Abstract

During the past decade, optical imaging combined with tomographic approaches has proved its potential in offering quantitative three-dimensional spatial maps of chromophore or fluorophore concentration in vivo. Due to its direct application in biology and biomedicine, diffuse optical tomography (DOT) and its fluorescence counterpart, fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT), have benefited from an increase in devoted research and new experimental and theoretical developments, giving rise to a new imaging modality. The most recent advances in FMT and DOT are based on the capability of collecting large data sets by using CCDs as detectors, and on the ability to include multiple projections through recently developed noncontact approaches. For these to be implemented, we have developed an imaging setup that enables three-dimensional imaging of arbitrary shapes in fluorescence or absorption mode that is appropriate for small animal imaging. This is achieved by implementing a noncontact approach both for sources and detectors and coregistering surface geometry measurements using the same CCD camera. A thresholded shadowgrammetry approach is applied to the geometry measurements to retrieve the surface mesh. We present the evaluation of the system and method in recovering three-dimensional surfaces from phantom data and live mice. The approach is used to map the measured in vivo fluorescence data onto the tissue surface by making use of the free-space propagation equations, as well as to reconstruct fluorescence concentrations inside highly scattering tissuelike phantom samples. Finally, the potential use of this setup for in vivo small animal imaging and its impact on biomedical research is discussed.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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D. J. Lee, X. Q. Xu, J. Eifert, and P. C. Zhan, "Area and volume measurements of objects with irregluar shapes using multiple silhouettes," Opt. Eng. 45, 027202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Soubret and V. Ntziachristos, "Fluorescence molecular tomography in the presence of background fluorescence," Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 3983-4001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

J. R. Walls, J. G. Sled, J. Sharpe, and R. M. Henkelman, "Correction of artefacts in optical projection tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 4645-4665 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Soubret, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Accuracy of fluorescent tomography in the presence of heterogeneities: study of the normalized Born ratio," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 1377-1386 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Turner, G. Zacharakis, A. Soubret, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Complete-angle projection diffuse optical tomography by use of early photons," Opt. Lett. 30, 409-411 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zacharakis, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "Fluorescent protein tomography scanner for small animal imaging," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 878-885 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, "Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging," Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313-320 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (8)

V. Ntziachristos, E. A. Schellenberger, J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, E. Graves, A. Bogdanov, Jr., L. Josephson, and R. Weissleder, "Visualization of antitumor treatment by means of fluorescence molecular tomography with an annexin V-Cy5.5 conjugate," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 12294-12299 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. C. Shaner, R. E. Campbell, P. A. Steinbach, B. N. G. Giepmans, A. E. Palmer, and R. Y. Tsien, "Improved monomeric red, orange and yellow fluorescent proteins derived from Discosoma sp. red fluorescent proteins," Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 1567-1572 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Schulz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Experimental fluorescence tomography of tissues with noncontact measurements," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 23, 492-500 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Sharpe, "Optical projection tomography," Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 6, 209-228 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1117-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. E. Graves, J. P. Culver, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "Singular-value analysis and optimization of experimental parameters in fluorescence molecular tomography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 231-241 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ripoll and V. Ntziachristos, "Imaging scattering media from a distance: theory and applications of non-contact optical tomography," Mod. Phys. Lett. B 18, 1403-1431 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Markel and J. C. Schotland, "Symmetries, inversion formulas, and image reconstruction for optical tomography," Phys. Rev. E 70, 056616 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (6)

J. Ripoll, R. B. Schulz, and V. Ntziachristos, "Free-space propagation of diffuse light: theory and experiments," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 103901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Tognola, M. Parazzini, C. Svelto, P. Ravazzani, and F. Grandori, "A fast and reliable system for 3D surface acquisition and reconstruction," Image Vis. Comput. 21, 295-305 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. de Boer, A. Williams, G. Skavdis, N. Harker, M. Coles, M. Tolaini, T. Norton, K. Williams, K. Roderick, A. Potocnik, and D. Kioussis, "Transgenic mice with hematopoeitic and lymphoid specific expression of Cre," Eur. J. Immunol. 33, 314-325 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ripoll and V. Ntziachristos, "Iterative boundary method for diffuse optical tomography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1103-1110 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Schulz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Noncontact optical tomography of turbid media," Opt. Lett. 28, 1701-1703 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Weissleder and V. Ntziachristos, "Shedding light onto live molecular targets," Nat. Med. 9, 123-128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (7)

V. Ntziachristos, C. Bremer, E. E. Graves, J. Ripoll, and R. Weissleder, "In vivo tomographic imaging of near-infrared fluorescent probes," Molecular Imaging 1, 82-88 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, C. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo," Nat. Med. 8, 757-760 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Hoffman, "Green fluorescent protein imaging of tumour growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis in mouse models," Lancet Oncology 3, 546-556 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos and R. Weissleder, "Charge-coupled-based scanner for tomography of fluorescent near-infrared probes in turbid media," Med. Phys. 29, 803-809 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. T. Whitaker and V. Elangovan, "A direct approach to estimating surfaces in tomographic data," Med. Image Anal. 6, 235-249 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Sharpe, U. Ahlgren, P. Perry, B. Hill, A. Ross, J. Hecksher-Sørensen, R. Baldock, and D. Davidson, "Optical projection tomography as a tool for 3D microscopy and gene expression studies," Science 296, 541-545 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ripoll, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "Fast analytical approximation for arbitrary geometries in diffuse optical tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 527-529 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

J. Culver, V. Ntziachristos, M. Holboke, and A. Yodh, "Optimization of optode arrangements for diffuse optical tomography: A singular value analysis," Opt. Lett. 26, 701-703 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos and R. Weissleder, "Experimental three-dimensional fluorescence reconstruction of diffuse media using a normalized Born approximation," Opt. Lett. 26, 893-895 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ripoll, V. Ntziachristos, R. Carminati, and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, "The Kirchhoff approximation for diffusive waves," Phys. Rev. E 64, 051917 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, F. E. Schmidt, D. T. Delpy, and S. R. Arridge, "Time resolved optical tomography of the human forearm," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1117-1130 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

R. Y. Tsien, "The green fluorescent protein," Annu. Rev. Biochem. 67, 509-544 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

D. Rypl and P. Krysl, "Triangulation of 3D surfaces," Eng. Comput. 13, 87-98 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ahlgren, U.

J. Sharpe, U. Ahlgren, P. Perry, B. Hill, A. Ross, J. Hecksher-Sørensen, R. Baldock, and D. Davidson, "Optical projection tomography as a tool for 3D microscopy and gene expression studies," Science 296, 541-545 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arridge, S. R.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1117-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, F. E. Schmidt, D. T. Delpy, and S. R. Arridge, "Time resolved optical tomography of the human forearm," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1117-1130 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Austin, T.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1117-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baldock, R.

J. Sharpe, U. Ahlgren, P. Perry, B. Hill, A. Ross, J. Hecksher-Sørensen, R. Baldock, and D. Davidson, "Optical projection tomography as a tool for 3D microscopy and gene expression studies," Science 296, 541-545 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bogdanov, A.

V. Ntziachristos, E. A. Schellenberger, J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, E. Graves, A. Bogdanov, Jr., L. Josephson, and R. Weissleder, "Visualization of antitumor treatment by means of fluorescence molecular tomography with an annexin V-Cy5.5 conjugate," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 12294-12299 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).
[PubMed]

Bremer, C.

V. Ntziachristos, C. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo," Nat. Med. 8, 757-760 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, C. Bremer, E. E. Graves, J. Ripoll, and R. Weissleder, "In vivo tomographic imaging of near-infrared fluorescent probes," Molecular Imaging 1, 82-88 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, R. E.

N. C. Shaner, R. E. Campbell, P. A. Steinbach, B. N. G. Giepmans, A. E. Palmer, and R. Y. Tsien, "Improved monomeric red, orange and yellow fluorescent proteins derived from Discosoma sp. red fluorescent proteins," Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 1567-1572 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carminati, R.

J. Ripoll, V. Ntziachristos, R. Carminati, and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, "The Kirchhoff approximation for diffusive waves," Phys. Rev. E 64, 051917 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coles, M.

J. de Boer, A. Williams, G. Skavdis, N. Harker, M. Coles, M. Tolaini, T. Norton, K. Williams, K. Roderick, A. Potocnik, and D. Kioussis, "Transgenic mice with hematopoeitic and lymphoid specific expression of Cre," Eur. J. Immunol. 33, 314-325 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Culver, J.

Culver, J. P.

Davidson, D.

J. Sharpe, U. Ahlgren, P. Perry, B. Hill, A. Ross, J. Hecksher-Sørensen, R. Baldock, and D. Davidson, "Optical projection tomography as a tool for 3D microscopy and gene expression studies," Science 296, 541-545 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J.

J. de Boer, A. Williams, G. Skavdis, N. Harker, M. Coles, M. Tolaini, T. Norton, K. Williams, K. Roderick, A. Potocnik, and D. Kioussis, "Transgenic mice with hematopoeitic and lymphoid specific expression of Cre," Eur. J. Immunol. 33, 314-325 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dehghani, H.

E. M. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, F. E. Schmidt, D. T. Delpy, and S. R. Arridge, "Time resolved optical tomography of the human forearm," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1117-1130 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delpy, D. T.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1117-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, F. E. Schmidt, D. T. Delpy, and S. R. Arridge, "Time resolved optical tomography of the human forearm," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1117-1130 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eifert, J.

D. J. Lee, X. Q. Xu, J. Eifert, and P. C. Zhan, "Area and volume measurements of objects with irregluar shapes using multiple silhouettes," Opt. Eng. 45, 027202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elangovan, V.

R. T. Whitaker and V. Elangovan, "A direct approach to estimating surfaces in tomographic data," Med. Image Anal. 6, 235-249 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Everdell, N.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1117-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, A.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1117-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giepmans, B. N. G.

N. C. Shaner, R. E. Campbell, P. A. Steinbach, B. N. G. Giepmans, A. E. Palmer, and R. Y. Tsien, "Improved monomeric red, orange and yellow fluorescent proteins derived from Discosoma sp. red fluorescent proteins," Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 1567-1572 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grandori, F.

G. Tognola, M. Parazzini, C. Svelto, P. Ravazzani, and F. Grandori, "A fast and reliable system for 3D surface acquisition and reconstruction," Image Vis. Comput. 21, 295-305 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graves, E.

V. Ntziachristos, E. A. Schellenberger, J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, E. Graves, A. Bogdanov, Jr., L. Josephson, and R. Weissleder, "Visualization of antitumor treatment by means of fluorescence molecular tomography with an annexin V-Cy5.5 conjugate," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 12294-12299 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graves, E. E.

E. E. Graves, J. P. Culver, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "Singular-value analysis and optimization of experimental parameters in fluorescence molecular tomography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 231-241 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, C. Bremer, E. E. Graves, J. Ripoll, and R. Weissleder, "In vivo tomographic imaging of near-infrared fluorescent probes," Molecular Imaging 1, 82-88 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harker, N.

J. de Boer, A. Williams, G. Skavdis, N. Harker, M. Coles, M. Tolaini, T. Norton, K. Williams, K. Roderick, A. Potocnik, and D. Kioussis, "Transgenic mice with hematopoeitic and lymphoid specific expression of Cre," Eur. J. Immunol. 33, 314-325 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hebden, J. C.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1117-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, F. E. Schmidt, D. T. Delpy, and S. R. Arridge, "Time resolved optical tomography of the human forearm," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1117-1130 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hecksher-Sørensen, J.

J. Sharpe, U. Ahlgren, P. Perry, B. Hill, A. Ross, J. Hecksher-Sørensen, R. Baldock, and D. Davidson, "Optical projection tomography as a tool for 3D microscopy and gene expression studies," Science 296, 541-545 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henkelman, R. M.

J. R. Walls, J. G. Sled, J. Sharpe, and R. M. Henkelman, "Correction of artefacts in optical projection tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 4645-4665 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, B.

J. Sharpe, U. Ahlgren, P. Perry, B. Hill, A. Ross, J. Hecksher-Sørensen, R. Baldock, and D. Davidson, "Optical projection tomography as a tool for 3D microscopy and gene expression studies," Science 296, 541-545 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillman, E. M.

E. M. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, F. E. Schmidt, D. T. Delpy, and S. R. Arridge, "Time resolved optical tomography of the human forearm," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1117-1130 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffman, R. M.

R. M. Hoffman, "Green fluorescent protein imaging of tumour growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis in mouse models," Lancet Oncology 3, 546-556 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holboke, M.

Ishimaru, A.

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, 1978), Vol. 1.

Josephson, L.

V. Ntziachristos, E. A. Schellenberger, J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, E. Graves, A. Bogdanov, Jr., L. Josephson, and R. Weissleder, "Visualization of antitumor treatment by means of fluorescence molecular tomography with an annexin V-Cy5.5 conjugate," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 12294-12299 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kak, A.

A. Kak and M. Slaney, Principles of Computerized Tomographic Imaging (IEEE, 1988).
[PubMed]

Kioussis, D.

J. de Boer, A. Williams, G. Skavdis, N. Harker, M. Coles, M. Tolaini, T. Norton, K. Williams, K. Roderick, A. Potocnik, and D. Kioussis, "Transgenic mice with hematopoeitic and lymphoid specific expression of Cre," Eur. J. Immunol. 33, 314-325 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krysl, P.

D. Rypl and P. Krysl, "Triangulation of 3D surfaces," Eng. Comput. 13, 87-98 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C.

B. W. Rice, H. Xu, and C. Kuo, "Surface construction using combined photographic and structured light information," U.S. patent application 20060268153 (4 May 2006).

Lee, D. J.

D. J. Lee, X. Q. Xu, J. Eifert, and P. C. Zhan, "Area and volume measurements of objects with irregluar shapes using multiple silhouettes," Opt. Eng. 45, 027202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Markel, V. A.

V. A. Markel and J. C. Schotland, "Symmetries, inversion formulas, and image reconstruction for optical tomography," Phys. Rev. E 70, 056616 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meek, J. H.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1117-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nieto-Vesperinas, M.

J. Ripoll, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "Fast analytical approximation for arbitrary geometries in diffuse optical tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 527-529 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Ripoll, V. Ntziachristos, R. Carminati, and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, "The Kirchhoff approximation for diffusive waves," Phys. Rev. E 64, 051917 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norton, T.

J. de Boer, A. Williams, G. Skavdis, N. Harker, M. Coles, M. Tolaini, T. Norton, K. Williams, K. Roderick, A. Potocnik, and D. Kioussis, "Transgenic mice with hematopoeitic and lymphoid specific expression of Cre," Eur. J. Immunol. 33, 314-325 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ntziachristos, V.

A. Soubret and V. Ntziachristos, "Fluorescence molecular tomography in the presence of background fluorescence," Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 3983-4001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, "Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging," Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313-320 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Turner, G. Zacharakis, A. Soubret, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Complete-angle projection diffuse optical tomography by use of early photons," Opt. Lett. 30, 409-411 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zacharakis, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "Fluorescent protein tomography scanner for small animal imaging," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 878-885 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Soubret, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Accuracy of fluorescent tomography in the presence of heterogeneities: study of the normalized Born ratio," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 1377-1386 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, E. A. Schellenberger, J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, E. Graves, A. Bogdanov, Jr., L. Josephson, and R. Weissleder, "Visualization of antitumor treatment by means of fluorescence molecular tomography with an annexin V-Cy5.5 conjugate," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 12294-12299 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Schulz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Experimental fluorescence tomography of tissues with noncontact measurements," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 23, 492-500 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. E. Graves, J. P. Culver, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "Singular-value analysis and optimization of experimental parameters in fluorescence molecular tomography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 231-241 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ripoll and V. Ntziachristos, "Imaging scattering media from a distance: theory and applications of non-contact optical tomography," Mod. Phys. Lett. B 18, 1403-1431 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Weissleder and V. Ntziachristos, "Shedding light onto live molecular targets," Nat. Med. 9, 123-128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ripoll and V. Ntziachristos, "Iterative boundary method for diffuse optical tomography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1103-1110 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Schulz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Noncontact optical tomography of turbid media," Opt. Lett. 28, 1701-1703 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ripoll, R. B. Schulz, and V. Ntziachristos, "Free-space propagation of diffuse light: theory and experiments," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 103901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, C. Bremer, E. E. Graves, J. Ripoll, and R. Weissleder, "In vivo tomographic imaging of near-infrared fluorescent probes," Molecular Imaging 1, 82-88 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos and R. Weissleder, "Charge-coupled-based scanner for tomography of fluorescent near-infrared probes in turbid media," Med. Phys. 29, 803-809 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, C. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo," Nat. Med. 8, 757-760 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ripoll, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "Fast analytical approximation for arbitrary geometries in diffuse optical tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 527-529 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Ripoll, V. Ntziachristos, R. Carminati, and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, "The Kirchhoff approximation for diffusive waves," Phys. Rev. E 64, 051917 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Culver, V. Ntziachristos, M. Holboke, and A. Yodh, "Optimization of optode arrangements for diffuse optical tomography: A singular value analysis," Opt. Lett. 26, 701-703 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos and R. Weissleder, "Experimental three-dimensional fluorescence reconstruction of diffuse media using a normalized Born approximation," Opt. Lett. 26, 893-895 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palmer, A. E.

N. C. Shaner, R. E. Campbell, P. A. Steinbach, B. N. G. Giepmans, A. E. Palmer, and R. Y. Tsien, "Improved monomeric red, orange and yellow fluorescent proteins derived from Discosoma sp. red fluorescent proteins," Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 1567-1572 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parazzini, M.

G. Tognola, M. Parazzini, C. Svelto, P. Ravazzani, and F. Grandori, "A fast and reliable system for 3D surface acquisition and reconstruction," Image Vis. Comput. 21, 295-305 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perry, P.

J. Sharpe, U. Ahlgren, P. Perry, B. Hill, A. Ross, J. Hecksher-Sørensen, R. Baldock, and D. Davidson, "Optical projection tomography as a tool for 3D microscopy and gene expression studies," Science 296, 541-545 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potocnik, A.

J. de Boer, A. Williams, G. Skavdis, N. Harker, M. Coles, M. Tolaini, T. Norton, K. Williams, K. Roderick, A. Potocnik, and D. Kioussis, "Transgenic mice with hematopoeitic and lymphoid specific expression of Cre," Eur. J. Immunol. 33, 314-325 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ravazzani, P.

G. Tognola, M. Parazzini, C. Svelto, P. Ravazzani, and F. Grandori, "A fast and reliable system for 3D surface acquisition and reconstruction," Image Vis. Comput. 21, 295-305 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rice, B. W.

B. W. Rice, H. Xu, and C. Kuo, "Surface construction using combined photographic and structured light information," U.S. patent application 20060268153 (4 May 2006).

Ripoll, J.

G. Zacharakis, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "Fluorescent protein tomography scanner for small animal imaging," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 878-885 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Turner, G. Zacharakis, A. Soubret, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Complete-angle projection diffuse optical tomography by use of early photons," Opt. Lett. 30, 409-411 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, "Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging," Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313-320 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Soubret, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Accuracy of fluorescent tomography in the presence of heterogeneities: study of the normalized Born ratio," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 1377-1386 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, E. A. Schellenberger, J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, E. Graves, A. Bogdanov, Jr., L. Josephson, and R. Weissleder, "Visualization of antitumor treatment by means of fluorescence molecular tomography with an annexin V-Cy5.5 conjugate," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 12294-12299 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Schulz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Experimental fluorescence tomography of tissues with noncontact measurements," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 23, 492-500 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. E. Graves, J. P. Culver, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "Singular-value analysis and optimization of experimental parameters in fluorescence molecular tomography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 231-241 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ripoll and V. Ntziachristos, "Imaging scattering media from a distance: theory and applications of non-contact optical tomography," Mod. Phys. Lett. B 18, 1403-1431 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Ripoll and V. Ntziachristos, "Iterative boundary method for diffuse optical tomography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1103-1110 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Schulz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Noncontact optical tomography of turbid media," Opt. Lett. 28, 1701-1703 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ripoll, R. B. Schulz, and V. Ntziachristos, "Free-space propagation of diffuse light: theory and experiments," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 103901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, C. Bremer, E. E. Graves, J. Ripoll, and R. Weissleder, "In vivo tomographic imaging of near-infrared fluorescent probes," Molecular Imaging 1, 82-88 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ripoll, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "Fast analytical approximation for arbitrary geometries in diffuse optical tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 527-529 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Ripoll, V. Ntziachristos, R. Carminati, and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, "The Kirchhoff approximation for diffusive waves," Phys. Rev. E 64, 051917 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roderick, K.

J. de Boer, A. Williams, G. Skavdis, N. Harker, M. Coles, M. Tolaini, T. Norton, K. Williams, K. Roderick, A. Potocnik, and D. Kioussis, "Transgenic mice with hematopoeitic and lymphoid specific expression of Cre," Eur. J. Immunol. 33, 314-325 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ross, A.

J. Sharpe, U. Ahlgren, P. Perry, B. Hill, A. Ross, J. Hecksher-Sørensen, R. Baldock, and D. Davidson, "Optical projection tomography as a tool for 3D microscopy and gene expression studies," Science 296, 541-545 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rypl, D.

D. Rypl and P. Krysl, "Triangulation of 3D surfaces," Eng. Comput. 13, 87-98 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schellenberger, E. A.

V. Ntziachristos, E. A. Schellenberger, J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, E. Graves, A. Bogdanov, Jr., L. Josephson, and R. Weissleder, "Visualization of antitumor treatment by means of fluorescence molecular tomography with an annexin V-Cy5.5 conjugate," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 12294-12299 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, F. E.

E. M. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, F. E. Schmidt, D. T. Delpy, and S. R. Arridge, "Time resolved optical tomography of the human forearm," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1117-1130 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schotland, J. C.

V. A. Markel and J. C. Schotland, "Symmetries, inversion formulas, and image reconstruction for optical tomography," Phys. Rev. E 70, 056616 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schulz, R. B.

R. B. Schulz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Experimental fluorescence tomography of tissues with noncontact measurements," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 23, 492-500 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ripoll, R. B. Schulz, and V. Ntziachristos, "Free-space propagation of diffuse light: theory and experiments," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 103901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Schulz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Noncontact optical tomography of turbid media," Opt. Lett. 28, 1701-1703 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweiger, M.

E. M. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, F. E. Schmidt, D. T. Delpy, and S. R. Arridge, "Time resolved optical tomography of the human forearm," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1117-1130 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaner, N. C.

N. C. Shaner, R. E. Campbell, P. A. Steinbach, B. N. G. Giepmans, A. E. Palmer, and R. Y. Tsien, "Improved monomeric red, orange and yellow fluorescent proteins derived from Discosoma sp. red fluorescent proteins," Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 1567-1572 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharpe, J.

J. R. Walls, J. G. Sled, J. Sharpe, and R. M. Henkelman, "Correction of artefacts in optical projection tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 4645-4665 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Sharpe, "Optical projection tomography," Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 6, 209-228 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Sharpe, U. Ahlgren, P. Perry, B. Hill, A. Ross, J. Hecksher-Sørensen, R. Baldock, and D. Davidson, "Optical projection tomography as a tool for 3D microscopy and gene expression studies," Science 296, 541-545 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skavdis, G.

J. de Boer, A. Williams, G. Skavdis, N. Harker, M. Coles, M. Tolaini, T. Norton, K. Williams, K. Roderick, A. Potocnik, and D. Kioussis, "Transgenic mice with hematopoeitic and lymphoid specific expression of Cre," Eur. J. Immunol. 33, 314-325 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slaney, M.

A. Kak and M. Slaney, Principles of Computerized Tomographic Imaging (IEEE, 1988).
[PubMed]

Sled, J. G.

J. R. Walls, J. G. Sled, J. Sharpe, and R. M. Henkelman, "Correction of artefacts in optical projection tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 4645-4665 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soubret, A.

A. Soubret and V. Ntziachristos, "Fluorescence molecular tomography in the presence of background fluorescence," Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 3983-4001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Turner, G. Zacharakis, A. Soubret, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Complete-angle projection diffuse optical tomography by use of early photons," Opt. Lett. 30, 409-411 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Soubret, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Accuracy of fluorescent tomography in the presence of heterogeneities: study of the normalized Born ratio," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 1377-1386 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinbach, P. A.

N. C. Shaner, R. E. Campbell, P. A. Steinbach, B. N. G. Giepmans, A. E. Palmer, and R. Y. Tsien, "Improved monomeric red, orange and yellow fluorescent proteins derived from Discosoma sp. red fluorescent proteins," Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 1567-1572 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svelto, C.

G. Tognola, M. Parazzini, C. Svelto, P. Ravazzani, and F. Grandori, "A fast and reliable system for 3D surface acquisition and reconstruction," Image Vis. Comput. 21, 295-305 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tognola, G.

G. Tognola, M. Parazzini, C. Svelto, P. Ravazzani, and F. Grandori, "A fast and reliable system for 3D surface acquisition and reconstruction," Image Vis. Comput. 21, 295-305 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tolaini, M.

J. de Boer, A. Williams, G. Skavdis, N. Harker, M. Coles, M. Tolaini, T. Norton, K. Williams, K. Roderick, A. Potocnik, and D. Kioussis, "Transgenic mice with hematopoeitic and lymphoid specific expression of Cre," Eur. J. Immunol. 33, 314-325 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsien, R. Y.

N. C. Shaner, R. E. Campbell, P. A. Steinbach, B. N. G. Giepmans, A. E. Palmer, and R. Y. Tsien, "Improved monomeric red, orange and yellow fluorescent proteins derived from Discosoma sp. red fluorescent proteins," Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 1567-1572 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Y. Tsien, "The green fluorescent protein," Annu. Rev. Biochem. 67, 509-544 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tung, C.

V. Ntziachristos, C. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo," Nat. Med. 8, 757-760 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner, G. M.

Walls, J. R.

J. R. Walls, J. G. Sled, J. Sharpe, and R. M. Henkelman, "Correction of artefacts in optical projection tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 4645-4665 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, "Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging," Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313-320 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weissleder, R.

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, "Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging," Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313-320 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zacharakis, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "Fluorescent protein tomography scanner for small animal imaging," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 878-885 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. E. Graves, J. P. Culver, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "Singular-value analysis and optimization of experimental parameters in fluorescence molecular tomography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 231-241 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, E. A. Schellenberger, J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, E. Graves, A. Bogdanov, Jr., L. Josephson, and R. Weissleder, "Visualization of antitumor treatment by means of fluorescence molecular tomography with an annexin V-Cy5.5 conjugate," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 12294-12299 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Weissleder and V. Ntziachristos, "Shedding light onto live molecular targets," Nat. Med. 9, 123-128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, C. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo," Nat. Med. 8, 757-760 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ripoll, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "Fast analytical approximation for arbitrary geometries in diffuse optical tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 527-529 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, C. Bremer, E. E. Graves, J. Ripoll, and R. Weissleder, "In vivo tomographic imaging of near-infrared fluorescent probes," Molecular Imaging 1, 82-88 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos and R. Weissleder, "Charge-coupled-based scanner for tomography of fluorescent near-infrared probes in turbid media," Med. Phys. 29, 803-809 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos and R. Weissleder, "Experimental three-dimensional fluorescence reconstruction of diffuse media using a normalized Born approximation," Opt. Lett. 26, 893-895 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitaker, R. T.

R. T. Whitaker and V. Elangovan, "A direct approach to estimating surfaces in tomographic data," Med. Image Anal. 6, 235-249 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, A.

J. de Boer, A. Williams, G. Skavdis, N. Harker, M. Coles, M. Tolaini, T. Norton, K. Williams, K. Roderick, A. Potocnik, and D. Kioussis, "Transgenic mice with hematopoeitic and lymphoid specific expression of Cre," Eur. J. Immunol. 33, 314-325 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, K.

J. de Boer, A. Williams, G. Skavdis, N. Harker, M. Coles, M. Tolaini, T. Norton, K. Williams, K. Roderick, A. Potocnik, and D. Kioussis, "Transgenic mice with hematopoeitic and lymphoid specific expression of Cre," Eur. J. Immunol. 33, 314-325 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).
[PubMed]

Wyatt, J. S.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1117-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

B. W. Rice, H. Xu, and C. Kuo, "Surface construction using combined photographic and structured light information," U.S. patent application 20060268153 (4 May 2006).

Xu, X. Q.

D. J. Lee, X. Q. Xu, J. Eifert, and P. C. Zhan, "Area and volume measurements of objects with irregluar shapes using multiple silhouettes," Opt. Eng. 45, 027202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yessayan, D.

V. Ntziachristos, E. A. Schellenberger, J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, E. Graves, A. Bogdanov, Jr., L. Josephson, and R. Weissleder, "Visualization of antitumor treatment by means of fluorescence molecular tomography with an annexin V-Cy5.5 conjugate," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 12294-12299 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yodh, A.

Yusof, R. M.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1117-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zacharakis, G.

G. Zacharakis, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "Fluorescent protein tomography scanner for small animal imaging," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 878-885 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Turner, G. Zacharakis, A. Soubret, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Complete-angle projection diffuse optical tomography by use of early photons," Opt. Lett. 30, 409-411 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhan, P. C.

D. J. Lee, X. Q. Xu, J. Eifert, and P. C. Zhan, "Area and volume measurements of objects with irregluar shapes using multiple silhouettes," Opt. Eng. 45, 027202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Biochem. (1)

R. Y. Tsien, "The green fluorescent protein," Annu. Rev. Biochem. 67, 509-544 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (1)

J. Sharpe, "Optical projection tomography," Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 6, 209-228 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eng. Comput. (1)

D. Rypl and P. Krysl, "Triangulation of 3D surfaces," Eng. Comput. 13, 87-98 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eur. J. Immunol. (1)

J. de Boer, A. Williams, G. Skavdis, N. Harker, M. Coles, M. Tolaini, T. Norton, K. Williams, K. Roderick, A. Potocnik, and D. Kioussis, "Transgenic mice with hematopoeitic and lymphoid specific expression of Cre," Eur. J. Immunol. 33, 314-325 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (3)

A. Soubret, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Accuracy of fluorescent tomography in the presence of heterogeneities: study of the normalized Born ratio," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 1377-1386 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zacharakis, J. Ripoll, R. Weissleder, and V. Ntziachristos, "Fluorescent protein tomography scanner for small animal imaging," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 878-885 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Schulz, J. Ripoll, and V. Ntziachristos, "Experimental fluorescence tomography of tissues with noncontact measurements," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 23, 492-500 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Image Vis. Comput. (1)

G. Tognola, M. Parazzini, C. Svelto, P. Ravazzani, and F. Grandori, "A fast and reliable system for 3D surface acquisition and reconstruction," Image Vis. Comput. 21, 295-305 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Lancet Oncology (1)

R. M. Hoffman, "Green fluorescent protein imaging of tumour growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis in mouse models," Lancet Oncology 3, 546-556 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Image Anal. (1)

R. T. Whitaker and V. Elangovan, "A direct approach to estimating surfaces in tomographic data," Med. Image Anal. 6, 235-249 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Phys. (1)

V. Ntziachristos and R. Weissleder, "Charge-coupled-based scanner for tomography of fluorescent near-infrared probes in turbid media," Med. Phys. 29, 803-809 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mod. Phys. Lett. B (1)

J. Ripoll and V. Ntziachristos, "Imaging scattering media from a distance: theory and applications of non-contact optical tomography," Mod. Phys. Lett. B 18, 1403-1431 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Molecular Imaging (1)

V. Ntziachristos, C. Bremer, E. E. Graves, J. Ripoll, and R. Weissleder, "In vivo tomographic imaging of near-infrared fluorescent probes," Molecular Imaging 1, 82-88 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol. (2)

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, "Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging," Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313-320 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. C. Shaner, R. E. Campbell, P. A. Steinbach, B. N. G. Giepmans, A. E. Palmer, and R. Y. Tsien, "Improved monomeric red, orange and yellow fluorescent proteins derived from Discosoma sp. red fluorescent proteins," Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 1567-1572 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Med. (2)

V. Ntziachristos, C. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo," Nat. Med. 8, 757-760 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Weissleder and V. Ntziachristos, "Shedding light onto live molecular targets," Nat. Med. 9, 123-128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

D. J. Lee, X. Q. Xu, J. Eifert, and P. C. Zhan, "Area and volume measurements of objects with irregluar shapes using multiple silhouettes," Opt. Eng. 45, 027202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Med. Biol. (4)

A. Soubret and V. Ntziachristos, "Fluorescence molecular tomography in the presence of background fluorescence," Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 3983-4001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Walls, J. G. Sled, J. Sharpe, and R. M. Henkelman, "Correction of artefacts in optical projection tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 4645-4665 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, F. E. Schmidt, D. T. Delpy, and S. R. Arridge, "Time resolved optical tomography of the human forearm," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1117-1130 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1117-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

J. Ripoll, V. Ntziachristos, R. Carminati, and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, "The Kirchhoff approximation for diffusive waves," Phys. Rev. E 64, 051917 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. A. Markel and J. C. Schotland, "Symmetries, inversion formulas, and image reconstruction for optical tomography," Phys. Rev. E 70, 056616 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Ripoll, R. B. Schulz, and V. Ntziachristos, "Free-space propagation of diffuse light: theory and experiments," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 103901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

V. Ntziachristos, E. A. Schellenberger, J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, E. Graves, A. Bogdanov, Jr., L. Josephson, and R. Weissleder, "Visualization of antitumor treatment by means of fluorescence molecular tomography with an annexin V-Cy5.5 conjugate," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 12294-12299 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

J. Sharpe, U. Ahlgren, P. Perry, B. Hill, A. Ross, J. Hecksher-Sørensen, R. Baldock, and D. Davidson, "Optical projection tomography as a tool for 3D microscopy and gene expression studies," Science 296, 541-545 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

XENOGEN, U.S. patent application 20060268153, (6 November 2006).

A. Kak and M. Slaney, Principles of Computerized Tomographic Imaging (IEEE, 1988).
[PubMed]

B. W. Rice, H. Xu, and C. Kuo, "Surface construction using combined photographic and structured light information," U.S. patent application 20060268153 (4 May 2006).

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, 1978), Vol. 1.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).
[PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

System setup for 3D in vivo small animal imaging with all the main components numbered: i, cw Ar + laser; ii, imaging chamber shown here transparent for illustration purposes; iii, x–y translation stage with fiber, collimation optics, and laser line filters; iv, custom-made diffuse light source for back illumination; v, rotation stage with custom made specimen holder (see inset: part a mounted on the stage, specimen is mounted on part b, which then is clipped into part a); vi, CCD camera; vii, SIGMA 50   mm   f / 2.8 objective; viii and ix, multimode fiber with mount; x, rail for rotation stage; xi, Isoflurane vaporizer; xii, custom-made chamber for deduction; xiii, camera power supply.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a, Shadow image as acquired from the system; b, shadow image thresholded to 50% of maximum intensity; c, homogeneous white-light image for the same projection.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a, Backprojected data for one slice (each slice corresponds to one pixel line of the CCD) obtained with 72 projections; b, thresholded data; c, reconstructed surface mesh; d, rendered reconstruction.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Error of the reconstructed radius versus number of projections. The maximum error was found to be ± 0.02   mm of the original radius from a rigid rod of 10   mm diameter.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reconstructed radius versus distance in respect to the center of rotation for various numbers of projections.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

a, Three-dimensional reconstructed surface of an agarous phantom with reconstructed fluorescence using a 50   μmol concentration of CFSE in 1 × phosphate-buffered solution with a pH of 12. The microcapillary was placed in a center-to-center distance of 5 ± 0 .05   mm with respect to the center of the phantom, b, reconstructed mean fluorescence intensity values achieved with the FMT system versus CFSE concentration in the microcapillary tube of the agarous phantom (1, 50, and 100   μmol ). (Inset shows cross section of the reconstructed fluorescence according to the values given in a.)

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

In vivo results of a–c, a CD2-GFP mouse and d, a nontransgenic C57B1∕10 mouse. The arrows indicate the position of the tumor. a, The flat image with marked detector area of 10 × 10 detectors, b, the rendered surface with region of interest. Presented in c, in vivo result of GFP expressing thymocytes in the thymus of a CD2-GFP mouse ( 10 8 cells), and d, a nontransgenic C57B1∕10 control mouse. Note that the signal in the control mouse is due to autofluorescence of the skin.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I ¯ ( x , y , θ i ) = { 1 I ( x , y , θ i ) > I t h ( i ) 0 I ( x , y , θ i ) I t h ( i ) ,
x c e n t e r ( i ) = min { | I ¯ ( x x c e n t e r ( i ) , y , θ i ) I ¯ ( ( x x c e n t e r ( i ) ) , y , θ i + π ) | } .
J det ( r d ) = 1 π S J n ( r ) Γ ( r , r d ) d S r S ,
Γ ( R ) = I ( R , u r c R ) cos θ cos θ | r c R | 2 A d B ,
J det ( r d ) = 1 π J n ( R , z ) cos θ cos θ | r c R | 2 d A r S .

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