Abstract

We demonstrate the effectiveness of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) for monitoring the development and stress detection of in vitro tissue cultures in a nondestructive and noninvasive way. The changes in LIF spectra caused by the induction of organogenesis, the increase of the F690∕F740 ratio as a result of the stress originated in the organogenic explants due to shoot emergence, and the relationship between fluorescence spectra and shoot development were detected by LIF through closed containers of Saintpaulia ionantha.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. Lüdeker, H. G. Dahn, and K. P. Günther, "Detection of fungal infection of plants by laser-induced fluorescence: an attempt to use remote sensing," J. Plant Physiol. 148, 579-585 (1996).
  2. L. Taiz and E. Zeiger, "Photosynthesis: the light reactions," in Plant Physiology, A.D. Sinauer, ed. (Sinauer, 1998), pp. 155-193.
  3. H. K. Lichtenthaler, "In vivo chlorophyll fluorescence as a tool for stress detection in plants," in Applications of Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Photosynthesis Research, Stress Physiology, Hydrobiology and Remote Sensing, H. K. Lichtenthaler, ed. (Kluwer, 1988), pp. 129-142.
  4. K. P. Günther, H. G. Dahn, and W. Lüdeker, "Remote sensing vegetation status by laser-induced fluorescence," Remote Sens. Environ. 47, 10-17 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. C. McFarlane, R. D. Watson, A. F. Theisen, R. D. Jackson, W. L. Ehrler, P. J. Pinter, Jr., S. B. Idso, and R. J. Reginato, "Plant stress detection by remote measurement of fluorescence," Appl. Opt. 19, 3287-3289 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. K. Lichtenthaler, "The Kaustky effect: 60 years of chlorophyll fluorescence induction kinetics," Photosynthetica 27, 45-55 (1992).
  7. H. K. Lichtenthaler and U. Rinderle, "The role of chlorophyll fluorescence in detection of stress in plants," Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. Suppl. I 19, 529-585 (1988).
  8. N. Subhash and C. N. Mohanan, "Laser-induced red chlorophyll fluorescence signatures as nutrient stress indicator in rice plants," Remote Sens. Environ. 47, 45-50 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Cervantes-Martínez, R. Flores-Hernández, B. Rodríguez-Garay, and F. Santacruz-Ruvalcaba, "Detection of bacterial infection of agave plants by laser-induced fluorescence," Appl. Opt. 41, 2541-2545 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Balachandran, V. M. Hurry, S. E. Kelley, C. B. Osmond, S. A. Robinson, J. Rohozinski, G. G. R. Seaton, and D. A. Sims, "Concepts of plant biotic stress. Some insights into the stress physiology of virus-infected plants, from the perspective of photosynthesis," Physiol. Plant. 100, 203-213 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Cervantes-Martínez, S. López-Díaz, and B. Rodríguez-Garay, "Detection of the effects of Methylobacterium in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul by laser-induced fluorescence," Plant Sci. 166, 889-892 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. V. Goltsev, T. Genkov, M. Lexa, and I. Ivanova, "Effect of benzyladenine, 4-PU-30 and thidiazuron on millisecond delayed and prompt chlorophyll fluorescence of Dianthus caryophyllus L. axillary buds cultured in vitro," Sci. Hortic. 89, 41-54 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Kadlecek, B. Rank, and I. Tichá, "Photosynthesis and photoprotection in Nicotiana tabacum L. in vitro-grown plantlets," J. Plant Physiol. 160, 1017-1024 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. J. Mathias and L. A. Boyd, "Cefotaxime stimulates callus growth, embryogenesis and regeneration in hexaploid bread wheat," Plant Sci. 46, 217-223 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. M. Yeppes and H. S. Aldwinckle, "Factors that affect leaf regeneration efficiency in apple, and effect of antibiotics in morphogenesis," Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. 37, 257-269 (1994).
  16. B. S. Bhau and A. K. Wakhlu, "Effect of some antibiotics on the in vitro morphogenetic response from callus cultures of Coryphantha elephantidens," Biol. Plant. 44, 19-24 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. A. Danilova and Y. I. Dolgikh, "The stimulatory effect of the antibiotic cefotaxime on plant regeneration in maize tissue culture," Russ. J. Plant Physiol. 51, 559-562 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. Holford and H. J. Newbury, "The effects of antibiotics and their breakdown products on the in vitro growth of Antirrhinum majus," Plant Cell Rep. 11, 93-96 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  19. N. Barbarin, B. Tilquin, and E. de Hoffmann. "Radiosterilization of cefotaxime: investigation of potential degradation compounds by liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry," J. Chromatogr. A 929, 51-61 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Q. Zhang, J. T. Wiskich, and K. I. Woole, "Respiratory activities in chloromphenicol-treated tobacco cells," Physiol. Plant. 105, 224-232 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  21. B. M. Reed, P. M. Buckley, and T. N. De Wilde, "Detection and eradication of endophytic bacteria from micropropagated mint plants," In Vitro Cell Dev. Biol. 31, 53-57 (1995).
  22. T. A. Murashige and F. C. Skoog, "A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassay with tobacco tissue cultures," Physiol. Plant. 15, 473-497 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  23. G. C. Phillips and G. B. Collins, "In vitro tissue culture of selected legumes and plant regeneration from callus cultures of red clover," Crop Sci. 19, 59-64 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  24. U. Rinderle and H. K. Lichtenthaler, "The chlorophyll fluorescence ratio F690/F735 as a possible stress indicator," in Applications of Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Photosynthesis Research, Stress Physiology, Hydrobiology and Remote Sensing, H. K. Lichtenthaler, ed. (Kluwer, 1988), pp. 189-196.
  25. E. W. Chapelle, J. E. McMurtrey III, F. M. Wood, and W. W. Newcomb, "Laser-induced fluorescence of green plants. 2: LIF caused by nutrient deficiencies in corn," Appl. Opt. 23, 139-142 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  26. E. F. George, Plant Propagation by Tissue Culture. The Technology. Part I. (Exegetics Limited, 1993).
  27. D. J. Donelly, W. E. Vidaver, and K. Colbow, "Fixation of 14CO2 in tissue cultured raspberry prior to and after transfer to soil," Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. 3, 313-317 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  28. B. W. W. Grout and M. J. Aston, "Transplanting of cauliflower plants regenerated from meristem culture. II: Carbon dioxide fixation and the development of photosynthetic ability," Hortic. Res. 17, 65-71 (1978).
  29. J. Mithila, J. C. Hall, J. M. R. Victor, and P. K. Saxena, "Thidiazuron induces shoot organogenesis at low concentrations and somatic embryogenesis at high concentrations on leaf and petiole explants of African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl)," Plant Cell Rep. 21, 408-414 (2003).
    [PubMed]
  30. C. Buschmann and H. K. Lichtenthaler, "Principles and characteristics of multi-color fluorescence imaging of plants," J. Plant Physiol. 152, 297-314 (1998).
  31. B. S. Mangat, M. K. Pelekis, and A. C. Cassells, "Changes in the starch content during organogenesis in in vitro cultured Begonia rex stem explants," Physiol. Plant. 79, 267-274 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  32. F. Stober, M. Lang, and H. K. Lichtenthaler, "Blue, green, and red fluorescence emission signatures of green, etiolated, and white leaves," Remote Sens. Environ. 47, 65-71 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  33. N. R. Baker and R. J. Strasser, "Development and spectral characteristics of excitation energy transfer between the photosystems during chloroplast biogenesis," Photobiochem. Photobiophys. 4, 265-273 (1982).

2004 (2)

J. Cervantes-Martínez, S. López-Díaz, and B. Rodríguez-Garay, "Detection of the effects of Methylobacterium in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul by laser-induced fluorescence," Plant Sci. 166, 889-892 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Danilova and Y. I. Dolgikh, "The stimulatory effect of the antibiotic cefotaxime on plant regeneration in maize tissue culture," Russ. J. Plant Physiol. 51, 559-562 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

P. Kadlecek, B. Rank, and I. Tichá, "Photosynthesis and photoprotection in Nicotiana tabacum L. in vitro-grown plantlets," J. Plant Physiol. 160, 1017-1024 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mithila, J. C. Hall, J. M. R. Victor, and P. K. Saxena, "Thidiazuron induces shoot organogenesis at low concentrations and somatic embryogenesis at high concentrations on leaf and petiole explants of African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl)," Plant Cell Rep. 21, 408-414 (2003).
[PubMed]

2002 (1)

2001 (3)

V. Goltsev, T. Genkov, M. Lexa, and I. Ivanova, "Effect of benzyladenine, 4-PU-30 and thidiazuron on millisecond delayed and prompt chlorophyll fluorescence of Dianthus caryophyllus L. axillary buds cultured in vitro," Sci. Hortic. 89, 41-54 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Barbarin, B. Tilquin, and E. de Hoffmann. "Radiosterilization of cefotaxime: investigation of potential degradation compounds by liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry," J. Chromatogr. A 929, 51-61 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Bhau and A. K. Wakhlu, "Effect of some antibiotics on the in vitro morphogenetic response from callus cultures of Coryphantha elephantidens," Biol. Plant. 44, 19-24 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Q. Zhang, J. T. Wiskich, and K. I. Woole, "Respiratory activities in chloromphenicol-treated tobacco cells," Physiol. Plant. 105, 224-232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

C. Buschmann and H. K. Lichtenthaler, "Principles and characteristics of multi-color fluorescence imaging of plants," J. Plant Physiol. 152, 297-314 (1998).

1997 (1)

S. Balachandran, V. M. Hurry, S. E. Kelley, C. B. Osmond, S. A. Robinson, J. Rohozinski, G. G. R. Seaton, and D. A. Sims, "Concepts of plant biotic stress. Some insights into the stress physiology of virus-infected plants, from the perspective of photosynthesis," Physiol. Plant. 100, 203-213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

W. Lüdeker, H. G. Dahn, and K. P. Günther, "Detection of fungal infection of plants by laser-induced fluorescence: an attempt to use remote sensing," J. Plant Physiol. 148, 579-585 (1996).

1995 (1)

B. M. Reed, P. M. Buckley, and T. N. De Wilde, "Detection and eradication of endophytic bacteria from micropropagated mint plants," In Vitro Cell Dev. Biol. 31, 53-57 (1995).

1994 (4)

L. M. Yeppes and H. S. Aldwinckle, "Factors that affect leaf regeneration efficiency in apple, and effect of antibiotics in morphogenesis," Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. 37, 257-269 (1994).

K. P. Günther, H. G. Dahn, and W. Lüdeker, "Remote sensing vegetation status by laser-induced fluorescence," Remote Sens. Environ. 47, 10-17 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Stober, M. Lang, and H. K. Lichtenthaler, "Blue, green, and red fluorescence emission signatures of green, etiolated, and white leaves," Remote Sens. Environ. 47, 65-71 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. Subhash and C. N. Mohanan, "Laser-induced red chlorophyll fluorescence signatures as nutrient stress indicator in rice plants," Remote Sens. Environ. 47, 45-50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

P. Holford and H. J. Newbury, "The effects of antibiotics and their breakdown products on the in vitro growth of Antirrhinum majus," Plant Cell Rep. 11, 93-96 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Lichtenthaler, "The Kaustky effect: 60 years of chlorophyll fluorescence induction kinetics," Photosynthetica 27, 45-55 (1992).

1990 (1)

B. S. Mangat, M. K. Pelekis, and A. C. Cassells, "Changes in the starch content during organogenesis in in vitro cultured Begonia rex stem explants," Physiol. Plant. 79, 267-274 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

H. K. Lichtenthaler and U. Rinderle, "The role of chlorophyll fluorescence in detection of stress in plants," Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. Suppl. I 19, 529-585 (1988).

1986 (1)

R. J. Mathias and L. A. Boyd, "Cefotaxime stimulates callus growth, embryogenesis and regeneration in hexaploid bread wheat," Plant Sci. 46, 217-223 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

D. J. Donelly, W. E. Vidaver, and K. Colbow, "Fixation of 14CO2 in tissue cultured raspberry prior to and after transfer to soil," Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. 3, 313-317 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Chapelle, J. E. McMurtrey III, F. M. Wood, and W. W. Newcomb, "Laser-induced fluorescence of green plants. 2: LIF caused by nutrient deficiencies in corn," Appl. Opt. 23, 139-142 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

N. R. Baker and R. J. Strasser, "Development and spectral characteristics of excitation energy transfer between the photosystems during chloroplast biogenesis," Photobiochem. Photobiophys. 4, 265-273 (1982).

1980 (1)

1979 (1)

G. C. Phillips and G. B. Collins, "In vitro tissue culture of selected legumes and plant regeneration from callus cultures of red clover," Crop Sci. 19, 59-64 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

B. W. W. Grout and M. J. Aston, "Transplanting of cauliflower plants regenerated from meristem culture. II: Carbon dioxide fixation and the development of photosynthetic ability," Hortic. Res. 17, 65-71 (1978).

1962 (1)

T. A. Murashige and F. C. Skoog, "A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassay with tobacco tissue cultures," Physiol. Plant. 15, 473-497 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Aldwinckle, H. S.

L. M. Yeppes and H. S. Aldwinckle, "Factors that affect leaf regeneration efficiency in apple, and effect of antibiotics in morphogenesis," Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. 37, 257-269 (1994).

Aston, M. J.

B. W. W. Grout and M. J. Aston, "Transplanting of cauliflower plants regenerated from meristem culture. II: Carbon dioxide fixation and the development of photosynthetic ability," Hortic. Res. 17, 65-71 (1978).

Baker, N. R.

N. R. Baker and R. J. Strasser, "Development and spectral characteristics of excitation energy transfer between the photosystems during chloroplast biogenesis," Photobiochem. Photobiophys. 4, 265-273 (1982).

Balachandran, S.

S. Balachandran, V. M. Hurry, S. E. Kelley, C. B. Osmond, S. A. Robinson, J. Rohozinski, G. G. R. Seaton, and D. A. Sims, "Concepts of plant biotic stress. Some insights into the stress physiology of virus-infected plants, from the perspective of photosynthesis," Physiol. Plant. 100, 203-213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barbarin, N.

N. Barbarin, B. Tilquin, and E. de Hoffmann. "Radiosterilization of cefotaxime: investigation of potential degradation compounds by liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry," J. Chromatogr. A 929, 51-61 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bhau, B. S.

B. S. Bhau and A. K. Wakhlu, "Effect of some antibiotics on the in vitro morphogenetic response from callus cultures of Coryphantha elephantidens," Biol. Plant. 44, 19-24 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, L. A.

R. J. Mathias and L. A. Boyd, "Cefotaxime stimulates callus growth, embryogenesis and regeneration in hexaploid bread wheat," Plant Sci. 46, 217-223 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Buckley, P. M.

B. M. Reed, P. M. Buckley, and T. N. De Wilde, "Detection and eradication of endophytic bacteria from micropropagated mint plants," In Vitro Cell Dev. Biol. 31, 53-57 (1995).

Buschmann, C.

C. Buschmann and H. K. Lichtenthaler, "Principles and characteristics of multi-color fluorescence imaging of plants," J. Plant Physiol. 152, 297-314 (1998).

Cassells, A. C.

B. S. Mangat, M. K. Pelekis, and A. C. Cassells, "Changes in the starch content during organogenesis in in vitro cultured Begonia rex stem explants," Physiol. Plant. 79, 267-274 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cervantes-Martínez, J.

J. Cervantes-Martínez, S. López-Díaz, and B. Rodríguez-Garay, "Detection of the effects of Methylobacterium in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul by laser-induced fluorescence," Plant Sci. 166, 889-892 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Cervantes-Martínez, R. Flores-Hernández, B. Rodríguez-Garay, and F. Santacruz-Ruvalcaba, "Detection of bacterial infection of agave plants by laser-induced fluorescence," Appl. Opt. 41, 2541-2545 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chapelle, E. W.

Colbow, K.

D. J. Donelly, W. E. Vidaver, and K. Colbow, "Fixation of 14CO2 in tissue cultured raspberry prior to and after transfer to soil," Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. 3, 313-317 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Collins, G. B.

G. C. Phillips and G. B. Collins, "In vitro tissue culture of selected legumes and plant regeneration from callus cultures of red clover," Crop Sci. 19, 59-64 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Dahn, H. G.

W. Lüdeker, H. G. Dahn, and K. P. Günther, "Detection of fungal infection of plants by laser-induced fluorescence: an attempt to use remote sensing," J. Plant Physiol. 148, 579-585 (1996).

K. P. Günther, H. G. Dahn, and W. Lüdeker, "Remote sensing vegetation status by laser-induced fluorescence," Remote Sens. Environ. 47, 10-17 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Danilova, S. A.

S. A. Danilova and Y. I. Dolgikh, "The stimulatory effect of the antibiotic cefotaxime on plant regeneration in maize tissue culture," Russ. J. Plant Physiol. 51, 559-562 (2004).
[CrossRef]

de Hoffmann, E.

N. Barbarin, B. Tilquin, and E. de Hoffmann. "Radiosterilization of cefotaxime: investigation of potential degradation compounds by liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry," J. Chromatogr. A 929, 51-61 (2001).
[CrossRef]

De Wilde, T. N.

B. M. Reed, P. M. Buckley, and T. N. De Wilde, "Detection and eradication of endophytic bacteria from micropropagated mint plants," In Vitro Cell Dev. Biol. 31, 53-57 (1995).

Dolgikh, Y. I.

S. A. Danilova and Y. I. Dolgikh, "The stimulatory effect of the antibiotic cefotaxime on plant regeneration in maize tissue culture," Russ. J. Plant Physiol. 51, 559-562 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Donelly, D. J.

D. J. Donelly, W. E. Vidaver, and K. Colbow, "Fixation of 14CO2 in tissue cultured raspberry prior to and after transfer to soil," Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. 3, 313-317 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ehrler, W. L.

Flores-Hernández, R.

Genkov, T.

V. Goltsev, T. Genkov, M. Lexa, and I. Ivanova, "Effect of benzyladenine, 4-PU-30 and thidiazuron on millisecond delayed and prompt chlorophyll fluorescence of Dianthus caryophyllus L. axillary buds cultured in vitro," Sci. Hortic. 89, 41-54 (2001).
[CrossRef]

George, E. F.

E. F. George, Plant Propagation by Tissue Culture. The Technology. Part I. (Exegetics Limited, 1993).

Goltsev, V.

V. Goltsev, T. Genkov, M. Lexa, and I. Ivanova, "Effect of benzyladenine, 4-PU-30 and thidiazuron on millisecond delayed and prompt chlorophyll fluorescence of Dianthus caryophyllus L. axillary buds cultured in vitro," Sci. Hortic. 89, 41-54 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grout, B. W. W.

B. W. W. Grout and M. J. Aston, "Transplanting of cauliflower plants regenerated from meristem culture. II: Carbon dioxide fixation and the development of photosynthetic ability," Hortic. Res. 17, 65-71 (1978).

Günther, K. P.

W. Lüdeker, H. G. Dahn, and K. P. Günther, "Detection of fungal infection of plants by laser-induced fluorescence: an attempt to use remote sensing," J. Plant Physiol. 148, 579-585 (1996).

K. P. Günther, H. G. Dahn, and W. Lüdeker, "Remote sensing vegetation status by laser-induced fluorescence," Remote Sens. Environ. 47, 10-17 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. C.

J. Mithila, J. C. Hall, J. M. R. Victor, and P. K. Saxena, "Thidiazuron induces shoot organogenesis at low concentrations and somatic embryogenesis at high concentrations on leaf and petiole explants of African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl)," Plant Cell Rep. 21, 408-414 (2003).
[PubMed]

Holford, P.

P. Holford and H. J. Newbury, "The effects of antibiotics and their breakdown products on the in vitro growth of Antirrhinum majus," Plant Cell Rep. 11, 93-96 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hurry, V. M.

S. Balachandran, V. M. Hurry, S. E. Kelley, C. B. Osmond, S. A. Robinson, J. Rohozinski, G. G. R. Seaton, and D. A. Sims, "Concepts of plant biotic stress. Some insights into the stress physiology of virus-infected plants, from the perspective of photosynthesis," Physiol. Plant. 100, 203-213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Idso, S. B.

Ivanova, I.

V. Goltsev, T. Genkov, M. Lexa, and I. Ivanova, "Effect of benzyladenine, 4-PU-30 and thidiazuron on millisecond delayed and prompt chlorophyll fluorescence of Dianthus caryophyllus L. axillary buds cultured in vitro," Sci. Hortic. 89, 41-54 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, R. D.

Kadlecek, P.

P. Kadlecek, B. Rank, and I. Tichá, "Photosynthesis and photoprotection in Nicotiana tabacum L. in vitro-grown plantlets," J. Plant Physiol. 160, 1017-1024 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelley, S. E.

S. Balachandran, V. M. Hurry, S. E. Kelley, C. B. Osmond, S. A. Robinson, J. Rohozinski, G. G. R. Seaton, and D. A. Sims, "Concepts of plant biotic stress. Some insights into the stress physiology of virus-infected plants, from the perspective of photosynthesis," Physiol. Plant. 100, 203-213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lang, M.

F. Stober, M. Lang, and H. K. Lichtenthaler, "Blue, green, and red fluorescence emission signatures of green, etiolated, and white leaves," Remote Sens. Environ. 47, 65-71 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lexa, M.

V. Goltsev, T. Genkov, M. Lexa, and I. Ivanova, "Effect of benzyladenine, 4-PU-30 and thidiazuron on millisecond delayed and prompt chlorophyll fluorescence of Dianthus caryophyllus L. axillary buds cultured in vitro," Sci. Hortic. 89, 41-54 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lichtenthaler, H. K.

C. Buschmann and H. K. Lichtenthaler, "Principles and characteristics of multi-color fluorescence imaging of plants," J. Plant Physiol. 152, 297-314 (1998).

F. Stober, M. Lang, and H. K. Lichtenthaler, "Blue, green, and red fluorescence emission signatures of green, etiolated, and white leaves," Remote Sens. Environ. 47, 65-71 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Lichtenthaler, "The Kaustky effect: 60 years of chlorophyll fluorescence induction kinetics," Photosynthetica 27, 45-55 (1992).

H. K. Lichtenthaler and U. Rinderle, "The role of chlorophyll fluorescence in detection of stress in plants," Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. Suppl. I 19, 529-585 (1988).

U. Rinderle and H. K. Lichtenthaler, "The chlorophyll fluorescence ratio F690/F735 as a possible stress indicator," in Applications of Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Photosynthesis Research, Stress Physiology, Hydrobiology and Remote Sensing, H. K. Lichtenthaler, ed. (Kluwer, 1988), pp. 189-196.

H. K. Lichtenthaler, "In vivo chlorophyll fluorescence as a tool for stress detection in plants," in Applications of Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Photosynthesis Research, Stress Physiology, Hydrobiology and Remote Sensing, H. K. Lichtenthaler, ed. (Kluwer, 1988), pp. 129-142.

López-Díaz, S.

J. Cervantes-Martínez, S. López-Díaz, and B. Rodríguez-Garay, "Detection of the effects of Methylobacterium in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul by laser-induced fluorescence," Plant Sci. 166, 889-892 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lüdeker, W.

W. Lüdeker, H. G. Dahn, and K. P. Günther, "Detection of fungal infection of plants by laser-induced fluorescence: an attempt to use remote sensing," J. Plant Physiol. 148, 579-585 (1996).

K. P. Günther, H. G. Dahn, and W. Lüdeker, "Remote sensing vegetation status by laser-induced fluorescence," Remote Sens. Environ. 47, 10-17 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mangat, B. S.

B. S. Mangat, M. K. Pelekis, and A. C. Cassells, "Changes in the starch content during organogenesis in in vitro cultured Begonia rex stem explants," Physiol. Plant. 79, 267-274 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mathias, R. J.

R. J. Mathias and L. A. Boyd, "Cefotaxime stimulates callus growth, embryogenesis and regeneration in hexaploid bread wheat," Plant Sci. 46, 217-223 (1986).
[CrossRef]

McFarlane, J. C.

McMurtrey, J. E.

Mithila, J.

J. Mithila, J. C. Hall, J. M. R. Victor, and P. K. Saxena, "Thidiazuron induces shoot organogenesis at low concentrations and somatic embryogenesis at high concentrations on leaf and petiole explants of African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl)," Plant Cell Rep. 21, 408-414 (2003).
[PubMed]

Mohanan, C. N.

N. Subhash and C. N. Mohanan, "Laser-induced red chlorophyll fluorescence signatures as nutrient stress indicator in rice plants," Remote Sens. Environ. 47, 45-50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Murashige, T. A.

T. A. Murashige and F. C. Skoog, "A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassay with tobacco tissue cultures," Physiol. Plant. 15, 473-497 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Newbury, H. J.

P. Holford and H. J. Newbury, "The effects of antibiotics and their breakdown products on the in vitro growth of Antirrhinum majus," Plant Cell Rep. 11, 93-96 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Newcomb, W. W.

Osmond, C. B.

S. Balachandran, V. M. Hurry, S. E. Kelley, C. B. Osmond, S. A. Robinson, J. Rohozinski, G. G. R. Seaton, and D. A. Sims, "Concepts of plant biotic stress. Some insights into the stress physiology of virus-infected plants, from the perspective of photosynthesis," Physiol. Plant. 100, 203-213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pelekis, M. K.

B. S. Mangat, M. K. Pelekis, and A. C. Cassells, "Changes in the starch content during organogenesis in in vitro cultured Begonia rex stem explants," Physiol. Plant. 79, 267-274 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, G. C.

G. C. Phillips and G. B. Collins, "In vitro tissue culture of selected legumes and plant regeneration from callus cultures of red clover," Crop Sci. 19, 59-64 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Pinter, P. J.

Rank, B.

P. Kadlecek, B. Rank, and I. Tichá, "Photosynthesis and photoprotection in Nicotiana tabacum L. in vitro-grown plantlets," J. Plant Physiol. 160, 1017-1024 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reed, B. M.

B. M. Reed, P. M. Buckley, and T. N. De Wilde, "Detection and eradication of endophytic bacteria from micropropagated mint plants," In Vitro Cell Dev. Biol. 31, 53-57 (1995).

Reginato, R. J.

Rinderle, U.

H. K. Lichtenthaler and U. Rinderle, "The role of chlorophyll fluorescence in detection of stress in plants," Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. Suppl. I 19, 529-585 (1988).

U. Rinderle and H. K. Lichtenthaler, "The chlorophyll fluorescence ratio F690/F735 as a possible stress indicator," in Applications of Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Photosynthesis Research, Stress Physiology, Hydrobiology and Remote Sensing, H. K. Lichtenthaler, ed. (Kluwer, 1988), pp. 189-196.

Robinson, S. A.

S. Balachandran, V. M. Hurry, S. E. Kelley, C. B. Osmond, S. A. Robinson, J. Rohozinski, G. G. R. Seaton, and D. A. Sims, "Concepts of plant biotic stress. Some insights into the stress physiology of virus-infected plants, from the perspective of photosynthesis," Physiol. Plant. 100, 203-213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rodríguez-Garay, B.

J. Cervantes-Martínez, S. López-Díaz, and B. Rodríguez-Garay, "Detection of the effects of Methylobacterium in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul by laser-induced fluorescence," Plant Sci. 166, 889-892 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Cervantes-Martínez, R. Flores-Hernández, B. Rodríguez-Garay, and F. Santacruz-Ruvalcaba, "Detection of bacterial infection of agave plants by laser-induced fluorescence," Appl. Opt. 41, 2541-2545 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rohozinski, J.

S. Balachandran, V. M. Hurry, S. E. Kelley, C. B. Osmond, S. A. Robinson, J. Rohozinski, G. G. R. Seaton, and D. A. Sims, "Concepts of plant biotic stress. Some insights into the stress physiology of virus-infected plants, from the perspective of photosynthesis," Physiol. Plant. 100, 203-213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Santacruz-Ruvalcaba, F.

Saxena, P. K.

J. Mithila, J. C. Hall, J. M. R. Victor, and P. K. Saxena, "Thidiazuron induces shoot organogenesis at low concentrations and somatic embryogenesis at high concentrations on leaf and petiole explants of African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl)," Plant Cell Rep. 21, 408-414 (2003).
[PubMed]

Seaton, G. G. R.

S. Balachandran, V. M. Hurry, S. E. Kelley, C. B. Osmond, S. A. Robinson, J. Rohozinski, G. G. R. Seaton, and D. A. Sims, "Concepts of plant biotic stress. Some insights into the stress physiology of virus-infected plants, from the perspective of photosynthesis," Physiol. Plant. 100, 203-213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sims, D. A.

S. Balachandran, V. M. Hurry, S. E. Kelley, C. B. Osmond, S. A. Robinson, J. Rohozinski, G. G. R. Seaton, and D. A. Sims, "Concepts of plant biotic stress. Some insights into the stress physiology of virus-infected plants, from the perspective of photosynthesis," Physiol. Plant. 100, 203-213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Skoog, F. C.

T. A. Murashige and F. C. Skoog, "A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassay with tobacco tissue cultures," Physiol. Plant. 15, 473-497 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Stober, F.

F. Stober, M. Lang, and H. K. Lichtenthaler, "Blue, green, and red fluorescence emission signatures of green, etiolated, and white leaves," Remote Sens. Environ. 47, 65-71 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, R. J.

N. R. Baker and R. J. Strasser, "Development and spectral characteristics of excitation energy transfer between the photosystems during chloroplast biogenesis," Photobiochem. Photobiophys. 4, 265-273 (1982).

Subhash, N.

N. Subhash and C. N. Mohanan, "Laser-induced red chlorophyll fluorescence signatures as nutrient stress indicator in rice plants," Remote Sens. Environ. 47, 45-50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Taiz, L.

L. Taiz and E. Zeiger, "Photosynthesis: the light reactions," in Plant Physiology, A.D. Sinauer, ed. (Sinauer, 1998), pp. 155-193.

Theisen, A. F.

Tichá, I.

P. Kadlecek, B. Rank, and I. Tichá, "Photosynthesis and photoprotection in Nicotiana tabacum L. in vitro-grown plantlets," J. Plant Physiol. 160, 1017-1024 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tilquin, B.

N. Barbarin, B. Tilquin, and E. de Hoffmann. "Radiosterilization of cefotaxime: investigation of potential degradation compounds by liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry," J. Chromatogr. A 929, 51-61 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Victor, J. M. R.

J. Mithila, J. C. Hall, J. M. R. Victor, and P. K. Saxena, "Thidiazuron induces shoot organogenesis at low concentrations and somatic embryogenesis at high concentrations on leaf and petiole explants of African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl)," Plant Cell Rep. 21, 408-414 (2003).
[PubMed]

Vidaver, W. E.

D. J. Donelly, W. E. Vidaver, and K. Colbow, "Fixation of 14CO2 in tissue cultured raspberry prior to and after transfer to soil," Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. 3, 313-317 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wakhlu, A. K.

B. S. Bhau and A. K. Wakhlu, "Effect of some antibiotics on the in vitro morphogenetic response from callus cultures of Coryphantha elephantidens," Biol. Plant. 44, 19-24 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Watson, R. D.

Wiskich, J. T.

Q. Zhang, J. T. Wiskich, and K. I. Woole, "Respiratory activities in chloromphenicol-treated tobacco cells," Physiol. Plant. 105, 224-232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wood, F. M.

Woole, K. I.

Q. Zhang, J. T. Wiskich, and K. I. Woole, "Respiratory activities in chloromphenicol-treated tobacco cells," Physiol. Plant. 105, 224-232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yeppes, L. M.

L. M. Yeppes and H. S. Aldwinckle, "Factors that affect leaf regeneration efficiency in apple, and effect of antibiotics in morphogenesis," Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. 37, 257-269 (1994).

Zeiger, E.

L. Taiz and E. Zeiger, "Photosynthesis: the light reactions," in Plant Physiology, A.D. Sinauer, ed. (Sinauer, 1998), pp. 155-193.

Zhang, Q.

Q. Zhang, J. T. Wiskich, and K. I. Woole, "Respiratory activities in chloromphenicol-treated tobacco cells," Physiol. Plant. 105, 224-232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Biol. Plant. (1)

B. S. Bhau and A. K. Wakhlu, "Effect of some antibiotics on the in vitro morphogenetic response from callus cultures of Coryphantha elephantidens," Biol. Plant. 44, 19-24 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. Suppl. I (1)

H. K. Lichtenthaler and U. Rinderle, "The role of chlorophyll fluorescence in detection of stress in plants," Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. Suppl. I 19, 529-585 (1988).

Crop Sci. (1)

G. C. Phillips and G. B. Collins, "In vitro tissue culture of selected legumes and plant regeneration from callus cultures of red clover," Crop Sci. 19, 59-64 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hortic. Res. (1)

B. W. W. Grout and M. J. Aston, "Transplanting of cauliflower plants regenerated from meristem culture. II: Carbon dioxide fixation and the development of photosynthetic ability," Hortic. Res. 17, 65-71 (1978).

In Vitro Cell Dev. Biol. (1)

B. M. Reed, P. M. Buckley, and T. N. De Wilde, "Detection and eradication of endophytic bacteria from micropropagated mint plants," In Vitro Cell Dev. Biol. 31, 53-57 (1995).

J. Chromatogr. A (1)

N. Barbarin, B. Tilquin, and E. de Hoffmann. "Radiosterilization of cefotaxime: investigation of potential degradation compounds by liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry," J. Chromatogr. A 929, 51-61 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Plant Physiol. (3)

W. Lüdeker, H. G. Dahn, and K. P. Günther, "Detection of fungal infection of plants by laser-induced fluorescence: an attempt to use remote sensing," J. Plant Physiol. 148, 579-585 (1996).

P. Kadlecek, B. Rank, and I. Tichá, "Photosynthesis and photoprotection in Nicotiana tabacum L. in vitro-grown plantlets," J. Plant Physiol. 160, 1017-1024 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Buschmann and H. K. Lichtenthaler, "Principles and characteristics of multi-color fluorescence imaging of plants," J. Plant Physiol. 152, 297-314 (1998).

Photobiochem. Photobiophys. (1)

N. R. Baker and R. J. Strasser, "Development and spectral characteristics of excitation energy transfer between the photosystems during chloroplast biogenesis," Photobiochem. Photobiophys. 4, 265-273 (1982).

Photosynthetica (1)

H. K. Lichtenthaler, "The Kaustky effect: 60 years of chlorophyll fluorescence induction kinetics," Photosynthetica 27, 45-55 (1992).

Physiol. Plant. (4)

B. S. Mangat, M. K. Pelekis, and A. C. Cassells, "Changes in the starch content during organogenesis in in vitro cultured Begonia rex stem explants," Physiol. Plant. 79, 267-274 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Balachandran, V. M. Hurry, S. E. Kelley, C. B. Osmond, S. A. Robinson, J. Rohozinski, G. G. R. Seaton, and D. A. Sims, "Concepts of plant biotic stress. Some insights into the stress physiology of virus-infected plants, from the perspective of photosynthesis," Physiol. Plant. 100, 203-213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, J. T. Wiskich, and K. I. Woole, "Respiratory activities in chloromphenicol-treated tobacco cells," Physiol. Plant. 105, 224-232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Murashige and F. C. Skoog, "A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassay with tobacco tissue cultures," Physiol. Plant. 15, 473-497 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Plant Cell Rep. (2)

P. Holford and H. J. Newbury, "The effects of antibiotics and their breakdown products on the in vitro growth of Antirrhinum majus," Plant Cell Rep. 11, 93-96 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Mithila, J. C. Hall, J. M. R. Victor, and P. K. Saxena, "Thidiazuron induces shoot organogenesis at low concentrations and somatic embryogenesis at high concentrations on leaf and petiole explants of African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl)," Plant Cell Rep. 21, 408-414 (2003).
[PubMed]

Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. (2)

D. J. Donelly, W. E. Vidaver, and K. Colbow, "Fixation of 14CO2 in tissue cultured raspberry prior to and after transfer to soil," Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. 3, 313-317 (1984).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Yeppes and H. S. Aldwinckle, "Factors that affect leaf regeneration efficiency in apple, and effect of antibiotics in morphogenesis," Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. 37, 257-269 (1994).

Plant Sci. (2)

J. Cervantes-Martínez, S. López-Díaz, and B. Rodríguez-Garay, "Detection of the effects of Methylobacterium in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul by laser-induced fluorescence," Plant Sci. 166, 889-892 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Mathias and L. A. Boyd, "Cefotaxime stimulates callus growth, embryogenesis and regeneration in hexaploid bread wheat," Plant Sci. 46, 217-223 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (3)

F. Stober, M. Lang, and H. K. Lichtenthaler, "Blue, green, and red fluorescence emission signatures of green, etiolated, and white leaves," Remote Sens. Environ. 47, 65-71 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Günther, H. G. Dahn, and W. Lüdeker, "Remote sensing vegetation status by laser-induced fluorescence," Remote Sens. Environ. 47, 10-17 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. Subhash and C. N. Mohanan, "Laser-induced red chlorophyll fluorescence signatures as nutrient stress indicator in rice plants," Remote Sens. Environ. 47, 45-50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Russ. J. Plant Physiol. (1)

S. A. Danilova and Y. I. Dolgikh, "The stimulatory effect of the antibiotic cefotaxime on plant regeneration in maize tissue culture," Russ. J. Plant Physiol. 51, 559-562 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Hortic. (1)

V. Goltsev, T. Genkov, M. Lexa, and I. Ivanova, "Effect of benzyladenine, 4-PU-30 and thidiazuron on millisecond delayed and prompt chlorophyll fluorescence of Dianthus caryophyllus L. axillary buds cultured in vitro," Sci. Hortic. 89, 41-54 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

L. Taiz and E. Zeiger, "Photosynthesis: the light reactions," in Plant Physiology, A.D. Sinauer, ed. (Sinauer, 1998), pp. 155-193.

H. K. Lichtenthaler, "In vivo chlorophyll fluorescence as a tool for stress detection in plants," in Applications of Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Photosynthesis Research, Stress Physiology, Hydrobiology and Remote Sensing, H. K. Lichtenthaler, ed. (Kluwer, 1988), pp. 129-142.

U. Rinderle and H. K. Lichtenthaler, "The chlorophyll fluorescence ratio F690/F735 as a possible stress indicator," in Applications of Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Photosynthesis Research, Stress Physiology, Hydrobiology and Remote Sensing, H. K. Lichtenthaler, ed. (Kluwer, 1988), pp. 189-196.

E. F. George, Plant Propagation by Tissue Culture. The Technology. Part I. (Exegetics Limited, 1993).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

LIF experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Change over time in the F690∕F740 ratio of intact leaves, untreated explants, and cefotaxime-treated explants of Saintpaulia ionantha cultured in vitro.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Chlorophyll fluorescence spectra of in vitro plant tissue cultures of Saintpaulia ionantha. A, Untreated organogenic explant (first control) from day 4 to day 39. B, Organogenic explant with 150 mg l 1 cefotaxime treatment from day 4 to day 39. C, Shoot development during 4 week period.

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