Abstract

We recently developed and reported an eye fixation monitor that detects the fovea by its radial orientation of birefringent nerve fibers. The instrument used a four-quadrant photodetector and a normalized difference function to check for a best match between the detector quadrants and the arms of the bow-tie pattern of polarization states surrounding the fovea. This function had a maximum during central fixation but could not tell where the subject was looking relative to the center. We propose a linear transformation to obtain horizontal and vertical eye position coordinates from the four photodetector signals, followed by correction based on a priori calibration information. The method was verified on both a computer model and on human eyes. The major advantage of this new eye-tracking method is that it uses true information coming from the fovea, rather than reflections from other structures, to identify the direction of foveal gaze.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [PubMed]

2006 (3)

C. Mello-Thoms, C. Britton, G. Abrams, C. Hakim, R. Shah, L. Hardesty, G. Maitz, and D. Gur, "Head-mounted versus remote eye tracking of radiologists searching for breast cancer: a comparison," Acad. Radiol. 13, 203-209 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Salman, J. A. Sharpe, M. Eizenman, L. Lillakas, C. Westall, T. To, M. Dennis, and M. J. Steinbach, "Saccades in children," Vision Res. 46, 1432-1439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. I. Gramatikov, O. H. Y. Zalloum, Y. K. Wu, D. G. Hunter, and D. L. Guyton, "Birefringence-based eye fixation monitor with no moving parts," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 034025 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

D. G. Hunter, D. S. Nassif, N. V. Piskun, R. Winsor, B. I. Gramatikov, and D. L. Guyton, "Pediatric vision screener 1: instrument design and operation," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1363-1368 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

D. G. Hunter, A. S. Shah, S. Sau, D. Nassif, and D. L. Guyton, "Automated detection of ocular alignment with binocular retinal birefringence scanning," Appl. Opt. 42, 3047-3053 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Nassif, B. Gramatikov, D. Guyton, and D. Hunter, "Pediatric vision screening using binocular retinal birefringence scanning," Ophthalmic Technologies XIII,Proc. SPIE 4951, 9-20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Paperno and D. Semyonov, "A new method for eye location tracking," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 50, 1174-1179 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (7)

K. Hartnegg and B. Fischer, "A turn-key transportable eye-tracking instrument for clinical assessment," Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 34, 625-629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Irie, B. A. Wilson, R. D. Jones, P. J. Bones, and T. J. Anderson, "A laser-based eye-tracking system," Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 34, 561-572 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Clarke, J. Ditterich, K. Druen, U. Schonfeld, and C. Steineke, "Using high frame rate CMOS sensors for three-dimensional eye tracking," Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 34, 549-560 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Schaeffel, "Kappa and Hirschberg ratio measured with an automated video gaze tracker," Optom. Vision Sci. 79, 329-334 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Van der Geest and M. A. Frens, "Recording eye movements with video-oculography and scleral search coils: a direct comparison of two methods," J Neurosci. Methods 114, 185-195 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Knighton and X. R. Huang, "Linear birefringence of the central human cornea," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual. Sci. 43, 82-86 (2002).

R. N. Weinreb, C. Bowd, D. S. Greenfield, and L. M. Zangwill, "Measurement of the magnitude and axis of corneal polarization with scanning laser polarimetry," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 120, 901-906 (2002).
[PubMed]

2000 (1)

J. S. Stahl, A. M. van Alphen, and C. I. De Zeeuw, "A comparison of video and magnetic search coil recordings of mouse eye movements," J Neurosci. Methods 99, 101-110 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

1992 (1)

1988 (2)

H. B. Klein Brink and G. J. van Blokland, "Birefringence of the human foveal area assessed in vivo with Mueller-matrix ellipsometry," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 49-57 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Reulen, J. T. Marcus, D. Koops, F. R. de Vries, G. Tiesinga, K. Boshuizen, and J. E. Bos, "Precise recording of eye movement: the IRIS technique. Part 1," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 26, 20-26 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

D. T. Sandwell, "Biharmonic spline interpolation of GEOS-3 and SEASAT altimeter data," Geophys. Res. Lett. 2, 139-142 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

M. Eizenman, R. C. Frecker, and P. E. Hallett, "Precise non-contacting measurement of eye movements using the corneal reflex," Vision Res. 24, 167-174 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

H. Collewijn, F. van der Mark, and T. C. Jansen, "Precise recording of human eye movements," Vision Res. 15, 447-450 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

Abrams, G.

C. Mello-Thoms, C. Britton, G. Abrams, C. Hakim, R. Shah, L. Hardesty, G. Maitz, and D. Gur, "Head-mounted versus remote eye tracking of radiologists searching for breast cancer: a comparison," Acad. Radiol. 13, 203-209 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, T. J.

K. Irie, B. A. Wilson, R. D. Jones, P. J. Bones, and T. J. Anderson, "A laser-based eye-tracking system," Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 34, 561-572 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ashton, N.

S. Duke-Elder, N. Ashton, R. J. H. Smith, and M. Lederman, "Entoptic Observations," in The Foundations of Ophthalmology, System of Ophthalmology (C. V. Mosby, 1964), Chap. 15.

Bones, P. J.

K. Irie, B. A. Wilson, R. D. Jones, P. J. Bones, and T. J. Anderson, "A laser-based eye-tracking system," Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 34, 561-572 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bos, J. E.

J. P. Reulen, J. T. Marcus, D. Koops, F. R. de Vries, G. Tiesinga, K. Boshuizen, and J. E. Bos, "Precise recording of eye movement: the IRIS technique. Part 1," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 26, 20-26 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boshuizen, K.

J. P. Reulen, J. T. Marcus, D. Koops, F. R. de Vries, G. Tiesinga, K. Boshuizen, and J. E. Bos, "Precise recording of eye movement: the IRIS technique. Part 1," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 26, 20-26 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowd, C.

R. N. Weinreb, C. Bowd, D. S. Greenfield, and L. M. Zangwill, "Measurement of the magnitude and axis of corneal polarization with scanning laser polarimetry," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 120, 901-906 (2002).
[PubMed]

Brink, H. B. Klein

Britton, C.

C. Mello-Thoms, C. Britton, G. Abrams, C. Hakim, R. Shah, L. Hardesty, G. Maitz, and D. Gur, "Head-mounted versus remote eye tracking of radiologists searching for breast cancer: a comparison," Acad. Radiol. 13, 203-209 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clarke, A. H.

A. H. Clarke, J. Ditterich, K. Druen, U. Schonfeld, and C. Steineke, "Using high frame rate CMOS sensors for three-dimensional eye tracking," Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 34, 549-560 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Collewijn, H.

H. Collewijn, F. van der Mark, and T. C. Jansen, "Precise recording of human eye movements," Vision Res. 15, 447-450 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cornsweet, T. N.

Crane, H. D.

de Vries, F. R.

J. P. Reulen, J. T. Marcus, D. Koops, F. R. de Vries, G. Tiesinga, K. Boshuizen, and J. E. Bos, "Precise recording of eye movement: the IRIS technique. Part 1," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 26, 20-26 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Zeeuw, C. I.

J. S. Stahl, A. M. van Alphen, and C. I. De Zeeuw, "A comparison of video and magnetic search coil recordings of mouse eye movements," J Neurosci. Methods 99, 101-110 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dennis, M.

M. S. Salman, J. A. Sharpe, M. Eizenman, L. Lillakas, C. Westall, T. To, M. Dennis, and M. J. Steinbach, "Saccades in children," Vision Res. 46, 1432-1439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ditterich, J.

A. H. Clarke, J. Ditterich, K. Druen, U. Schonfeld, and C. Steineke, "Using high frame rate CMOS sensors for three-dimensional eye tracking," Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 34, 549-560 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dreher, A. W.

Druen, K.

A. H. Clarke, J. Ditterich, K. Druen, U. Schonfeld, and C. Steineke, "Using high frame rate CMOS sensors for three-dimensional eye tracking," Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 34, 549-560 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Duke-Elder, S.

S. Duke-Elder, N. Ashton, R. J. H. Smith, and M. Lederman, "Entoptic Observations," in The Foundations of Ophthalmology, System of Ophthalmology (C. V. Mosby, 1964), Chap. 15.

Eizenman, M.

M. S. Salman, J. A. Sharpe, M. Eizenman, L. Lillakas, C. Westall, T. To, M. Dennis, and M. J. Steinbach, "Saccades in children," Vision Res. 46, 1432-1439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Eizenman, R. C. Frecker, and P. E. Hallett, "Precise non-contacting measurement of eye movements using the corneal reflex," Vision Res. 24, 167-174 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, B.

K. Hartnegg and B. Fischer, "A turn-key transportable eye-tracking instrument for clinical assessment," Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 34, 625-629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Frecker, R. C.

M. Eizenman, R. C. Frecker, and P. E. Hallett, "Precise non-contacting measurement of eye movements using the corneal reflex," Vision Res. 24, 167-174 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frens, M. A.

J. N. Van der Geest and M. A. Frens, "Recording eye movements with video-oculography and scleral search coils: a direct comparison of two methods," J Neurosci. Methods 114, 185-195 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fry, R. L.

D. L. Guyton, D. G. Hunter, S. N. Patel, J. C. Sandruck, and R. L. Fry, "Eye fixation monitor and tracker," U.S. Patent 6,027,216 (22 February 2000).

Gramatikov, B.

D. Nassif, B. Gramatikov, D. Guyton, and D. Hunter, "Pediatric vision screening using binocular retinal birefringence scanning," Ophthalmic Technologies XIII,Proc. SPIE 4951, 9-20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gramatikov, B. I.

B. I. Gramatikov, O. H. Y. Zalloum, Y. K. Wu, D. G. Hunter, and D. L. Guyton, "Birefringence-based eye fixation monitor with no moving parts," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 034025 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Hunter, D. S. Nassif, N. V. Piskun, R. Winsor, B. I. Gramatikov, and D. L. Guyton, "Pediatric vision screener 1: instrument design and operation," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1363-1368 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenfield, D. S.

R. N. Weinreb, C. Bowd, D. S. Greenfield, and L. M. Zangwill, "Measurement of the magnitude and axis of corneal polarization with scanning laser polarimetry," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 120, 901-906 (2002).
[PubMed]

Gur, D.

C. Mello-Thoms, C. Britton, G. Abrams, C. Hakim, R. Shah, L. Hardesty, G. Maitz, and D. Gur, "Head-mounted versus remote eye tracking of radiologists searching for breast cancer: a comparison," Acad. Radiol. 13, 203-209 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guyton, D.

D. Nassif, B. Gramatikov, D. Guyton, and D. Hunter, "Pediatric vision screening using binocular retinal birefringence scanning," Ophthalmic Technologies XIII,Proc. SPIE 4951, 9-20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Guyton, D. L.

B. I. Gramatikov, O. H. Y. Zalloum, Y. K. Wu, D. G. Hunter, and D. L. Guyton, "Birefringence-based eye fixation monitor with no moving parts," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 034025 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Hunter, D. S. Nassif, N. V. Piskun, R. Winsor, B. I. Gramatikov, and D. L. Guyton, "Pediatric vision screener 1: instrument design and operation," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1363-1368 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Hunter, A. S. Shah, S. Sau, D. Nassif, and D. L. Guyton, "Automated detection of ocular alignment with binocular retinal birefringence scanning," Appl. Opt. 42, 3047-3053 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Hunter, J. C. Sandruck, S. Sau, S. N. Patel, and D. L. Guyton, "Mathematical modeling of retinal birefringence scanning," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2103-2111 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Hunter, S. N. Patel, and D. L. Guyton, "Automated detection of foveal fixation by use of retinal birefringence scanning," Appl. Opt. 38, 1273-1279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Guyton, D. G. Hunter, S. N. Patel, J. C. Sandruck, and R. L. Fry, "Eye fixation monitor and tracker," U.S. Patent 6,027,216 (22 February 2000).

Hakim, C.

C. Mello-Thoms, C. Britton, G. Abrams, C. Hakim, R. Shah, L. Hardesty, G. Maitz, and D. Gur, "Head-mounted versus remote eye tracking of radiologists searching for breast cancer: a comparison," Acad. Radiol. 13, 203-209 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hallett, P. E.

M. Eizenman, R. C. Frecker, and P. E. Hallett, "Precise non-contacting measurement of eye movements using the corneal reflex," Vision Res. 24, 167-174 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hardesty, L.

C. Mello-Thoms, C. Britton, G. Abrams, C. Hakim, R. Shah, L. Hardesty, G. Maitz, and D. Gur, "Head-mounted versus remote eye tracking of radiologists searching for breast cancer: a comparison," Acad. Radiol. 13, 203-209 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartnegg, K.

K. Hartnegg and B. Fischer, "A turn-key transportable eye-tracking instrument for clinical assessment," Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 34, 625-629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X. R.

R. W. Knighton and X. R. Huang, "Linear birefringence of the central human cornea," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual. Sci. 43, 82-86 (2002).

Hunter, D.

D. Nassif, B. Gramatikov, D. Guyton, and D. Hunter, "Pediatric vision screening using binocular retinal birefringence scanning," Ophthalmic Technologies XIII,Proc. SPIE 4951, 9-20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, D. G.

B. I. Gramatikov, O. H. Y. Zalloum, Y. K. Wu, D. G. Hunter, and D. L. Guyton, "Birefringence-based eye fixation monitor with no moving parts," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 034025 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Hunter, D. S. Nassif, N. V. Piskun, R. Winsor, B. I. Gramatikov, and D. L. Guyton, "Pediatric vision screener 1: instrument design and operation," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1363-1368 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Hunter, A. S. Shah, S. Sau, D. Nassif, and D. L. Guyton, "Automated detection of ocular alignment with binocular retinal birefringence scanning," Appl. Opt. 42, 3047-3053 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Hunter, S. N. Patel, and D. L. Guyton, "Automated detection of foveal fixation by use of retinal birefringence scanning," Appl. Opt. 38, 1273-1279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Hunter, J. C. Sandruck, S. Sau, S. N. Patel, and D. L. Guyton, "Mathematical modeling of retinal birefringence scanning," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2103-2111 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Guyton, D. G. Hunter, S. N. Patel, J. C. Sandruck, and R. L. Fry, "Eye fixation monitor and tracker," U.S. Patent 6,027,216 (22 February 2000).

Irie, K.

K. Irie, B. A. Wilson, R. D. Jones, P. J. Bones, and T. J. Anderson, "A laser-based eye-tracking system," Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 34, 561-572 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, T. C.

H. Collewijn, F. van der Mark, and T. C. Jansen, "Precise recording of human eye movements," Vision Res. 15, 447-450 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, R. D.

K. Irie, B. A. Wilson, R. D. Jones, P. J. Bones, and T. J. Anderson, "A laser-based eye-tracking system," Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 34, 561-572 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Klieger, D. S.

D. S. Klieger, J. W. Lewis, and C. E. Randall, Polarized Light in Optics and Spectroscopy (Academic, 1990).

Knighton, R. W.

R. W. Knighton and X. R. Huang, "Linear birefringence of the central human cornea," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual. Sci. 43, 82-86 (2002).

Koops, D.

J. P. Reulen, J. T. Marcus, D. Koops, F. R. de Vries, G. Tiesinga, K. Boshuizen, and J. E. Bos, "Precise recording of eye movement: the IRIS technique. Part 1," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 26, 20-26 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lam, R.

Lambert, J. L.

LeBaw, C.

Lederman, M.

S. Duke-Elder, N. Ashton, R. J. H. Smith, and M. Lederman, "Entoptic Observations," in The Foundations of Ophthalmology, System of Ophthalmology (C. V. Mosby, 1964), Chap. 15.

Lewis, J. W.

D. S. Klieger, J. W. Lewis, and C. E. Randall, Polarized Light in Optics and Spectroscopy (Academic, 1990).

Lillakas, L.

M. S. Salman, J. A. Sharpe, M. Eizenman, L. Lillakas, C. Westall, T. To, M. Dennis, and M. J. Steinbach, "Saccades in children," Vision Res. 46, 1432-1439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maitz, G.

C. Mello-Thoms, C. Britton, G. Abrams, C. Hakim, R. Shah, L. Hardesty, G. Maitz, and D. Gur, "Head-mounted versus remote eye tracking of radiologists searching for breast cancer: a comparison," Acad. Radiol. 13, 203-209 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcus, J. T.

J. P. Reulen, J. T. Marcus, D. Koops, F. R. de Vries, G. Tiesinga, K. Boshuizen, and J. E. Bos, "Precise recording of eye movement: the IRIS technique. Part 1," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 26, 20-26 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mello-Thoms, C.

C. Mello-Thoms, C. Britton, G. Abrams, C. Hakim, R. Shah, L. Hardesty, G. Maitz, and D. Gur, "Head-mounted versus remote eye tracking of radiologists searching for breast cancer: a comparison," Acad. Radiol. 13, 203-209 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merchant, J.

J. Merchant, "Laboratory Oculometer," Honeywell, Radiation Center/Electronics Research Center, NASA, Lexington, Mass. (1968).

Monacos, S.

Morookian, J.-M.

Nassif, D.

D. G. Hunter, A. S. Shah, S. Sau, D. Nassif, and D. L. Guyton, "Automated detection of ocular alignment with binocular retinal birefringence scanning," Appl. Opt. 42, 3047-3053 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Nassif, B. Gramatikov, D. Guyton, and D. Hunter, "Pediatric vision screening using binocular retinal birefringence scanning," Ophthalmic Technologies XIII,Proc. SPIE 4951, 9-20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nassif, D. S.

D. G. Hunter, D. S. Nassif, N. V. Piskun, R. Winsor, B. I. Gramatikov, and D. L. Guyton, "Pediatric vision screener 1: instrument design and operation," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1363-1368 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paperno, E.

E. Paperno and D. Semyonov, "A new method for eye location tracking," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 50, 1174-1179 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, S. N.

D. G. Hunter, S. N. Patel, and D. L. Guyton, "Automated detection of foveal fixation by use of retinal birefringence scanning," Appl. Opt. 38, 1273-1279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Hunter, J. C. Sandruck, S. Sau, S. N. Patel, and D. L. Guyton, "Mathematical modeling of retinal birefringence scanning," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2103-2111 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Guyton, D. G. Hunter, S. N. Patel, J. C. Sandruck, and R. L. Fry, "Eye fixation monitor and tracker," U.S. Patent 6,027,216 (22 February 2000).

S. N. Patel, "Analysis of foveal birefringence to monitor eye fixation," M. S. thesis (Johns Hopkins U. Press, 1995).

Piskun, N. V.

D. G. Hunter, D. S. Nassif, N. V. Piskun, R. Winsor, B. I. Gramatikov, and D. L. Guyton, "Pediatric vision screener 1: instrument design and operation," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1363-1368 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Randall, C. E.

D. S. Klieger, J. W. Lewis, and C. E. Randall, Polarized Light in Optics and Spectroscopy (Academic, 1990).

Reiter, K.

Reulen, J. P.

J. P. Reulen, J. T. Marcus, D. Koops, F. R. de Vries, G. Tiesinga, K. Boshuizen, and J. E. Bos, "Precise recording of eye movement: the IRIS technique. Part 1," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 26, 20-26 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salman, M. S.

M. S. Salman, J. A. Sharpe, M. Eizenman, L. Lillakas, C. Westall, T. To, M. Dennis, and M. J. Steinbach, "Saccades in children," Vision Res. 46, 1432-1439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sandruck, J. C.

D. G. Hunter, J. C. Sandruck, S. Sau, S. N. Patel, and D. L. Guyton, "Mathematical modeling of retinal birefringence scanning," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2103-2111 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Guyton, D. G. Hunter, S. N. Patel, J. C. Sandruck, and R. L. Fry, "Eye fixation monitor and tracker," U.S. Patent 6,027,216 (22 February 2000).

Sandwell, D. T.

D. T. Sandwell, "Biharmonic spline interpolation of GEOS-3 and SEASAT altimeter data," Geophys. Res. Lett. 2, 139-142 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sau, S.

Schaeffel, F.

F. Schaeffel, "Kappa and Hirschberg ratio measured with an automated video gaze tracker," Optom. Vision Sci. 79, 329-334 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schonfeld, U.

A. H. Clarke, J. Ditterich, K. Druen, U. Schonfeld, and C. Steineke, "Using high frame rate CMOS sensors for three-dimensional eye tracking," Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 34, 549-560 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Semyonov, D.

E. Paperno and D. Semyonov, "A new method for eye location tracking," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 50, 1174-1179 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, A. S.

Shah, R.

C. Mello-Thoms, C. Britton, G. Abrams, C. Hakim, R. Shah, L. Hardesty, G. Maitz, and D. Gur, "Head-mounted versus remote eye tracking of radiologists searching for breast cancer: a comparison," Acad. Radiol. 13, 203-209 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharpe, J. A.

M. S. Salman, J. A. Sharpe, M. Eizenman, L. Lillakas, C. Westall, T. To, M. Dennis, and M. J. Steinbach, "Saccades in children," Vision Res. 46, 1432-1439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shurcliff, W. A.

W. A. Shurcliff, Polarized Light: Production and Use (Harvard U. Press, 1962).

Sliney, D.

D. Sliney and M. Wolbarsht, Safety with Lasers and Other Optical Sources (Plenum, 1980).

Smith, R. J. H.

S. Duke-Elder, N. Ashton, R. J. H. Smith, and M. Lederman, "Entoptic Observations," in The Foundations of Ophthalmology, System of Ophthalmology (C. V. Mosby, 1964), Chap. 15.

Stahl, J. S.

J. S. Stahl, A. M. van Alphen, and C. I. De Zeeuw, "A comparison of video and magnetic search coil recordings of mouse eye movements," J Neurosci. Methods 99, 101-110 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinbach, M. J.

M. S. Salman, J. A. Sharpe, M. Eizenman, L. Lillakas, C. Westall, T. To, M. Dennis, and M. J. Steinbach, "Saccades in children," Vision Res. 46, 1432-1439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Steineke, C.

A. H. Clarke, J. Ditterich, K. Druen, U. Schonfeld, and C. Steineke, "Using high frame rate CMOS sensors for three-dimensional eye tracking," Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 34, 549-560 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Talukder, A.

Tiesinga, G.

J. P. Reulen, J. T. Marcus, D. Koops, F. R. de Vries, G. Tiesinga, K. Boshuizen, and J. E. Bos, "Precise recording of eye movement: the IRIS technique. Part 1," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 26, 20-26 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

To, T.

M. S. Salman, J. A. Sharpe, M. Eizenman, L. Lillakas, C. Westall, T. To, M. Dennis, and M. J. Steinbach, "Saccades in children," Vision Res. 46, 1432-1439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van Alphen, A. M.

J. S. Stahl, A. M. van Alphen, and C. I. De Zeeuw, "A comparison of video and magnetic search coil recordings of mouse eye movements," J Neurosci. Methods 99, 101-110 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Blokland, G. J.

Van der Geest, J. N.

J. N. Van der Geest and M. A. Frens, "Recording eye movements with video-oculography and scleral search coils: a direct comparison of two methods," J Neurosci. Methods 114, 185-195 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Mark, F.

H. Collewijn, F. van der Mark, and T. C. Jansen, "Precise recording of human eye movements," Vision Res. 15, 447-450 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinreb, R. N.

R. N. Weinreb, C. Bowd, D. S. Greenfield, and L. M. Zangwill, "Measurement of the magnitude and axis of corneal polarization with scanning laser polarimetry," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 120, 901-906 (2002).
[PubMed]

A. W. Dreher, K. Reiter, and R. N. Weinreb, "Spatially resolved birefringence of the retinal nerve fiber layer assessed with a retinal laser ellipsometer," Appl. Opt. 31, 3730-3735 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westall, C.

M. S. Salman, J. A. Sharpe, M. Eizenman, L. Lillakas, C. Westall, T. To, M. Dennis, and M. J. Steinbach, "Saccades in children," Vision Res. 46, 1432-1439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, B. A.

K. Irie, B. A. Wilson, R. D. Jones, P. J. Bones, and T. J. Anderson, "A laser-based eye-tracking system," Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 34, 561-572 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Winsor, R.

D. G. Hunter, D. S. Nassif, N. V. Piskun, R. Winsor, B. I. Gramatikov, and D. L. Guyton, "Pediatric vision screener 1: instrument design and operation," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1363-1368 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolbarsht, M.

D. Sliney and M. Wolbarsht, Safety with Lasers and Other Optical Sources (Plenum, 1980).

Wu, Y. K.

B. I. Gramatikov, O. H. Y. Zalloum, Y. K. Wu, D. G. Hunter, and D. L. Guyton, "Birefringence-based eye fixation monitor with no moving parts," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 034025 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zalloum, O. H. Y.

B. I. Gramatikov, O. H. Y. Zalloum, Y. K. Wu, D. G. Hunter, and D. L. Guyton, "Birefringence-based eye fixation monitor with no moving parts," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 034025 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zangwill, L. M.

R. N. Weinreb, C. Bowd, D. S. Greenfield, and L. M. Zangwill, "Measurement of the magnitude and axis of corneal polarization with scanning laser polarimetry," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 120, 901-906 (2002).
[PubMed]

Acad. Radiol. (1)

C. Mello-Thoms, C. Britton, G. Abrams, C. Hakim, R. Shah, L. Hardesty, G. Maitz, and D. Gur, "Head-mounted versus remote eye tracking of radiologists searching for breast cancer: a comparison," Acad. Radiol. 13, 203-209 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

R. N. Weinreb, C. Bowd, D. S. Greenfield, and L. M. Zangwill, "Measurement of the magnitude and axis of corneal polarization with scanning laser polarimetry," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 120, 901-906 (2002).
[PubMed]

Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. (3)

K. Hartnegg and B. Fischer, "A turn-key transportable eye-tracking instrument for clinical assessment," Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 34, 625-629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Irie, B. A. Wilson, R. D. Jones, P. J. Bones, and T. J. Anderson, "A laser-based eye-tracking system," Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 34, 561-572 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Clarke, J. Ditterich, K. Druen, U. Schonfeld, and C. Steineke, "Using high frame rate CMOS sensors for three-dimensional eye tracking," Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 34, 549-560 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

D. T. Sandwell, "Biharmonic spline interpolation of GEOS-3 and SEASAT altimeter data," Geophys. Res. Lett. 2, 139-142 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

E. Paperno and D. Semyonov, "A new method for eye location tracking," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 50, 1174-1179 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual. Sci. (1)

R. W. Knighton and X. R. Huang, "Linear birefringence of the central human cornea," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual. Sci. 43, 82-86 (2002).

J Neurosci. Methods (2)

J. N. Van der Geest and M. A. Frens, "Recording eye movements with video-oculography and scleral search coils: a direct comparison of two methods," J Neurosci. Methods 114, 185-195 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Stahl, A. M. van Alphen, and C. I. De Zeeuw, "A comparison of video and magnetic search coil recordings of mouse eye movements," J Neurosci. Methods 99, 101-110 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

D. G. Hunter, D. S. Nassif, N. V. Piskun, R. Winsor, B. I. Gramatikov, and D. L. Guyton, "Pediatric vision screener 1: instrument design and operation," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1363-1368 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. I. Gramatikov, O. H. Y. Zalloum, Y. K. Wu, D. G. Hunter, and D. L. Guyton, "Birefringence-based eye fixation monitor with no moving parts," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 034025 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. (1)

J. P. Reulen, J. T. Marcus, D. Koops, F. R. de Vries, G. Tiesinga, K. Boshuizen, and J. E. Bos, "Precise recording of eye movement: the IRIS technique. Part 1," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 26, 20-26 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Optom. Vision Sci. (1)

F. Schaeffel, "Kappa and Hirschberg ratio measured with an automated video gaze tracker," Optom. Vision Sci. 79, 329-334 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. Nassif, B. Gramatikov, D. Guyton, and D. Hunter, "Pediatric vision screening using binocular retinal birefringence scanning," Ophthalmic Technologies XIII,Proc. SPIE 4951, 9-20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res. (3)

M. Eizenman, R. C. Frecker, and P. E. Hallett, "Precise non-contacting measurement of eye movements using the corneal reflex," Vision Res. 24, 167-174 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Collewijn, F. van der Mark, and T. C. Jansen, "Precise recording of human eye movements," Vision Res. 15, 447-450 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Salman, J. A. Sharpe, M. Eizenman, L. Lillakas, C. Westall, T. To, M. Dennis, and M. J. Steinbach, "Saccades in children," Vision Res. 46, 1432-1439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

S. Duke-Elder, N. Ashton, R. J. H. Smith, and M. Lederman, "Entoptic Observations," in The Foundations of Ophthalmology, System of Ophthalmology (C. V. Mosby, 1964), Chap. 15.

J. Merchant, "Laboratory Oculometer," Honeywell, Radiation Center/Electronics Research Center, NASA, Lexington, Mass. (1968).

D. L. Guyton, D. G. Hunter, S. N. Patel, J. C. Sandruck, and R. L. Fry, "Eye fixation monitor and tracker," U.S. Patent 6,027,216 (22 February 2000).

D. Sliney and M. Wolbarsht, Safety with Lasers and Other Optical Sources (Plenum, 1980).

W. A. Shurcliff, Polarized Light: Production and Use (Harvard U. Press, 1962).

D. S. Klieger, J. W. Lewis, and C. E. Randall, Polarized Light in Optics and Spectroscopy (Academic, 1990).

S. N. Patel, "Analysis of foveal birefringence to monitor eye fixation," M. S. thesis (Johns Hopkins U. Press, 1995).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Idealized 2D spatial intensity profile of the light reflected from the fundus and falling on the plane of the quadrant photodetector, if linearly polarized light were uniformly illuminating the fundus. We use only four spots of illumination, however, and the signal in each detector quadrant is calculated by integrating the intensity signal pointwise for the illuminated (rectangular) area corresponding to each spot of light.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Coordinate system X Y of the foveal bow-tie light intensity pattern (after passing through the quarter-wave plate and polarizer) as tilted at an angle ψ with respect to the normal Cartesian system X Y ( ψ 45 ° ) .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Modeling eye tracking: linear solution, the backcalculated signal for (a) X and (b) Y after computing the transformation matrix V and applying it to the input data (A, B, C, D) for each point.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Modeling eye tracking: resampled correction matrices for (a) X and (b) Y. Circles indicate data from nodes on the original grid.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Modeling eye tracking: the corrected signals for (a) X and (b) Y after XY matrix correction.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Eye tracking with human data: linear solution, the backcalculated signal for (a) X and (b) Y after computing the transformation matrix V and applying it to the input data ( A , B , C , D ) for each point.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Eye tracking with human data: resampled correction matrices for (a) X and (b) Y.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Eye tracking with human data: the corrected signals for (a) X and (b) Y after XY matrix correction.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

[ A B C D ] [ v 1 w 1 v 2 w 2 v 3 w 3 v 4 w 4 ] = [ x y ] ,
A V = U ,
V = p inv ( A ) U ,
Z k = i = 1 4 ( Z i D i k 2 ) i = 1 4 1 D i k 2 , D i k = [ ( x k x i ) 2 + ( y k y i ) 2 ] 1 / 2 .
R = x 2 + y 2 , φ = a tan [ y x ] , ϑ = φ + ψ , x = R cos ( ϑ ) , y = R sin ( ϑ ) .

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