Abstract

A versatile time-domain optical coherence tomography system is presented that can generate cross-sectional images by using either transverse priority or depth priority scanning. This is made possible by using a transmissive scanning delay line compatible with balance detection operating at a speed similar to that of the transverse scanner used to scan the beam across the target. In vivo images from the retina are generated and shown using the same system switched to either transverse or depth priority scanning regime, by using the scanning delay line either in slow or fast scanning modes, respectively. A comparative analysis of different scanning regimes depending on image size to fit different areas to be imaged is presented. Safety thresholds due to the different continuous irradiation time per transverse pixel in different scanning regimes are also considered. We present the maximum exposure level for a variety of scanning procedures, employing either A scanning (depth priority) or T scanning (transverse priority) when generating cross-sectional images, en face images, or collecting 3D volumes.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006 (2)

2005 (3)

2004 (2)

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, "Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 86-93 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Rosa and A. G. Podoleanu, "Limitation of the achievable signal-to-noise ratio in optical coherence tomography due to mismatch of the balanced receiver," Appl. Opt. 43, 4802-4815 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography--principles and applications," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Aguirre, P. Hsiung, T. H. Ko, I. Hartl, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-resolution optical coherence microscopy for high-speed, in vivo cellular imaging," Opt. Lett. 28, 2064-2066 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kartner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med. 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

A. G. Podoleanu, J. A. Rogers, and D. A. Jackson, "Three dimensional OCT images from retina and skin," Opt. Express 7, 292-298 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

"Revision of guidelines on limits of exposure to laser radiation of wavelengths between 400 nm and 1.4 microm.," ICNRP-International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection , Health Phys. 79431-440 (2000).

American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers, ANSI Z136.1 (2000).

1999 (1)

1998 (3)

D. H. Sliney and M. A. Mainster, "Ophthalmic laser safety: tissue interactions, hazards, and protection," Lasers Ophthalmol. 11, 157-164 (1998).

A. Podoleanu, G. Dobre, and D. Jackson, "En-face coherence imaging using galvanometer scanner modulation," Opt. Lett. 23, 147-149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. Dobre, D. Webb, D. Jackson, and F. Fitzke, "Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 12-20 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

A. G. H. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, "Simultaneous en-face imaging of two layers in human retina," Opt. Lett. 22, 1039-1041 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Schmitt, S. L. Lee, and K. M. Yung, "An optical coherence microscope with enhanced resolving power in thick tissue," Opt. Commun. 142, 203-207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

"Safety of laser products--Part 1: Equipment classification, requirements and user's guide," International Electrotechnical Commission, 60825-1 (1997).

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-speed phase-and group-delay scanning with a grating-based phase control delay line," Opt. Lett. 22, 1811-1813 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aguirre, A. D.

Akkin, T.

Bouma, B. E.

Boxer, A.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, "Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 86-93 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burnes, D.

Campbell, M. C. W.

Cense, B.

Chan, R. C.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

Chiu, S.

Cucu, R. G.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, "Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 86-93 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

Delori, M. F. C.

Dickensheets, D. L.

Dobre, G.

Dobre, G. M.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, "Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 86-93 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. H. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, "Simultaneous en-face imaging of two layers in human retina," Opt. Lett. 22, 1039-1041 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donnelly, W. J.

Drexler, W.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography--principles and applications," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kartner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med. 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunne, S.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, "Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 86-93 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography--principles and applications," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, Y.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, "Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 86-93 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitzke, F.

A. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. Dobre, D. Webb, D. Jackson, and F. Fitzke, "Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 12-20 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gao, W.

Garcia, P.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, "Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 86-93 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gentile, R.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, "Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 86-93 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghanta, R. K.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kartner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med. 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorrand, J. M.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartl, I.

Hebert, T. J.

Hee, M.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

Himmer, P. A.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography--principles and applications," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hsiung, P.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Jackson, D.

Jackson, D. A.

Jones, S.

Jonnal, R. S.

Joo, C.

Kartner, F. X.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kartner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med. 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko, T. H.

Lasser, T.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography--principles and applications," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. L.

J. Schmitt, S. L. Lee, and K. M. Yung, "An optical coherence microscope with enhanced resolving power in thick tissue," Opt. Commun. 142, 203-207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mainster, M. A.

D. H. Sliney and M. A. Mainster, "Ophthalmic laser safety: tissue interactions, hazards, and protection," Lasers Ophthalmol. 11, 157-164 (1998).

Mao, Y.

Miller, D. T.

Morgner, U.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kartner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med. 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mujat, M.

Muldoon, T.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, "Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 86-93 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munce, N. R.

Murali, S.

S. Murali and J. Rolland, "Dynamic-focusing microscope objective for optical coherence tomography," 63420H, P SOC PHOTO-OPT INS 6342: H3420-H3420 Parts 1-2 2006.

Nieto, J.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, "Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 86-93 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olivier, S.

Orlock, D.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, "Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 86-93 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Owen, G. M.

Park, B. H.

Podoleanu, A.

Podoleanu, A. G.

C. C. Rosa, J. Rogers, and A. G. Podoleanu, "Fast scanning transmissive delay line for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 30, 3263-3265 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Rosa, V. Shidlovski, J. A. Rogers, R. B. Rosen, and A. G. Podoleanu, "Broadband SLD-based source for retina investigations," Proc. SPIE 5690, 540-547 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Rosa and A. G. Podoleanu, "Limitation of the achievable signal-to-noise ratio in optical coherence tomography due to mismatch of the balanced receiver," Appl. Opt. 43, 4802-4815 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, "Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 86-93 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Podoleanu, J. A. Rogers, and D. A. Jackson, "Three dimensional OCT images from retina and skin," Opt. Express 7, 292-298 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Podoleanu, A. G. H.

Puliafito, C.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Queener, H.

Rha, J.

Rogers, J.

Rogers, J. A.

C. C. Rosa, V. Shidlovski, J. A. Rogers, R. B. Rosen, and A. G. Podoleanu, "Broadband SLD-based source for retina investigations," Proc. SPIE 5690, 540-547 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, "Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 86-93 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Podoleanu, J. A. Rogers, and D. A. Jackson, "Three dimensional OCT images from retina and skin," Opt. Express 7, 292-298 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rolland, J.

S. Murali and J. Rolland, "Dynamic-focusing microscope objective for optical coherence tomography," 63420H, P SOC PHOTO-OPT INS 6342: H3420-H3420 Parts 1-2 2006.

Romero-Borja, F.

Roorda, A.

Rosa, C. C.

Rosen, R.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, "Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 86-93 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosen, R. B.

C. C. Rosa, V. Shidlovski, J. A. Rogers, R. B. Rosen, and A. G. Podoleanu, "Broadband SLD-based source for retina investigations," Proc. SPIE 5690, 540-547 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, J.

J. Schmitt, S. L. Lee, and K. M. Yung, "An optical coherence microscope with enhanced resolving power in thick tissue," Opt. Commun. 142, 203-207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kartner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med. 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seeger, M.

A. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. Dobre, D. Webb, D. Jackson, and F. Fitzke, "Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 12-20 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shidlovski, V.

C. C. Rosa, V. Shidlovski, J. A. Rogers, R. B. Rosen, and A. G. Podoleanu, "Broadband SLD-based source for retina investigations," Proc. SPIE 5690, 540-547 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sliney, D. H.

D. H. Sliney and M. A. Mainster, "Ophthalmic laser safety: tissue interactions, hazards, and protection," Lasers Ophthalmol. 11, 157-164 (1998).

Standish, B. A.

Stinson, W.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E.

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
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Tearney, G. J.

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A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, "Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 86-93 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, D.

A. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. Dobre, D. Webb, D. Jackson, and F. Fitzke, "Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 12-20 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Podoleanu, G. Dobre, D. Webb, and D. Jackson, "Coherence imaging by use of a Newton rings sampling function," Opt. Lett. 21, 1789-1791 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, D. J.

Webb, R.

R. Webb, Noninvasive Diagnostic Techniques in Ophthalmology, B.Masters, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1990), Chap. 22, pp. 438-450.
[CrossRef]

Weitz, R.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, "Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 86-93 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werner, J. S.

Will, D.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, "Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 86-93 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

Yang, V. X. D.

Yannuzzi, L. A.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, "Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 86-93 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Schmitt, S. L. Lee, and K. M. Yung, "An optical coherence microscope with enhanced resolving power in thick tissue," Opt. Commun. 142, 203-207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Appl. Opt. (1)

ICNRP-International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection (1)

"Revision of guidelines on limits of exposure to laser radiation of wavelengths between 400 nm and 1.4 microm.," ICNRP-International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection , Health Phys. 79431-440 (2000).

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, "Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 86-93 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. Dobre, D. Webb, D. Jackson, and F. Fitzke, "Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 12-20 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Lasers Ophthalmol. (1)

D. H. Sliney and M. A. Mainster, "Ophthalmic laser safety: tissue interactions, hazards, and protection," Lasers Ophthalmol. 11, 157-164 (1998).

Nat. Med. (1)

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kartner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Nat. Med. 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Schmitt, S. L. Lee, and K. M. Yung, "An optical coherence microscope with enhanced resolving power in thick tissue," Opt. Commun. 142, 203-207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (8)

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A. G. H. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, "Simultaneous en-face imaging of two layers in human retina," Opt. Lett. 22, 1039-1041 (1997).
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A. Podoleanu, G. Dobre, and D. Jackson, "En-face coherence imaging using galvanometer scanner modulation," Opt. Lett. 23, 147-149 (1998).
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C. C. Rosa, J. Rogers, and A. G. Podoleanu, "Fast scanning transmissive delay line for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 30, 3263-3265 (2005).
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A. Podoleanu, G. Dobre, D. Webb, and D. Jackson, "Coherence imaging by use of a Newton rings sampling function," Opt. Lett. 21, 1789-1791 (1996).
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Proc. SPIE (1)

C. C. Rosa, V. Shidlovski, J. A. Rogers, R. B. Rosen, and A. G. Podoleanu, "Broadband SLD-based source for retina investigations," Proc. SPIE 5690, 540-547 (2005).
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A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography--principles and applications," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
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Science (1)

D. Huang, E. Swanson, C. Lin, J. Schuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

R. Webb, Noninvasive Diagnostic Techniques in Ophthalmology, B.Masters, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1990), Chap. 22, pp. 438-450.
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram for the multiscan TD-OCT system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmissive scanning delay line of the multiscan OCT system: DG, diffraction grating; GS, galvanometric scanner; L, achromatic lens; rays 1 and 2, the same wavelength at two distinct angular positions (time dependent) of the GS; mirrors M1 and M2 allow for descanning the walk-off movement due to the GS.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Noise measurements performed on the multiscan OCT system illuminated with a configurable SLD-based compound source. Balance detection was performed with (a) a 3   dB coupler at 790   nm and (b) a 3   dB broadband coupler at 850   nm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scanning configurations in OCT imaging: A scan (along the Z direction); T scan (along a raster line in the xy plane); B scan, an ensemble of either A or T scans; C scan, constant depth image in the XY plane.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Lateral undersampling in the B ( A ) image and correct sampling in the B ( T ) image when using a number of M lines less than N X .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Axial undersampling in the B ( T ) image and correct sampling in the B ( A ) image when using a number of M lines less than N z .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

B-scan OCT images of the optic nerve (first row), a wide field image showing the optic nerve and the fovea (middle row), and a wide field image centered on the fovea (bottom row), obtained through fast depth scanning [column (a)]; en face scanning [column (b)]. Image depth is 1.5   mm measured in air and lateral size is 24 deg. These determine N X = 500 and N z = 60 (using an index of refraction of 1.4 for the retina). This leads to an approximately 32 μ m pixel lateral size in the B ( A ) images. Careful inspection reveals the coarser sampling rate along the transversal direction in the images in the left column. The horizontal structure crossing the cup visible in the B ( T ) scans is produced by the large retinal vessels caught in cross section.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

B ( T ) scan collected with the same settings as those used to acquire the images in Fig. 7, but with only 250 / 3 = 83 T-scan lines. The depth resolution is still conserved, the brightness reduces due to less signal being averaged per depth interval. In Fig. 7, more than three T scans contributed to a depth pixel.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Constant depth images (C scans) of the fovea region at three depths, obtained by tilting the galvanometer scanner in the spectral scanning delay line, where the depth increases in steps of 50 μ m from (a) to (c). Image size is 3   mm × 3   mm . Note the progressively smaller diameter circles created by the foveal cone as the depth of the slices increase and the central reflex at the base of the fovea in (c).

Tables (5)

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Table 1 Three-Dimensional Imaging by Using Several B ( A ) Scans Collected at Successive Y Values

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Table 2 Three-Dimensional Imaging by Using Several B ( T ) Scans Collected at Successive Y Values

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Table 3 Three-Dimensional Imaging by Using Several Square C ( T ) Scans Collected at Successive Z Values

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Table 4 Maximum Allowed Optical Power P for Different OCT Image Sizes

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Table 5 MPE for Cornea Exposure a

Equations (33)

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Δ z = max { Z M , l c 2 } ,
Δ x = max { X M , d } ,
N Y T B ( A ) ,
N Y T B ( T ) ,
N Z T C ( T ) .
T B ( A ) = N X / F line = N X / F Z = N X T Z ,
T B ( T ) = N Z / F line = N Z / F X = N Z T X ,
T C ( T ) = N Y / F line = N Y / F X = N Y T X .
N Y T B ( A ) = N Y N X T Z ,
N Y T B ( T ) = N Y N Z T X ,
N Z T C ( T ) = N Z N Y T X .
  MPP B ( A ) = 1.15 N X 0.25 Θ 0.25 ( mW ) ,
MPP B ( T ) = { 1.15 N X 0.25 Θ 0.25 , 33.784 × 10 3 N X Θ 0.25 , N X < N lim N X > N lim ( mW ) ,
MPP C ( T ) = { 4.57 N X 0.25 Θ 0.25 , 134.3 × 10 3 N X Θ 0.25 , N X < N lim N X > N lim ( mW ) .
    MPP T MPP A = 33.784 × 10 3 N X Θ 0.25 1.15 N X 0.25 Θ 0.25 = k N 0.75 ( mW ) .
τ = 1 F X N X .
MPE τ A = 1.776 N X 0.75 ( mJ   cm 2 ) ,
MPE Θ A = 1.6596 Θ ( mJ   cm 2 ) ,
MPE τ A | m u l t i = 1.4935 N X 0.75 Θ 0.25 ( mJ   cm 2 ) .
H τ A = P τ A beam = P A beam N X F X .
MPP A = 1.15 N X 0.25 Θ 0.25 ( mW ) ,
MPE τ en   face = 28.249 N x 0.75 ( μ J   cm 2 ) ,
MPE Θ en   face = 1.6596 Θ ( mJ   cm 2 ) ,
MPE τ B ( T ) | m u l t i = 5.974 N X 0.75 Θ 0.25 ( μ J   cm 2 ) ,
MPE τ C ( T ) | m u l t i = 23.75 N X 0.75 Θ 0.25 ( μ J   cm 2 ) .
{ N x < N lim } : MPP B ( T ) = 1.15 N X 0.25 Θ 0.25 MPP C ( T ) = 4.57 N X 0.25 Θ 0.25 ( mW ) , ( mW ) ,
MPE τ en   face = 8.298 × 10 4 ( mJ   cm 2 ) ,
MPE Θ en   face = 1.6596 Θ ( mJ   cm 2 ) ,
MPE τ B ( T ) | m u l t i = 1.755 × 10 4 Θ 0.25 ( mJ   cm 2 ) ,
MPE τ C ( T ) | m u l t i = 6.978 × 10 4 Θ 0.25 ( mJ   cm 2 ) .
{ N x > N lim } : MPP B ( T ) = 33.784 × 10 3 Θ 0.25 MPP C ( T ) = 134.33 × 10 3 Θ 0.25 N X ( mW ) , N X ( mW ) .
MPP B ( T ) = { 1.15 N X 0.25 Θ 0.25 , 33.784 × 10 3 Θ 0.25 N X , N X < N lim N X > N lim ( mW ) ,
MPP C ( T ) = { 4.57 N X 0.25 Θ 0.25 , 134.3 × 10 3 Θ 0.25 N X , N X < N lim N X > N lim ( mW ) ,

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