Abstract

We introduce a very sensitive new configuration, to the best of our knowledge, in an optical microscope system that utilizes two detectors: one is to measure the power of a low reflected signal from a sample, and the other is only to monitor the confocal geometry of the system. With this new configuration, we could effectively remove measurement noise associated with small perturbation in measurement conditions such as surface curvature, tilt, and vibration in a microscope system. We have obtained a high-resolution relative index precision of 9×105 by employing this novel technique with two detectors.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Marcuse, Principles of Optical Fiber Measurement (Academic, 1981).
  2. W. J. Stewart, "Optical fiber and preform profiling technology," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1451-1466 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. I. White, "Practical application of the refracted near-field technique for the measurement of optical fibre refractive index profiles," Opt. Quantum Electron. 11, 185-196 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. E. Marhic, P. S. Ho, and M. Epstein, "Nondestructive refractive-index profile measurements of clad optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 574-575 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Eickhoff and E. Weidel, "Measuring method for the refractive index profile of optical glass fibres," Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 109-113 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Ikeda, M. Tateda, and H. Yoshikiyo, "Refractive index profile of a graded index fiber: measurement by a reflection method," Appl. Opt. 14, 814-815 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Tateda, "Single-mode-fiber refractive-index profile measurement by reflection method," Appl. Opt. 17, 475-478 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Wilson, J. N. Gannaway, and C. J. R. Sheppard, "Optical fibre profiling using a scanning optical microscope," Opt. Quantum Electron. 12, 341-345 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Park, N. H. Seong, Y. Youk, and D. Y. Kim, "Simple scanning fibre-optic confocal microscopy for the refractive index profile measurement of an optical fibre," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1-5 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Youk and D. Y. Kim, "A simple reflection-type two-dimensional refractive index profile measurement technique for optical waveguides," Opt. Commun. 262, 206-210 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Wilson and A. R. Carlini, "Size of the detector in confocal imaging systems," Opt. Lett. 12, 227-229 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T. Wilson and A. R. Carlini, "Three-dimensional imaging in confocal imaging systems with finite sized detectors," J. Microsc. 149, 51-66 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Glass and T. Dabbs, "The experimental effect of detector size on confocal lateral resolution," J. Microsc. 164, 153-158 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Kimura and T. Wilson, "Confocal scanning optical microscope using single-mode fiber for signal detection," Appl. Opt. 30, 2143-2150 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Soan Kim, Y. Jung, K. Oh, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, and J. Kirchhof, "New defect and lattice structure for air-silica index-guiding holey fibers," Opt. Lett. 31, 164-166 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

Y. Youk and D. Y. Kim, "A simple reflection-type two-dimensional refractive index profile measurement technique for optical waveguides," Opt. Commun. 262, 206-210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Soan Kim, Y. Jung, K. Oh, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, and J. Kirchhof, "New defect and lattice structure for air-silica index-guiding holey fibers," Opt. Lett. 31, 164-166 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

Y. Park, N. H. Seong, Y. Youk, and D. Y. Kim, "Simple scanning fibre-optic confocal microscopy for the refractive index profile measurement of an optical fibre," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1-5 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

M. Glass and T. Dabbs, "The experimental effect of detector size on confocal lateral resolution," J. Microsc. 164, 153-158 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Kimura and T. Wilson, "Confocal scanning optical microscope using single-mode fiber for signal detection," Appl. Opt. 30, 2143-2150 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (2)

T. Wilson and A. R. Carlini, "Size of the detector in confocal imaging systems," Opt. Lett. 12, 227-229 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wilson and A. R. Carlini, "Three-dimensional imaging in confocal imaging systems with finite sized detectors," J. Microsc. 149, 51-66 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

W. J. Stewart, "Optical fiber and preform profiling technology," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1451-1466 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

T. Wilson, J. N. Gannaway, and C. J. R. Sheppard, "Optical fibre profiling using a scanning optical microscope," Opt. Quantum Electron. 12, 341-345 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

K. I. White, "Practical application of the refracted near-field technique for the measurement of optical fibre refractive index profiles," Opt. Quantum Electron. 11, 185-196 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1975 (3)

M. E. Marhic, P. S. Ho, and M. Epstein, "Nondestructive refractive-index profile measurements of clad optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 574-575 (1975).
[CrossRef]

W. Eickhoff and E. Weidel, "Measuring method for the refractive index profile of optical glass fibres," Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 109-113 (1975).
[CrossRef]

M. Ikeda, M. Tateda, and H. Yoshikiyo, "Refractive index profile of a graded index fiber: measurement by a reflection method," Appl. Opt. 14, 814-815 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carlini, A. R.

T. Wilson and A. R. Carlini, "Size of the detector in confocal imaging systems," Opt. Lett. 12, 227-229 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wilson and A. R. Carlini, "Three-dimensional imaging in confocal imaging systems with finite sized detectors," J. Microsc. 149, 51-66 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dabbs, T.

M. Glass and T. Dabbs, "The experimental effect of detector size on confocal lateral resolution," J. Microsc. 164, 153-158 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Eickhoff, W.

W. Eickhoff and E. Weidel, "Measuring method for the refractive index profile of optical glass fibres," Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 109-113 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Epstein, M.

M. E. Marhic, P. S. Ho, and M. Epstein, "Nondestructive refractive-index profile measurements of clad optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 574-575 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Gannaway, J. N.

T. Wilson, J. N. Gannaway, and C. J. R. Sheppard, "Optical fibre profiling using a scanning optical microscope," Opt. Quantum Electron. 12, 341-345 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Glass, M.

M. Glass and T. Dabbs, "The experimental effect of detector size on confocal lateral resolution," J. Microsc. 164, 153-158 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ho, P. S.

M. E. Marhic, P. S. Ho, and M. Epstein, "Nondestructive refractive-index profile measurements of clad optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 574-575 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, M.

Jung, Y.

Kim, D. Y.

Y. Youk and D. Y. Kim, "A simple reflection-type two-dimensional refractive index profile measurement technique for optical waveguides," Opt. Commun. 262, 206-210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Park, N. H. Seong, Y. Youk, and D. Y. Kim, "Simple scanning fibre-optic confocal microscopy for the refractive index profile measurement of an optical fibre," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1-5 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Soan

Kimura, S.

Kirchhof, J.

Kobelke, J.

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, Principles of Optical Fiber Measurement (Academic, 1981).

Marhic, M. E.

M. E. Marhic, P. S. Ho, and M. Epstein, "Nondestructive refractive-index profile measurements of clad optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 574-575 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Oh, K.

Park, Y.

Y. Park, N. H. Seong, Y. Youk, and D. Y. Kim, "Simple scanning fibre-optic confocal microscopy for the refractive index profile measurement of an optical fibre," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1-5 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schuster, K.

Seong, N. H.

Y. Park, N. H. Seong, Y. Youk, and D. Y. Kim, "Simple scanning fibre-optic confocal microscopy for the refractive index profile measurement of an optical fibre," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1-5 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

T. Wilson, J. N. Gannaway, and C. J. R. Sheppard, "Optical fibre profiling using a scanning optical microscope," Opt. Quantum Electron. 12, 341-345 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, W. J.

W. J. Stewart, "Optical fiber and preform profiling technology," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1451-1466 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Tateda, M.

Weidel, E.

W. Eickhoff and E. Weidel, "Measuring method for the refractive index profile of optical glass fibres," Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 109-113 (1975).
[CrossRef]

White, K. I.

K. I. White, "Practical application of the refracted near-field technique for the measurement of optical fibre refractive index profiles," Opt. Quantum Electron. 11, 185-196 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, T.

S. Kimura and T. Wilson, "Confocal scanning optical microscope using single-mode fiber for signal detection," Appl. Opt. 30, 2143-2150 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wilson and A. R. Carlini, "Size of the detector in confocal imaging systems," Opt. Lett. 12, 227-229 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wilson and A. R. Carlini, "Three-dimensional imaging in confocal imaging systems with finite sized detectors," J. Microsc. 149, 51-66 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilson, J. N. Gannaway, and C. J. R. Sheppard, "Optical fibre profiling using a scanning optical microscope," Opt. Quantum Electron. 12, 341-345 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Yoshikiyo, H.

Youk, Y.

Y. Youk and D. Y. Kim, "A simple reflection-type two-dimensional refractive index profile measurement technique for optical waveguides," Opt. Commun. 262, 206-210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Park, N. H. Seong, Y. Youk, and D. Y. Kim, "Simple scanning fibre-optic confocal microscopy for the refractive index profile measurement of an optical fibre," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1-5 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. E. Marhic, P. S. Ho, and M. Epstein, "Nondestructive refractive-index profile measurements of clad optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 574-575 (1975).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. J. Stewart, "Optical fiber and preform profiling technology," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1451-1466 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (2)

T. Wilson and A. R. Carlini, "Three-dimensional imaging in confocal imaging systems with finite sized detectors," J. Microsc. 149, 51-66 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. Glass and T. Dabbs, "The experimental effect of detector size on confocal lateral resolution," J. Microsc. 164, 153-158 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

Y. Park, N. H. Seong, Y. Youk, and D. Y. Kim, "Simple scanning fibre-optic confocal microscopy for the refractive index profile measurement of an optical fibre," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1-5 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. Youk and D. Y. Kim, "A simple reflection-type two-dimensional refractive index profile measurement technique for optical waveguides," Opt. Commun. 262, 206-210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (3)

T. Wilson, J. N. Gannaway, and C. J. R. Sheppard, "Optical fibre profiling using a scanning optical microscope," Opt. Quantum Electron. 12, 341-345 (1980).
[CrossRef]

K. I. White, "Practical application of the refracted near-field technique for the measurement of optical fibre refractive index profiles," Opt. Quantum Electron. 11, 185-196 (1979).
[CrossRef]

W. Eickhoff and E. Weidel, "Measuring method for the refractive index profile of optical glass fibres," Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 109-113 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

D. Marcuse, Principles of Optical Fiber Measurement (Academic, 1981).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a confocal scanning optical microscope system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of a reflection-type measurement system for submicrometer-resolved highly sensitive refractive index measurement of an optical waveguide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Axial response measured by Detector1 and Detector2 in our proposed experimental setup shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

One-dimensional refractive index profile measurements of a step-index multimode fiber with a 13.4 μm core size and a difference in peak refractive index of 0.0328. (a) Comparison of the refractive index profiles detected through a pinhole (blue curve) and no pinhole (black curve). (b) Refractive index profile measured by Detector2 synchronized with the peak point of Detector1, which is used as a trigger system.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Two-dimensional refractive index profile measurements of a core-doped PCF: (a) Refractive index data using Detector1 through the pinhole system. (b) Refractive index data using Detector2 synchronized to the peak point of Detector1, as a trigger system.

Equations (2)

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n ( x , y ) = ( 1 + R ( x , y ) 1 R ( x , y ) ) .
δ n ( x , y ) n ( x , y ) = ( n ( x , y ) 2 1 4 n ( x , y ) ) δ R ( x , y ) R ( x , y ) .

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