, T. J. Brukilacchio, T. Chaves, J. J. Stott, Q. Zhang, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, "Tomographic optical breast imaging guided by three-dimensional mammography," Appl. Opt. 42, 5181-5190 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.-H.

L. Tabar, M.-F. Yen, B. Vitak, H.-H. Chen, R. A. Smith, and S. W. Duffy, "Mammography service screening and mortality in breast cancer patients: 20-year follow-up before and after introduction of screening," Lancet 361, 1405-1410 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

X. Intes, J. Ripoll, Y. Chen, S. Nioka, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, "In vivo continuous-wave optical breast imaging enhanced with Indocyanine Green," Med. Phys. 30, 1039-1047 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, X.

Chicken, D. W.

Choe, R.

R. Wiener, R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, S. M. Crinivas, J. R. Saffer, R. Freifelder, J. S. Karp, A. G. Yodh, and S. D. Konecky, "Diffuse optical tomography and positron emission tomography of human breast," in Biomedical Optics Topical Meeting (2006).

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czernieki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Culver, R. Choe, M. J. Holboke, L. Zubkov, T. Durduran, A. Slemp, V. Ntziachristos, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain/continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 235-247 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chorlton, M.

Colak, S. B.

S. B. Colak, M. B. van der Mark, G. W. Hooft, J. H. Hoogenraad, E. S. van der Linden, and F. A. Kuijpers, "Clinical optical tomography and NIR spectroscopy for breast cancer detection," IEEE Quantum Electron. 5, 1143-1158 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Compton, M.

B. J. Tromberg, A. Cerussi, N. Shah, M. Compton, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and R. Mehta, "Diffuse optics in breast cancer: detecting tumours in pre-menopausal women and monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy," Breast Cancer Res. 7, 279-285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cope, M.

S. J. Matcher, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Use of the water absorption spectrum to quantify tissue chromophore concentration changes in near-infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 177-196 (1993).
[PubMed]

Corlu, A.

R. Wiener, R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, S. M. Crinivas, J. R. Saffer, R. Freifelder, J. S. Karp, A. G. Yodh, and S. D. Konecky, "Diffuse optical tomography and positron emission tomography of human breast," in Biomedical Optics Topical Meeting (2006).

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czernieki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crinivas, S. M.

R. Wiener, R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, S. M. Crinivas, J. R. Saffer, R. Freifelder, J. S. Karp, A. G. Yodh, and S. D. Konecky, "Diffuse optical tomography and positron emission tomography of human breast," in Biomedical Optics Topical Meeting (2006).

Cubeddu, R.

L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, G. Danesini, and R. Cubeddu, "Characterization of female breast lesions from multi-wavelength time-resolved optical mammography," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2489-2502 (2005).
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P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, A. Pifferi, F. Arpaia, G. Danesini, and R. Cubeddu, "Time-resolved optical mammography between 637 and 985 nm: clinical study on the detection and identification of breast lesions," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2469-2488 (2005).
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P. Taroni, G. Danesini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, and R. Cubeddu, "Clinical trial of time-resolved scanning optical mammography at 4 wavelengths between 683 and 975 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 464-473 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Culver, J. P.

J. P. Culver, R. Choe, M. J. Holboke, L. Zubkov, T. Durduran, A. Slemp, V. Ntziachristos, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain/continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 235-247 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Czernieki, B. J.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czernieki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Danesini, G.

L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, G. Danesini, and R. Cubeddu, "Characterization of female breast lesions from multi-wavelength time-resolved optical mammography," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2489-2502 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, A. Pifferi, F. Arpaia, G. Danesini, and R. Cubeddu, "Time-resolved optical mammography between 637 and 985 nm: clinical study on the detection and identification of breast lesions," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2469-2488 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Taroni, G. Danesini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, and R. Cubeddu, "Clinical trial of time-resolved scanning optical mammography at 4 wavelengths between 683 and 975 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 464-473 (2004).
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Dehghani, H.

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Characterization of hemoglobin, water and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 541-552 (2004).
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B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, X. Song, S. Srinivasan, H. Dehghani, K. D. Paulsen, T. D. Tosteson, C. Kogel, S. Soho, and S. P. Poplack, "Near-infrared scattering spectrum differences between benign and malignant breast tumours measured in vivo with diffuse tomography," in OSA Biomedical Topical Meeting (2004).

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Multiwavelength three-dimensional near-infrared tomography of the breast: initial simulation, phantom and clinical results," Appl. Opt. 42, 135-145 (2003).
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S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, H. Dehghani, and D. T. Delpy, "A method for 3D time-resolved optical tomography," Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 11, 2-11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Delpy, D. T.

T. D. Yates, J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, L. Enfield, N. L. Everdell, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, "Time-resolved optical mammography using a liquid coupled interface," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 054011 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, H. Dehghani, and D. T. Delpy, "A method for 3D time-resolved optical tomography," Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 11, 2-11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, and D. T. Delpy, "A 32-channel time-resolved instrument for medical optical tomography," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 256-265 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Matcher, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Use of the water absorption spectrum to quantify tissue chromophore concentration changes in near-infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 177-196 (1993).
[PubMed]

DeMichele, A.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czernieki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Douek, M.

J. C. Hebden, T. D. Yates, A. Gibson, N. Everdell, S. R. Arridge, D. W. Chicken, M. Douek, and M. R. S. Keshtgar, "Monitoring recovery after laser surgery of the breast with optical tomography: a case study," Appl. Opt. 44, 1898-1904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. D. Yates, J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, N. L. Everdell, S. R. Arridge, and M. Douek, "Optical tomography of the breast using a multi-channel time-resolved imager," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2503-2517 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duffy, S. W.

L. Tabar, M.-F. Yen, B. Vitak, H.-H. Chen, R. A. Smith, and S. W. Duffy, "Mammography service screening and mortality in breast cancer patients: 20-year follow-up before and after introduction of screening," Lancet 361, 1405-1410 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durduran, T.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czernieki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Culver, R. Choe, M. J. Holboke, L. Zubkov, T. Durduran, A. Slemp, V. Ntziachristos, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain/continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 235-247 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durkin, A.

B. J. Tromberg, A. Cerussi, N. Shah, M. Compton, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and R. Mehta, "Diffuse optics in breast cancer: detecting tumours in pre-menopausal women and monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy," Breast Cancer Res. 7, 279-285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Enfield, L.

T. D. Yates, J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, L. Enfield, N. L. Everdell, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, "Time-resolved optical mammography using a liquid coupled interface," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 054011 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Everdell, N.

Everdell, N. L.

T. D. Yates, J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, L. Enfield, N. L. Everdell, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, "Time-resolved optical mammography using a liquid coupled interface," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 054011 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. D. Yates, J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, N. L. Everdell, S. R. Arridge, and M. Douek, "Optical tomography of the breast using a multi-channel time-resolved imager," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2503-2517 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fantini, S.

Fraker, D. L.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czernieki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franco, N. A.

Franeschini, M. A.

Frank, G. L.

V. G. Peters, D. R. Wyman, M. S. Patterson, and G. L. Frank, "Optical properties of normal and diseased human breast tissue in the visible and near infrared," Phys. Med. Biol. 35, 1317-1334 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freifelder, R.

R. Wiener, R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, S. M. Crinivas, J. R. Saffer, R. Freifelder, J. S. Karp, A. G. Yodh, and S. D. Konecky, "Diffuse optical tomography and positron emission tomography of human breast," in Biomedical Optics Topical Meeting (2006).

Fry, M. E.

S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, H. Dehghani, and D. T. Delpy, "A method for 3D time-resolved optical tomography," Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 11, 2-11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, and D. T. Delpy, "A 32-channel time-resolved instrument for medical optical tomography," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 256-265 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gabauer, B.

D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, M. Möller, J. Mucke, H. Wabnitz, B. Gabauer, C. Stroszczynski, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Time-domain scanning optical mammography: I. Recording and assessment of mammograms of 154 patients," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2429-2449 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerety, E. D.

Gibson, A.

Gibson, A. P.

T. D. Yates, J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, L. Enfield, N. L. Everdell, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, "Time-resolved optical mammography using a liquid coupled interface," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 054011 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. D. Yates, J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, N. L. Everdell, S. R. Arridge, and M. Douek, "Optical tomography of the breast using a multi-channel time-resolved imager," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2503-2517 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graber, H. L.

Grosenick, D.

D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, M. Möller, J. Mucke, H. Wabnitz, B. Gabauer, C. Stroszczynski, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Time-domain scanning optical mammography: I. Recording and assessment of mammograms of 154 patients," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2429-2449 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Grosenick, H. Wabnitz, K. T. Moesta, J. Mucke, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Time-domain scanning optical mammography: II. Optical properties and tissue parameters of 87 carcinomas," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2451-2468 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Grosenick, H. Wabnitz, K. T. Moesta, J. Mucke, M. Moller, C. Stroszczynski, J. Stobel, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Concentration and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin of 50 breast tumours determined by time-domain optical mammography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1165-1181 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, H. Wabnitz, J. Mucke, C. Stroszczynski, R. Macdonlad, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Time-domain optical mammography: initial clinical results on detection and characterization of breast tumours," Appl. Opt. 42, 3170-3186 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grosicka-Koptyra, M.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czernieki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hardin, R.

Hebden, J. C.

T. D. Yates, J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, N. L. Everdell, S. R. Arridge, and M. Douek, "Optical tomography of the breast using a multi-channel time-resolved imager," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2503-2517 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, T. D. Yates, A. Gibson, N. Everdell, S. R. Arridge, D. W. Chicken, M. Douek, and M. R. S. Keshtgar, "Monitoring recovery after laser surgery of the breast with optical tomography: a case study," Appl. Opt. 44, 1898-1904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. D. Yates, J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, L. Enfield, N. L. Everdell, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, "Time-resolved optical mammography using a liquid coupled interface," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 054011 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, H. Dehghani, and D. T. Delpy, "A method for 3D time-resolved optical tomography," Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 11, 2-11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, and D. T. Delpy, "A 32-channel time-resolved instrument for medical optical tomography," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 256-265 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillman, E.

O. Zhang, T. I. Brukilacchio, A. Li, J. J. Scott, T. Chaves, E. Hillman, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, E. Rafferty, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, "Coregistered tomographic x-ray and optical breast imaging: initial results," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024033 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillman, E. M. C.

S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, H. Dehghani, and D. T. Delpy, "A method for 3D time-resolved optical tomography," Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 11, 2-11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, and D. T. Delpy, "A 32-channel time-resolved instrument for medical optical tomography," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 256-265 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. C. Hillman, "Experimental and theoretical investigations of near-infrared tomographic imaging methods and clinical applications," Ph.D. thesis (University of London, 2002).
[PubMed]

Holboke, M. J.

J. P. Culver, R. Choe, M. J. Holboke, L. Zubkov, T. Durduran, A. Slemp, V. Ntziachristos, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain/continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 235-247 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holcombe, R. F.

A. E. Cerussi, A. I. Berger, F. Bevilacqua, N. Shah, D. Jakubowski, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, and B. J. Tromberg, "Sources of absorption and scattering contrast for near infrared optical mammography," Acad. Radiol. 8, 211-218 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hooft, G. W.

S. B. Colak, M. B. van der Mark, G. W. Hooft, J. H. Hoogenraad, E. S. van der Linden, and F. A. Kuijpers, "Clinical optical tomography and NIR spectroscopy for breast cancer detection," IEEE Quantum Electron. 5, 1143-1158 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoogenraad, J. H.

S. B. Colak, M. B. van der Mark, G. W. Hooft, J. H. Hoogenraad, E. S. van der Linden, and F. A. Kuijpers, "Clinical optical tomography and NIR spectroscopy for breast cancer detection," IEEE Quantum Electron. 5, 1143-1158 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsiang, D.

B. J. Tromberg, A. Cerussi, N. Shah, M. Compton, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and R. Mehta, "Diffuse optics in breast cancer: detecting tumours in pre-menopausal women and monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy," Breast Cancer Res. 7, 279-285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Intes, X.

X. Intes, J. Ripoll, Y. Chen, S. Nioka, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, "In vivo continuous-wave optical breast imaging enhanced with Indocyanine Green," Med. Phys. 30, 1039-1047 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jakubowski, D.

A. E. Cerussi, A. I. Berger, F. Bevilacqua, N. Shah, D. Jakubowski, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, and B. J. Tromberg, "Sources of absorption and scattering contrast for near infrared optical mammography," Acad. Radiol. 8, 211-218 (2001).
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Solomon, W. B.

Song, X.

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Characterization of hemoglobin, water and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 541-552 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, X. Song, S. Srinivasan, H. Dehghani, K. D. Paulsen, T. D. Tosteson, C. Kogel, S. Soho, and S. P. Poplack, "Near-infrared scattering spectrum differences between benign and malignant breast tumours measured in vivo with diffuse tomography," in OSA Biomedical Topical Meeting (2004).

Spinelli, L.

P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, A. Pifferi, F. Arpaia, G. Danesini, and R. Cubeddu, "Time-resolved optical mammography between 637 and 985 nm: clinical study on the detection and identification of breast lesions," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2469-2488 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, G. Danesini, and R. Cubeddu, "Characterization of female breast lesions from multi-wavelength time-resolved optical mammography," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2489-2502 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Taroni, G. Danesini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, and R. Cubeddu, "Clinical trial of time-resolved scanning optical mammography at 4 wavelengths between 683 and 975 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 464-473 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, S.

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Characterization of hemoglobin, water and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 541-552 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, X. Song, S. Srinivasan, H. Dehghani, K. D. Paulsen, T. D. Tosteson, C. Kogel, S. Soho, and S. P. Poplack, "Near-infrared scattering spectrum differences between benign and malignant breast tumours measured in vivo with diffuse tomography," in OSA Biomedical Topical Meeting (2004).

Stobel, J.

D. Grosenick, H. Wabnitz, K. T. Moesta, J. Mucke, M. Moller, C. Stroszczynski, J. Stobel, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Concentration and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin of 50 breast tumours determined by time-domain optical mammography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1165-1181 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stott, J. J.

Stroszczynski, C.

D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, M. Möller, J. Mucke, H. Wabnitz, B. Gabauer, C. Stroszczynski, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Time-domain scanning optical mammography: I. Recording and assessment of mammograms of 154 patients," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2429-2449 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Grosenick, H. Wabnitz, K. T. Moesta, J. Mucke, M. Moller, C. Stroszczynski, J. Stobel, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Concentration and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin of 50 breast tumours determined by time-domain optical mammography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1165-1181 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, H. Wabnitz, J. Mucke, C. Stroszczynski, R. Macdonlad, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Time-domain optical mammography: initial clinical results on detection and characterization of breast tumours," Appl. Opt. 42, 3170-3186 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. Tabar, M.-F. Yen, B. Vitak, H.-H. Chen, R. A. Smith, and S. W. Duffy, "Mammography service screening and mortality in breast cancer patients: 20-year follow-up before and after introduction of screening," Lancet 361, 1405-1410 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taroni, P.

L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, G. Danesini, and R. Cubeddu, "Characterization of female breast lesions from multi-wavelength time-resolved optical mammography," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2489-2502 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, A. Pifferi, F. Arpaia, G. Danesini, and R. Cubeddu, "Time-resolved optical mammography between 637 and 985 nm: clinical study on the detection and identification of breast lesions," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2469-2488 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Taroni, G. Danesini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, and R. Cubeddu, "Clinical trial of time-resolved scanning optical mammography at 4 wavelengths between 683 and 975 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 464-473 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Testorf, M.

Torricelli, A.

P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, A. Pifferi, F. Arpaia, G. Danesini, and R. Cubeddu, "Time-resolved optical mammography between 637 and 985 nm: clinical study on the detection and identification of breast lesions," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2469-2488 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, G. Danesini, and R. Cubeddu, "Characterization of female breast lesions from multi-wavelength time-resolved optical mammography," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2489-2502 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Taroni, G. Danesini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, and R. Cubeddu, "Clinical trial of time-resolved scanning optical mammography at 4 wavelengths between 683 and 975 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 464-473 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Characterization of hemoglobin, water and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 541-552 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, X. Song, S. Srinivasan, H. Dehghani, K. D. Paulsen, T. D. Tosteson, C. Kogel, S. Soho, and S. P. Poplack, "Near-infrared scattering spectrum differences between benign and malignant breast tumours measured in vivo with diffuse tomography," in OSA Biomedical Topical Meeting (2004).

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B. J. Tromberg, A. Cerussi, N. Shah, M. Compton, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and R. Mehta, "Diffuse optics in breast cancer: detecting tumours in pre-menopausal women and monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy," Breast Cancer Res. 7, 279-285 (2005).
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S. B. Colak, M. B. van der Mark, G. W. Hooft, J. H. Hoogenraad, E. S. van der Linden, and F. A. Kuijpers, "Clinical optical tomography and NIR spectroscopy for breast cancer detection," IEEE Quantum Electron. 5, 1143-1158 (1999).
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S. B. Colak, M. B. van der Mark, G. W. Hooft, J. H. Hoogenraad, E. S. van der Linden, and F. A. Kuijpers, "Clinical optical tomography and NIR spectroscopy for breast cancer detection," IEEE Quantum Electron. 5, 1143-1158 (1999).
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L. Tabar, M.-F. Yen, B. Vitak, H.-H. Chen, R. A. Smith, and S. W. Duffy, "Mammography service screening and mortality in breast cancer patients: 20-year follow-up before and after introduction of screening," Lancet 361, 1405-1410 (2003).
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M. A. Peters, D. R. Voegeli, and K. A. Scanlan, Breast Imaging (Churchill-Livingstone, 1989).

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D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, M. Möller, J. Mucke, H. Wabnitz, B. Gabauer, C. Stroszczynski, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Time-domain scanning optical mammography: I. Recording and assessment of mammograms of 154 patients," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2429-2449 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Grosenick, H. Wabnitz, K. T. Moesta, J. Mucke, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Time-domain scanning optical mammography: II. Optical properties and tissue parameters of 87 carcinomas," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2451-2468 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Grosenick, H. Wabnitz, K. T. Moesta, J. Mucke, M. Moller, C. Stroszczynski, J. Stobel, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Concentration and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin of 50 breast tumours determined by time-domain optical mammography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1165-1181 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, H. Wabnitz, J. Mucke, C. Stroszczynski, R. Macdonlad, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Time-domain optical mammography: initial clinical results on detection and characterization of breast tumours," Appl. Opt. 42, 3170-3186 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walker, S. A.

Wassermann, B.

D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, M. Möller, J. Mucke, H. Wabnitz, B. Gabauer, C. Stroszczynski, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Time-domain scanning optical mammography: I. Recording and assessment of mammograms of 154 patients," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2429-2449 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Grosenick, H. Wabnitz, K. T. Moesta, J. Mucke, M. Moller, C. Stroszczynski, J. Stobel, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Concentration and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin of 50 breast tumours determined by time-domain optical mammography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1165-1181 (2004).
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Wiener, R.

R. Wiener, R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, S. M. Crinivas, J. R. Saffer, R. Freifelder, J. S. Karp, A. G. Yodh, and S. D. Konecky, "Diffuse optical tomography and positron emission tomography of human breast," in Biomedical Optics Topical Meeting (2006).

Wilson, A. R. M.

R. W. Blamey, A. R. M. Wilson, and J. Patnick, "Screening for breast cancer," BMJ 689, 693 (2003).
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Wu, T.

O. Zhang, T. I. Brukilacchio, A. Li, J. J. Scott, T. Chaves, E. Hillman, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, E. Rafferty, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, "Coregistered tomographic x-ray and optical breast imaging: initial results," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024033 (2005).
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V. G. Peters, D. R. Wyman, M. S. Patterson, and G. L. Frank, "Optical properties of normal and diseased human breast tissue in the visible and near infrared," Phys. Med. Biol. 35, 1317-1334 (1990).
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Xie, C.

Y. Young, M. Shnall, S. Zhao, S. Orel, C. Xie, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. Solin, "Optical imaging of breast tumour by means of continuous waves," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 441, 227-232 (1997).

Yates, T. D.

T. D. Yates, J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, N. L. Everdell, S. R. Arridge, and M. Douek, "Optical tomography of the breast using a multi-channel time-resolved imager," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2503-2517 (2005).
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J. C. Hebden, T. D. Yates, A. Gibson, N. Everdell, S. R. Arridge, D. W. Chicken, M. Douek, and M. R. S. Keshtgar, "Monitoring recovery after laser surgery of the breast with optical tomography: a case study," Appl. Opt. 44, 1898-1904 (2005).
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T. D. Yates, J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, L. Enfield, N. L. Everdell, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, "Time-resolved optical mammography using a liquid coupled interface," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 054011 (2005).
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Yen, M.-F.

L. Tabar, M.-F. Yen, B. Vitak, H.-H. Chen, R. A. Smith, and S. W. Duffy, "Mammography service screening and mortality in breast cancer patients: 20-year follow-up before and after introduction of screening," Lancet 361, 1405-1410 (2003).
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Yodh, A. G.

R. Wiener, R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, S. M. Crinivas, J. R. Saffer, R. Freifelder, J. S. Karp, A. G. Yodh, and S. D. Konecky, "Diffuse optical tomography and positron emission tomography of human breast," in Biomedical Optics Topical Meeting (2006).

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czernieki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
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X. Intes, J. Ripoll, Y. Chen, S. Nioka, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, "In vivo continuous-wave optical breast imaging enhanced with Indocyanine Green," Med. Phys. 30, 1039-1047 (2003).
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J. P. Culver, R. Choe, M. J. Holboke, L. Zubkov, T. Durduran, A. Slemp, V. Ntziachristos, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain/continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 235-247 (2003).
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Young, Y.

Y. Young, M. Shnall, S. Zhao, S. Orel, C. Xie, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. Solin, "Optical imaging of breast tumour by means of continuous waves," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 441, 227-232 (1997).

Zhang, O.

O. Zhang, T. I. Brukilacchio, A. Li, J. J. Scott, T. Chaves, E. Hillman, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, E. Rafferty, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, "Coregistered tomographic x-ray and optical breast imaging: initial results," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024033 (2005).
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Zhang, Q.

Zhao, S.

Y. Young, M. Shnall, S. Zhao, S. Orel, C. Xie, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. Solin, "Optical imaging of breast tumour by means of continuous waves," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 441, 227-232 (1997).

Zubkov, L.

J. P. Culver, R. Choe, M. J. Holboke, L. Zubkov, T. Durduran, A. Slemp, V. Ntziachristos, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain/continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 235-247 (2003).
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Acad. Radiol. (1)

A. E. Cerussi, A. I. Berger, F. Bevilacqua, N. Shah, D. Jakubowski, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, and B. J. Tromberg, "Sources of absorption and scattering contrast for near infrared optical mammography," Acad. Radiol. 8, 211-218 (2001).
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Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (1)

Y. Young, M. Shnall, S. Zhao, S. Orel, C. Xie, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. Solin, "Optical imaging of breast tumour by means of continuous waves," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 441, 227-232 (1997).

Appl. Opt. (8)

A. Li, E. L. Miller, M. Kilmer, T. J. Brukilacchio, T. Chaves, J. J. Stott, Q. Zhang, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, "Tomographic optical breast imaging guided by three-dimensional mammography," Appl. Opt. 42, 5181-5190 (2003).
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C. H. Schmitz, D. P. Klemer, R. Hardin, M. S. Katz, Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, M. B. Levin, R. D. Levina, N. A. Franco, W. B. Solomon, and R. L. Barbour, "Design and implementation of dynamic near-infrared optical tomographic imaging instrumentation for simultaneous dual-breast measurements," Appl. Opt. 44, 2140-2152 (2005).
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X. Cheng, J. Mao, R. Bush, D. B. Kopans, R. H. Moore, and M. Chorlton, "Breast cancer detection by mapping hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation," Appl. Opt. 42, 6412-6421 (2003).
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T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, E. D. Gerety, S. B. Poplack, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Spectroscopic diffuse optical tomography for the quantitative assessment of hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation in breast tissue," Appl. Opt. 38, 5480-5490 (1999).
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H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Multiwavelength three-dimensional near-infrared tomography of the breast: initial simulation, phantom and clinical results," Appl. Opt. 42, 135-145 (2003).
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J. C. Hebden, T. D. Yates, A. Gibson, N. Everdell, S. R. Arridge, D. W. Chicken, M. Douek, and M. R. S. Keshtgar, "Monitoring recovery after laser surgery of the breast with optical tomography: a case study," Appl. Opt. 44, 1898-1904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, H. Wabnitz, J. Mucke, C. Stroszczynski, R. Macdonlad, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Time-domain optical mammography: initial clinical results on detection and characterization of breast tumours," Appl. Opt. 42, 3170-3186 (2003).
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S. Fantini, S. A. Walker, M. A. Franeschini, M. Kaschke, P. Schlag, and K. T. Moesta, "Assessment of the size, position and optical properties of breast tumors in vivo by noninvasive optical properties," Appl. Opt. 37, 1982-1989 (1998).
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R. W. Blamey, A. R. M. Wilson, and J. Patnick, "Screening for breast cancer," BMJ 689, 693 (2003).
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M. D. Schnall, "Application of magnetic resonance imaging to early detection of breast cancer," Breast Cancer Res. 3, 17-21 (2001).
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D. D. Pavic, M. D. Koomen, C. D. Kuzmiak, and E. D. Pisano, "Ultrasound in the management of breast disease," Curr. Womens Health Rep. 3, 156-164 (2003).
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IEEE Quantum Electron. (1)

S. B. Colak, M. B. van der Mark, G. W. Hooft, J. H. Hoogenraad, E. S. van der Linden, and F. A. Kuijpers, "Clinical optical tomography and NIR spectroscopy for breast cancer detection," IEEE Quantum Electron. 5, 1143-1158 (1999).
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Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. (1)

S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, H. Dehghani, and D. T. Delpy, "A method for 3D time-resolved optical tomography," Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 11, 2-11 (2000).
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J. Biomed. Opt. (5)

O. Zhang, T. I. Brukilacchio, A. Li, J. J. Scott, T. Chaves, E. Hillman, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, E. Rafferty, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, "Coregistered tomographic x-ray and optical breast imaging: initial results," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024033 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. D. Yates, J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, L. Enfield, N. L. Everdell, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, "Time-resolved optical mammography using a liquid coupled interface," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 054011 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Characterization of hemoglobin, water and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 541-552 (2004).
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S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, T. O. McBride, and K. D. Paulsen, "Quantative analysis of near-infrared tomography: sensitivity to the tissue-simulating precalibration phantom," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 308-315 (2003).
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P. Taroni, G. Danesini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, and R. Cubeddu, "Clinical trial of time-resolved scanning optical mammography at 4 wavelengths between 683 and 975 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 464-473 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lancet (1)

L. Tabar, M.-F. Yen, B. Vitak, H.-H. Chen, R. A. Smith, and S. W. Duffy, "Mammography service screening and mortality in breast cancer patients: 20-year follow-up before and after introduction of screening," Lancet 361, 1405-1410 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Phys. (3)

J. P. Culver, R. Choe, M. J. Holboke, L. Zubkov, T. Durduran, A. Slemp, V. Ntziachristos, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography in the parallel plane transmission geometry: evaluation of a hybrid frequency domain/continuous wave clinical system for breast imaging," Med. Phys. 30, 235-247 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czernieki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Intes, J. Ripoll, Y. Chen, S. Nioka, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, "In vivo continuous-wave optical breast imaging enhanced with Indocyanine Green," Med. Phys. 30, 1039-1047 (2003).
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Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (8)

D. Grosenick, H. Wabnitz, K. T. Moesta, J. Mucke, M. Moller, C. Stroszczynski, J. Stobel, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Concentration and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin of 50 breast tumours determined by time-domain optical mammography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1165-1181 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. D. Yates, J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, N. L. Everdell, S. R. Arridge, and M. Douek, "Optical tomography of the breast using a multi-channel time-resolved imager," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2503-2517 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Peters, D. R. Wyman, M. S. Patterson, and G. L. Frank, "Optical properties of normal and diseased human breast tissue in the visible and near infrared," Phys. Med. Biol. 35, 1317-1334 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, M. Möller, J. Mucke, H. Wabnitz, B. Gabauer, C. Stroszczynski, B. Wassermann, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Time-domain scanning optical mammography: I. Recording and assessment of mammograms of 154 patients," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2429-2449 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Grosenick, H. Wabnitz, K. T. Moesta, J. Mucke, P. M. Schlag, and H. Rinneberg, "Time-domain scanning optical mammography: II. Optical properties and tissue parameters of 87 carcinomas," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2451-2468 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, A. Pifferi, F. Arpaia, G. Danesini, and R. Cubeddu, "Time-resolved optical mammography between 637 and 985 nm: clinical study on the detection and identification of breast lesions," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2469-2488 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, G. Danesini, and R. Cubeddu, "Characterization of female breast lesions from multi-wavelength time-resolved optical mammography," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2489-2502 (2005).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fluid-coupled patient interface for the 3D optical breast imaging. The patient lies with her breast pedant in a hemispherical cup filled with scattering fluid.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fluid-filled cup viewed from above.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Quadrants of the breast used to identify lesion locations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Absorption and scatter images from a 53 yr old woman with a large cancer in her left breast behind the nipple. (b) Absorption and scatter images of a 52 yr old woman with breast cancer. MRI showed a distortion in the right breast and increased stroma in the right-upper and lower-outer quadrants of the breast. In the left breast there is a malignant mass in the left-upper-outer quadrant. (c) Absorption and scatter images from a 36 yr old woman with a cancerous lesion in the upper-outer quadrant of her right breast.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Scatter, blood volume, and blood oxygen saturation images from a 55 yr old woman with a 13   mm diameter intracystic carcinoma in the upper-outer quadrant of her right breast, in line with and 3   cm posterior to the nipple. (b) Scatter, blood volume, and blood oxygen saturation images from a 45 yr old woman with a carcinoma in the lower-inner side of her left breast.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Images of a 48 yr old woman with an 11   mm × 5   mm × 7   mm fibroadenoma in the upper-outer quadrant of her right breast. (b) Images of a 29 yr old with a fibroadenoma in the lower-inner quadrant of her right breast. The ultrasound revealed a lump of 8   mm × 11   mm × 5   mm . (c) Images of a 27 yr old woman with three cysts in her left breast. The cyst diameters obtained from ultrasound were 29, 15, and 9   mm .

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Scoring System a

Equations (3)

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rStO 2 = [ HbO 2 ] [ HbO 2 ] + [ Hb ] ,
rBV = volume   of   whole   blood   in   tissue total   tissue   volume ,
rBV = [ HbO 2 ] + [ Hb ] [ Hb b ] × 100.

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