Abstract

We present a biosensor design based on capturing the two-dimenstional (2D) phase image of surface plasmon resonance (SPR). This 2D SPR imaging technique may enable parallel label-free detection of multiple analytes and is compatible with the microarray chip platform. This system uses our previously reported differential phase measurement approach, in which 2D phase maps obtained from the signal (P) and reference (S) polarizations are compared pixel by pixel. This technique greatly improves detection resolution as the subtraction step can eliminate measurement fluctuations caused by external disturbances as they essentially appear in both channels. Unlike conventional angular SPR systems, in which illumination from a range of angles must be used, phase measurement requires illumination from only one angle, thus making it well suited for 2D measurement. Also, phase-stepping introduced from a moving mirror provides the necessary modulation for accurate detection of the phase. In light of the rapidly increasing need for fast real-time detection, quantification, and identification of a range of proteins for various biomedical applications, our 2D SPR phase imaging technique should hold a promising future in the medical device market.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Kambhampati, Protein Microarray Technology (Wiley-VCH, 2004).
  2. N. Zammatteo, L. Jeanmart, S. Hamels, S. Courtois, P. Louette, L. Hevesi, and J. Remacle, "Comparison between different strategies of covalent attachment of DNA to glass surfaces to build DNA microarrays," Anal. Biochem. 280, 143-150 (2000).
    [PubMed]
  3. A. Ulman, "Formation and structure of self-assembled monolayers," Chem. Rev. 96, 1533-1554 (1996).
    [PubMed]
  4. K. L. Prime and G. M. Whitesides, "Self-assembled organic monolayers: model systems for studying adsorption of proteins at surfaces," Science 252, 1164-1167 (1991).
    [PubMed]
  5. J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
  6. J. Homola, "Present and future of surface plasmon resonance biosensors (review)," Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 528-539 (2003).
    [PubMed]
  7. E. Yeatman and E. Ash, "Surface plasmon microscopy," Electron. Lett. 23, 1091-1092 (1987).
  8. B. Rothenhäusler and W. Knoll, "Surface-plasmon microscopy," Nature 332, 615-617 (1988).
  9. C. E. Jordan and R. M. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging measurements of electrostatic biopolymer adsorption onto chemically modified gold surfaces," Anal. Chem. 69, 1449-1456 (1997).
    [PubMed]
  10. E. A. Smith, M. G. Erickson, A. T. Ulijasz, B. Weisblum, and R. M. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging of transcription factor proteins: interactions of bacterial response regulators with DNA arrays on gold films," Langmuir 19, 1486-1492 (2003).
  11. E. A. Smith, M. Kyo, H. Kumasawa, K. Nakatani, I. Saito, and R. M. Corn, "Chemically induced hairpin formulation in DNA monolayers," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 6810-6811 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  12. H. J. Lee, T. T. Goodrich, and R. M. Corn, "SPR imaging measurement of 1-D and 2-D DNA microarrays created from microfluidic channels on gold thin films," Anal. Chem. 73, 5525-5531 (2001).
  13. G. J. Wegner, H. J. Lee, and R. M. Corn, "Characterization and optimization of peptide arrays for the study of epitope-antibody interactions using surface plasmon resonance imaging," Anal. Chem. 74, 5161-5168 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  14. G. J. Wegner, H. J. Lee, G. Marriott, and R. M. Corn, "Fabrication of histidine-tagged fusion protein arrays for surface plasmon resonance imaging studies of protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions," Anal. Chem. 75, 4740-4746 (2003).
    [PubMed]
  15. E. A. Smith, W. D. Thomas, L. L. Kiessling, and R. M. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging studies of protein-carbohydrate interactions," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 6140-6148 (2003).
    [PubMed]
  16. S. G. Nelson, K. S. Johnston, and S. S. Yee, "High sensitivity surface plasmon resonace sensor based on phase detection," Sens. Actuators B 35, 187-191 (1996).
  17. P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, "Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for micro-array biosensing," Sens. Actuators A 85, 189-193 (2000).
  18. H. P. Ho and W. W. Lam, "Application of differential phase measurement technique to surface plasmon resonance sensors," Sens. Actuators B 96, 554-559 (2003).
  19. Y. Xinglong, W. Dingxin, W. Xing, D. Xiang, L. Wei, and Z. Xinsheng, "A surface plasmon resonance imaging interferometry for protein micro-array detection," Sens. Actuators B 108, 765-771 (2005).
  20. S. Y. Wu, H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, C. Lin, and S. K. Kong, "Highly sensitive differential phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor based on Mach-Zehnder configuration," Opt. Lett. 29, 2378-2381 (2004).
    [PubMed]
  21. B.-HJo, L. M. Van Lerberghe, K. M. Motsegood, and D. J. Beebe, "Three-dimensional micro-channel fabrication in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 9, 76-81 (2000).
  22. R. C. Weast, ed. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 68th ed. (CRC, 1987).

2005 (1)

Y. Xinglong, W. Dingxin, W. Xing, D. Xiang, L. Wei, and Z. Xinsheng, "A surface plasmon resonance imaging interferometry for protein micro-array detection," Sens. Actuators B 108, 765-771 (2005).

2004 (1)

2003 (5)

H. P. Ho and W. W. Lam, "Application of differential phase measurement technique to surface plasmon resonance sensors," Sens. Actuators B 96, 554-559 (2003).

G. J. Wegner, H. J. Lee, G. Marriott, and R. M. Corn, "Fabrication of histidine-tagged fusion protein arrays for surface plasmon resonance imaging studies of protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions," Anal. Chem. 75, 4740-4746 (2003).
[PubMed]

E. A. Smith, W. D. Thomas, L. L. Kiessling, and R. M. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging studies of protein-carbohydrate interactions," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 6140-6148 (2003).
[PubMed]

J. Homola, "Present and future of surface plasmon resonance biosensors (review)," Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 528-539 (2003).
[PubMed]

E. A. Smith, M. G. Erickson, A. T. Ulijasz, B. Weisblum, and R. M. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging of transcription factor proteins: interactions of bacterial response regulators with DNA arrays on gold films," Langmuir 19, 1486-1492 (2003).

2002 (2)

E. A. Smith, M. Kyo, H. Kumasawa, K. Nakatani, I. Saito, and R. M. Corn, "Chemically induced hairpin formulation in DNA monolayers," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 6810-6811 (2002).
[PubMed]

G. J. Wegner, H. J. Lee, and R. M. Corn, "Characterization and optimization of peptide arrays for the study of epitope-antibody interactions using surface plasmon resonance imaging," Anal. Chem. 74, 5161-5168 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (1)

H. J. Lee, T. T. Goodrich, and R. M. Corn, "SPR imaging measurement of 1-D and 2-D DNA microarrays created from microfluidic channels on gold thin films," Anal. Chem. 73, 5525-5531 (2001).

2000 (3)

N. Zammatteo, L. Jeanmart, S. Hamels, S. Courtois, P. Louette, L. Hevesi, and J. Remacle, "Comparison between different strategies of covalent attachment of DNA to glass surfaces to build DNA microarrays," Anal. Biochem. 280, 143-150 (2000).
[PubMed]

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, "Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for micro-array biosensing," Sens. Actuators A 85, 189-193 (2000).

B.-HJo, L. M. Van Lerberghe, K. M. Motsegood, and D. J. Beebe, "Three-dimensional micro-channel fabrication in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 9, 76-81 (2000).

1999 (1)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).

1997 (1)

C. E. Jordan and R. M. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging measurements of electrostatic biopolymer adsorption onto chemically modified gold surfaces," Anal. Chem. 69, 1449-1456 (1997).
[PubMed]

1996 (2)

S. G. Nelson, K. S. Johnston, and S. S. Yee, "High sensitivity surface plasmon resonace sensor based on phase detection," Sens. Actuators B 35, 187-191 (1996).

A. Ulman, "Formation and structure of self-assembled monolayers," Chem. Rev. 96, 1533-1554 (1996).
[PubMed]

1991 (1)

K. L. Prime and G. M. Whitesides, "Self-assembled organic monolayers: model systems for studying adsorption of proteins at surfaces," Science 252, 1164-1167 (1991).
[PubMed]

1988 (1)

B. Rothenhäusler and W. Knoll, "Surface-plasmon microscopy," Nature 332, 615-617 (1988).

1987 (1)

E. Yeatman and E. Ash, "Surface plasmon microscopy," Electron. Lett. 23, 1091-1092 (1987).

Ash, E.

E. Yeatman and E. Ash, "Surface plasmon microscopy," Electron. Lett. 23, 1091-1092 (1987).

Beebe, D. J.

B.-HJo, L. M. Van Lerberghe, K. M. Motsegood, and D. J. Beebe, "Three-dimensional micro-channel fabrication in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 9, 76-81 (2000).

Beloglazov, A. A.

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, "Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for micro-array biosensing," Sens. Actuators A 85, 189-193 (2000).

Corn, R. M.

E. A. Smith, W. D. Thomas, L. L. Kiessling, and R. M. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging studies of protein-carbohydrate interactions," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 6140-6148 (2003).
[PubMed]

E. A. Smith, M. G. Erickson, A. T. Ulijasz, B. Weisblum, and R. M. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging of transcription factor proteins: interactions of bacterial response regulators with DNA arrays on gold films," Langmuir 19, 1486-1492 (2003).

G. J. Wegner, H. J. Lee, G. Marriott, and R. M. Corn, "Fabrication of histidine-tagged fusion protein arrays for surface plasmon resonance imaging studies of protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions," Anal. Chem. 75, 4740-4746 (2003).
[PubMed]

G. J. Wegner, H. J. Lee, and R. M. Corn, "Characterization and optimization of peptide arrays for the study of epitope-antibody interactions using surface plasmon resonance imaging," Anal. Chem. 74, 5161-5168 (2002).
[PubMed]

E. A. Smith, M. Kyo, H. Kumasawa, K. Nakatani, I. Saito, and R. M. Corn, "Chemically induced hairpin formulation in DNA monolayers," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 6810-6811 (2002).
[PubMed]

H. J. Lee, T. T. Goodrich, and R. M. Corn, "SPR imaging measurement of 1-D and 2-D DNA microarrays created from microfluidic channels on gold thin films," Anal. Chem. 73, 5525-5531 (2001).

C. E. Jordan and R. M. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging measurements of electrostatic biopolymer adsorption onto chemically modified gold surfaces," Anal. Chem. 69, 1449-1456 (1997).
[PubMed]

Courtois, S.

N. Zammatteo, L. Jeanmart, S. Hamels, S. Courtois, P. Louette, L. Hevesi, and J. Remacle, "Comparison between different strategies of covalent attachment of DNA to glass surfaces to build DNA microarrays," Anal. Biochem. 280, 143-150 (2000).
[PubMed]

Dingxin, W.

Y. Xinglong, W. Dingxin, W. Xing, D. Xiang, L. Wei, and Z. Xinsheng, "A surface plasmon resonance imaging interferometry for protein micro-array detection," Sens. Actuators B 108, 765-771 (2005).

Erickson, M. G.

E. A. Smith, M. G. Erickson, A. T. Ulijasz, B. Weisblum, and R. M. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging of transcription factor proteins: interactions of bacterial response regulators with DNA arrays on gold films," Langmuir 19, 1486-1492 (2003).

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).

Goodrich, T. T.

H. J. Lee, T. T. Goodrich, and R. M. Corn, "SPR imaging measurement of 1-D and 2-D DNA microarrays created from microfluidic channels on gold thin films," Anal. Chem. 73, 5525-5531 (2001).

Grigorenko, A. N.

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, "Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for micro-array biosensing," Sens. Actuators A 85, 189-193 (2000).

Hamels, S.

N. Zammatteo, L. Jeanmart, S. Hamels, S. Courtois, P. Louette, L. Hevesi, and J. Remacle, "Comparison between different strategies of covalent attachment of DNA to glass surfaces to build DNA microarrays," Anal. Biochem. 280, 143-150 (2000).
[PubMed]

Hevesi, L.

N. Zammatteo, L. Jeanmart, S. Hamels, S. Courtois, P. Louette, L. Hevesi, and J. Remacle, "Comparison between different strategies of covalent attachment of DNA to glass surfaces to build DNA microarrays," Anal. Biochem. 280, 143-150 (2000).
[PubMed]

Ho, H. P.

S. Y. Wu, H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, C. Lin, and S. K. Kong, "Highly sensitive differential phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor based on Mach-Zehnder configuration," Opt. Lett. 29, 2378-2381 (2004).
[PubMed]

H. P. Ho and W. W. Lam, "Application of differential phase measurement technique to surface plasmon resonance sensors," Sens. Actuators B 96, 554-559 (2003).

Homola, J.

J. Homola, "Present and future of surface plasmon resonance biosensors (review)," Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 528-539 (2003).
[PubMed]

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).

Huebner, A.

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, "Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for micro-array biosensing," Sens. Actuators A 85, 189-193 (2000).

Jeanmart, L.

N. Zammatteo, L. Jeanmart, S. Hamels, S. Courtois, P. Louette, L. Hevesi, and J. Remacle, "Comparison between different strategies of covalent attachment of DNA to glass surfaces to build DNA microarrays," Anal. Biochem. 280, 143-150 (2000).
[PubMed]

Jo, B.-H

B.-HJo, L. M. Van Lerberghe, K. M. Motsegood, and D. J. Beebe, "Three-dimensional micro-channel fabrication in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 9, 76-81 (2000).

Johnston, K. S.

S. G. Nelson, K. S. Johnston, and S. S. Yee, "High sensitivity surface plasmon resonace sensor based on phase detection," Sens. Actuators B 35, 187-191 (1996).

Jordan, C. E.

C. E. Jordan and R. M. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging measurements of electrostatic biopolymer adsorption onto chemically modified gold surfaces," Anal. Chem. 69, 1449-1456 (1997).
[PubMed]

Kambhampati, D.

D. Kambhampati, Protein Microarray Technology (Wiley-VCH, 2004).

Kiessling, L. L.

E. A. Smith, W. D. Thomas, L. L. Kiessling, and R. M. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging studies of protein-carbohydrate interactions," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 6140-6148 (2003).
[PubMed]

Knoll, W.

B. Rothenhäusler and W. Knoll, "Surface-plasmon microscopy," Nature 332, 615-617 (1988).

Kong, S. K.

Kuhne, C.

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, "Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for micro-array biosensing," Sens. Actuators A 85, 189-193 (2000).

Kumasawa, H.

E. A. Smith, M. Kyo, H. Kumasawa, K. Nakatani, I. Saito, and R. M. Corn, "Chemically induced hairpin formulation in DNA monolayers," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 6810-6811 (2002).
[PubMed]

Kyo, M.

E. A. Smith, M. Kyo, H. Kumasawa, K. Nakatani, I. Saito, and R. M. Corn, "Chemically induced hairpin formulation in DNA monolayers," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 6810-6811 (2002).
[PubMed]

Lam, W. W.

H. P. Ho and W. W. Lam, "Application of differential phase measurement technique to surface plasmon resonance sensors," Sens. Actuators B 96, 554-559 (2003).

Law, W. C.

Lee, H. J.

G. J. Wegner, H. J. Lee, G. Marriott, and R. M. Corn, "Fabrication of histidine-tagged fusion protein arrays for surface plasmon resonance imaging studies of protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions," Anal. Chem. 75, 4740-4746 (2003).
[PubMed]

G. J. Wegner, H. J. Lee, and R. M. Corn, "Characterization and optimization of peptide arrays for the study of epitope-antibody interactions using surface plasmon resonance imaging," Anal. Chem. 74, 5161-5168 (2002).
[PubMed]

H. J. Lee, T. T. Goodrich, and R. M. Corn, "SPR imaging measurement of 1-D and 2-D DNA microarrays created from microfluidic channels on gold thin films," Anal. Chem. 73, 5525-5531 (2001).

Lin, C.

Louette, P.

N. Zammatteo, L. Jeanmart, S. Hamels, S. Courtois, P. Louette, L. Hevesi, and J. Remacle, "Comparison between different strategies of covalent attachment of DNA to glass surfaces to build DNA microarrays," Anal. Biochem. 280, 143-150 (2000).
[PubMed]

Marriott, G.

G. J. Wegner, H. J. Lee, G. Marriott, and R. M. Corn, "Fabrication of histidine-tagged fusion protein arrays for surface plasmon resonance imaging studies of protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions," Anal. Chem. 75, 4740-4746 (2003).
[PubMed]

Motsegood, K. M.

B.-HJo, L. M. Van Lerberghe, K. M. Motsegood, and D. J. Beebe, "Three-dimensional micro-channel fabrication in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 9, 76-81 (2000).

Nakatani, K.

E. A. Smith, M. Kyo, H. Kumasawa, K. Nakatani, I. Saito, and R. M. Corn, "Chemically induced hairpin formulation in DNA monolayers," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 6810-6811 (2002).
[PubMed]

Nelson, S. G.

S. G. Nelson, K. S. Johnston, and S. S. Yee, "High sensitivity surface plasmon resonace sensor based on phase detection," Sens. Actuators B 35, 187-191 (1996).

Nikitin, P. I.

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, "Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for micro-array biosensing," Sens. Actuators A 85, 189-193 (2000).

Prime, K. L.

K. L. Prime and G. M. Whitesides, "Self-assembled organic monolayers: model systems for studying adsorption of proteins at surfaces," Science 252, 1164-1167 (1991).
[PubMed]

Remacle, J.

N. Zammatteo, L. Jeanmart, S. Hamels, S. Courtois, P. Louette, L. Hevesi, and J. Remacle, "Comparison between different strategies of covalent attachment of DNA to glass surfaces to build DNA microarrays," Anal. Biochem. 280, 143-150 (2000).
[PubMed]

Rothenhäusler, B.

B. Rothenhäusler and W. Knoll, "Surface-plasmon microscopy," Nature 332, 615-617 (1988).

Saito, I.

E. A. Smith, M. Kyo, H. Kumasawa, K. Nakatani, I. Saito, and R. M. Corn, "Chemically induced hairpin formulation in DNA monolayers," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 6810-6811 (2002).
[PubMed]

Salzer, R.

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, "Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for micro-array biosensing," Sens. Actuators A 85, 189-193 (2000).

Savchuk, A. I.

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, "Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for micro-array biosensing," Sens. Actuators A 85, 189-193 (2000).

Savchuk, O. A.

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, "Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for micro-array biosensing," Sens. Actuators A 85, 189-193 (2000).

Smith, E. A.

E. A. Smith, W. D. Thomas, L. L. Kiessling, and R. M. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging studies of protein-carbohydrate interactions," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 6140-6148 (2003).
[PubMed]

E. A. Smith, M. G. Erickson, A. T. Ulijasz, B. Weisblum, and R. M. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging of transcription factor proteins: interactions of bacterial response regulators with DNA arrays on gold films," Langmuir 19, 1486-1492 (2003).

E. A. Smith, M. Kyo, H. Kumasawa, K. Nakatani, I. Saito, and R. M. Corn, "Chemically induced hairpin formulation in DNA monolayers," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 6810-6811 (2002).
[PubMed]

Steiner, G.

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, "Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for micro-array biosensing," Sens. Actuators A 85, 189-193 (2000).

Thomas, W. D.

E. A. Smith, W. D. Thomas, L. L. Kiessling, and R. M. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging studies of protein-carbohydrate interactions," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 6140-6148 (2003).
[PubMed]

Ulijasz, A. T.

E. A. Smith, M. G. Erickson, A. T. Ulijasz, B. Weisblum, and R. M. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging of transcription factor proteins: interactions of bacterial response regulators with DNA arrays on gold films," Langmuir 19, 1486-1492 (2003).

Ulman, A.

A. Ulman, "Formation and structure of self-assembled monolayers," Chem. Rev. 96, 1533-1554 (1996).
[PubMed]

Valeiko, M. V.

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, "Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for micro-array biosensing," Sens. Actuators A 85, 189-193 (2000).

Van Lerberghe, L. M.

B.-HJo, L. M. Van Lerberghe, K. M. Motsegood, and D. J. Beebe, "Three-dimensional micro-channel fabrication in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 9, 76-81 (2000).

Weast, R. C.

R. C. Weast, ed. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 68th ed. (CRC, 1987).

Wegner, G. J.

G. J. Wegner, H. J. Lee, G. Marriott, and R. M. Corn, "Fabrication of histidine-tagged fusion protein arrays for surface plasmon resonance imaging studies of protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions," Anal. Chem. 75, 4740-4746 (2003).
[PubMed]

G. J. Wegner, H. J. Lee, and R. M. Corn, "Characterization and optimization of peptide arrays for the study of epitope-antibody interactions using surface plasmon resonance imaging," Anal. Chem. 74, 5161-5168 (2002).
[PubMed]

Wei, L.

Y. Xinglong, W. Dingxin, W. Xing, D. Xiang, L. Wei, and Z. Xinsheng, "A surface plasmon resonance imaging interferometry for protein micro-array detection," Sens. Actuators B 108, 765-771 (2005).

Weisblum, B.

E. A. Smith, M. G. Erickson, A. T. Ulijasz, B. Weisblum, and R. M. Corn, "Surface plasmon resonance imaging of transcription factor proteins: interactions of bacterial response regulators with DNA arrays on gold films," Langmuir 19, 1486-1492 (2003).

Whitesides, G. M.

K. L. Prime and G. M. Whitesides, "Self-assembled organic monolayers: model systems for studying adsorption of proteins at surfaces," Science 252, 1164-1167 (1991).
[PubMed]

Wu, S. Y.

Xiang, D.

Y. Xinglong, W. Dingxin, W. Xing, D. Xiang, L. Wei, and Z. Xinsheng, "A surface plasmon resonance imaging interferometry for protein micro-array detection," Sens. Actuators B 108, 765-771 (2005).

Xing, W.

Y. Xinglong, W. Dingxin, W. Xing, D. Xiang, L. Wei, and Z. Xinsheng, "A surface plasmon resonance imaging interferometry for protein micro-array detection," Sens. Actuators B 108, 765-771 (2005).

Xinglong, Y.

Y. Xinglong, W. Dingxin, W. Xing, D. Xiang, L. Wei, and Z. Xinsheng, "A surface plasmon resonance imaging interferometry for protein micro-array detection," Sens. Actuators B 108, 765-771 (2005).

Xinsheng, Z.

Y. Xinglong, W. Dingxin, W. Xing, D. Xiang, L. Wei, and Z. Xinsheng, "A surface plasmon resonance imaging interferometry for protein micro-array detection," Sens. Actuators B 108, 765-771 (2005).

Yeatman, E.

E. Yeatman and E. Ash, "Surface plasmon microscopy," Electron. Lett. 23, 1091-1092 (1987).

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental scheme.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Flow chart of the phase extraction program.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Typical interference intensity variations output from the image analyzing program, after feeding a series of image frames to the phase extraction program. Differential phase is obtained by analyzing the relative positions of the interference plots obtained from p and s polarizations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Two-dimensional SPR phase map obtained from an array of salt solution sensor sites. Salt solution samples with concentrations ranging from 0% to 16% (1.3333–1.3612 RIU) are being measured simultaneously. Levels of phase responses are shown for different concentrations (174°–91°).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Response curve of the phase SPR imaging sensor. (The phase values are extracted from a region containing in 7   pixels × 3 pixels in the phase map.)

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) (a) Phase extraction was performed in different size of area (5 pixels × 5 pixels, 10   pixels × 10 pixels, etc.). (b) The system uncertainty is plotted against the number of pixels (N) used in phase extraction. The SD of the differential SPR phase measurement decreases linearly with increasing N.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) (a) Image of a microarray chip. It contains 100 elements within an area of 1 cm 2 . (b) The microarray chip is integrated with a glass prism for SPR phase imaging measurement. The figure shows the corresponding SPR phase image.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Measurement SD of Different Salt Concentration Samples

Equations (2)

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S = Δ n s / Δ x .
R = S SD .

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