Abstract

We present an in vivo broadband spectroscopic characterization of the human forehead. Absorption and scattering properties are measured on five healthy volunteers at five different interfiber distances, using time-resolved diffuse spectroscopy and interpreting data with a model of the diffusion equation for a homogeneous semi-infinite medium. A wavelength-tunable mode-locked laser and time-correlated single-photon counting detection are employed, enabling fully spectroscopic measurements in the range of 700–1000 nm. The results show a large variation in the absorption and scattering properties of the head depending on the subject, whereas intrasubject variations, assessed at different interfiber distances, appear less relevant, particularly for what concerns the absorption coefficient. The high intersubject variability observed indicates that a unique set of optical properties for modeling the human head cannot be used correctly. To better interpret the results of the analysis of in vivo measurements, we performed a set of four-layer model Monte Carlo simulations based on different data sets for the optical properties of the human head, partially derived from the literature. The analysis indicated that, when simulated time-resolved curves are fitted with a homogeneous model for the photon migration, the retrieved absorption and reduced scattering coefficients are much closer to superficial layer values (i.e., scalp and skull) than to deeper layer ones (white and gray matter). In particular, for the shorter interfiber distances, the recovered values can be assumed as a good estimate of the optical properties of the first layer.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. For latest results see Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, 2006).
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2006

2005

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, A. Bassi, P. Taroni, R. Cubeddu, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, J. Swartling, T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, R. L. P. van Veen, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. M. Tualle, H. L. Nghiem, S. Avrillier, M. Whelan, and H. Stamm, "Performance assessment of photon migration instruments: the MEDPHOT protocol," Appl. Opt. 44, 2104-2114 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas and R. D. Frostig, "Optics in neuroscience," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, "Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, R1-R43 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Selb, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, and D. A. Boas, "Improved sensitivity to cerebral hemodynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011013 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

J. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 221-229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2002

F. Martelli, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, and G. Zaccanti, "Analytical approximate solutions of the time-domain diffusion equation in layered slabs," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 71-80 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Yaroslavsky, P. C. Schulze, I. V. Yaroslavsky, R. Schober, F. Ulrich, and H. J. Schwarzmaier, "Optical properties of selected native and coagulated human brain tissues in vitro in the visible and near infrared spectral range," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2059-2073 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Strangman, D. A. Boas, and J. P. Sutton, "Non-invasive neuroimaging using near-infrared light," Biol. Psychiatry 52, 679-693 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, E. Giambattistelli, and R. Cubeddu "In vivo optical characterization of human tissues from 610 to 1010 nm by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2227-2237 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

E. Okada and D. T. Delpy, "Effect of discrete scatterers in CSF layer on optical path length in the brain," in Diffuse Spectroscopy and Optical Coherence Tomography: Imaging and Functional Assessment, S. Andersson-Engels and J. G. Fujimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE 4160, 196-203 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Dehghani, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, "Optical tomography in the presence of void regions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1659-1670 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

F. Bevilacqua, D. Piguet, P. Marquet, J. D. Gross, B. J. Tromberg, and C. Depeursinge, "In vivo local determination of tissue optical properties: applications to human brain," Appl. Opt. 38, 4939-4950 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, "Time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy in tissues," in Laser-Tissue Interaction X: Photochemical, Photothermal, and Photomechanical, S. L. Jacques, G. J. Muller, A. Roggan, and D. H. Sliney, eds., Proc. SPIE 3601, 486-490 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge, "Optical tomography in medical imaging," Inverse Probl. 15, R41-R93 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. Firbank, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, and D. T. Delpy, "Experimental and theoretical comparison of NIR spectroscopy measurements of cerebral hemoglobin changes," J. Appl. Physiol. 85, 1915-1921 (1998).
[PubMed]

A. H. Hielscher, R. E. Alcouffe, and R. L. Barbour, "Comparison of finite-difference transport and diffusion calculations for photon migration in homogeneous and heterogeneous tissues," Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 1285-1302 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kienle, M. S. Patterson, N. Dognitz, R. Bays, G. Wagnieres, and H. van den Bergh, "Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of two-layered turbid media" Appl. Opt. 37, 779-791 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. Villringer and B. Chance, "Noninvasive optical spectroscopy and imaging of human brain function," Trends Neurosci. 20, 435-442 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

H. Kostron, A. Obwegeser, and R. Jakober, "Photodynamic therapy in neurosurgery: a review," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 36, 157-168 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, "An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767-783 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, "Experimental test of theoretical models for time-resolved reflectance," Med. Phys. 23, 1625-1633 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Hielscher, H. Liu, B. Chance, F. K. Tittel, and S. L. Jacques, "Time-resolved photon emission from layered turbid media," Appl. Opt. 35, 719-728 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

1989

Ajichi, Y.

Alcouffe, R. E.

A. H. Hielscher, R. E. Alcouffe, and R. L. Barbour, "Comparison of finite-difference transport and diffusion calculations for photon migration in homogeneous and heterogeneous tissues," Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 1285-1302 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersson-Engels, S.

Arridge, S. R.

A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, "Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, R1-R43 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, "Optical tomography in the presence of void regions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1659-1670 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge, "Optical tomography in medical imaging," Inverse Probl. 15, R41-R93 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, "An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767-783 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avrillier, S.

Barbour, R. L.

A. H. Hielscher, R. E. Alcouffe, and R. L. Barbour, "Comparison of finite-difference transport and diffusion calculations for photon migration in homogeneous and heterogeneous tissues," Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 1285-1302 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnett, A. H.

Bassi, A.

Bays, R.

Bevilacqua, F.

Boas, D. A.

A. Custo, W. M. Wells, A. H. Barnett, E. M. C. Hillman, and D. A. Boas, "Effective scattering coefficient of the cerebral spinal fluid in adult head models for diffuse optical imaging," Appl. Opt. 45, 4747-4755 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas and R. D. Frostig, "Optics in neuroscience," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Selb, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, and D. A. Boas, "Improved sensitivity to cerebral hemodynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011013 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Barnett, J. P. Culver, A. G. Sorensen, A. Dale, and D. A. Boas "Robust inference of baseline optical properties of the human head with three-dimensional segmentation from magnetic resonance imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 3095-3108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Strangman, D. A. Boas, and J. P. Sutton, "Non-invasive neuroimaging using near-infrared light," Biol. Psychiatry 52, 679-693 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

Choi, J.

J. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 221-229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comelli, D.

P. Taroni, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, "Absorption properties of breast: the contribution of collagen," presented at the Biomedical Optics Topical Meeting, Fort Lauderdale, Fla. (19-22 March 2006).

Contini, D.

Cooper, C. E.

M. Firbank, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, and D. T. Delpy, "Experimental and theoretical comparison of NIR spectroscopy measurements of cerebral hemoglobin changes," J. Appl. Physiol. 85, 1915-1921 (1998).
[PubMed]

Cubeddu, R.

D. Contini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, F. Paglia, and R. Cubeddu, "Multi-channel time-resolved system for functional near infrared spectroscopy," Opt. Express 14, 5418-5432 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, A. Bassi, P. Taroni, R. Cubeddu, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, J. Swartling, T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, R. L. P. van Veen, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. M. Tualle, H. L. Nghiem, S. Avrillier, M. Whelan, and H. Stamm, "Performance assessment of photon migration instruments: the MEDPHOT protocol," Appl. Opt. 44, 2104-2114 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, E. Giambattistelli, and R. Cubeddu "In vivo optical characterization of human tissues from 610 to 1010 nm by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2227-2237 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, "Time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy in tissues," in Laser-Tissue Interaction X: Photochemical, Photothermal, and Photomechanical, S. L. Jacques, G. J. Muller, A. Roggan, and D. H. Sliney, eds., Proc. SPIE 3601, 486-490 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, "Experimental test of theoretical models for time-resolved reflectance," Med. Phys. 23, 1625-1633 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Taroni, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, "Absorption properties of breast: the contribution of collagen," presented at the Biomedical Optics Topical Meeting, Fort Lauderdale, Fla. (19-22 March 2006).

Culver, J. P.

Custo, A.

Dale, A.

Dehghani, H.

Del Bianco, G.

F. Martelli, A. Sassaroli, G. Del Bianco, S. Yamada, and G. Zaccanti, "Solution of the time-dependent diffusion equation for layered diffusive media by the eigenfunction method," Phys. Rev. E 67, 056623 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Delpy, D. T.

E. Okada and D. T. Delpy, "Near-infrared light propagation in an adult head model. II. Effect of superficial tissue thickness on the sensitivity of the near-infrared spectroscopy signal," Appl. Opt. 42, 2915-2922 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Okada and D. T. Delpy, "Near-infrared light propagation in an adult head model. I. Modeling of low-level scattering in the cerebrospinal fluid layer," Appl. Opt. 42, 2906-2914 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Okada and D. T. Delpy, "Effect of discrete scatterers in CSF layer on optical path length in the brain," in Diffuse Spectroscopy and Optical Coherence Tomography: Imaging and Functional Assessment, S. Andersson-Engels and J. G. Fujimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE 4160, 196-203 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Dehghani, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, "Optical tomography in the presence of void regions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1659-1670 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Firbank, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, and D. T. Delpy, "Experimental and theoretical comparison of NIR spectroscopy measurements of cerebral hemoglobin changes," J. Appl. Physiol. 85, 1915-1921 (1998).
[PubMed]

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, "An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767-783 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Depeursinge, C.

Dognitz, N.

Elwell, C. E.

M. Firbank, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, and D. T. Delpy, "Experimental and theoretical comparison of NIR spectroscopy measurements of cerebral hemoglobin changes," J. Appl. Physiol. 85, 1915-1921 (1998).
[PubMed]

Feng, T. C.

Firbank, M.

M. Firbank, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, and D. T. Delpy, "Experimental and theoretical comparison of NIR spectroscopy measurements of cerebral hemoglobin changes," J. Appl. Physiol. 85, 1915-1921 (1998).
[PubMed]

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, "An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767-783 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franceschini, M. A.

J. Selb, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, and D. A. Boas, "Improved sensitivity to cerebral hemodynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011013 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frostig, R. D.

D. A. Boas and R. D. Frostig, "Optics in neuroscience," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukui, Y.

Furutsu, K.

K. Furutsu and Y. Yamada, "Diffusion approximation for a dissipative random medium and the applications," Phys. Rev. E 50, 3634-3640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Giambattistelli, E.

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, E. Giambattistelli, and R. Cubeddu "In vivo optical characterization of human tissues from 610 to 1010 nm by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2227-2237 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, A. P.

A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, "Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, R1-R43 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gratton, E.

J. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 221-229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grosenick, D.

Gross, J. D.

Gupta, R.

J. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 221-229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haskell, R. C.

Hebden, J. C.

A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, "Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, R1-R43 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hielscher, A. H.

A. H. Hielscher, R. E. Alcouffe, and R. L. Barbour, "Comparison of finite-difference transport and diffusion calculations for photon migration in homogeneous and heterogeneous tissues," Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 1285-1302 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Hielscher, H. Liu, B. Chance, F. K. Tittel, and S. L. Jacques, "Time-resolved photon emission from layered turbid media," Appl. Opt. 35, 719-728 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillman, E. M. C.

Hueber, D.

J. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 221-229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

Jakober, R.

H. Kostron, A. Obwegeser, and R. Jakober, "Photodynamic therapy in neurosurgery: a review," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 36, 157-168 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kienle, A.

Kostron, H.

H. Kostron, A. Obwegeser, and R. Jakober, "Photodynamic therapy in neurosurgery: a review," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 36, 157-168 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liebert, A.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, and R. Macdonald, "Fiber dispersion in time domain measurements compromising the accuracy of determination of optical properties of strongly scattering media," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 512-516 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

Macdonald, R.

Mantulin, W.

J. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 221-229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marquet, P.

Martelli, F.

F. Martelli, A. Sassaroli, G. Del Bianco, S. Yamada, and G. Zaccanti, "Solution of the time-dependent diffusion equation for layered diffusive media by the eigenfunction method," Phys. Rev. E 67, 056623 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Martelli, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, and G. Zaccanti, "Analytical approximate solutions of the time-domain diffusion equation in layered slabs," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 71-80 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McAdams, M. S.

Michalos, A.

J. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 221-229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Möller, M.

Nghiem, H. L.

Obwegeser, A.

H. Kostron, A. Obwegeser, and R. Jakober, "Photodynamic therapy in neurosurgery: a review," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 36, 157-168 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Okada, E.

Paglia, F.

Patterson, M. S.

Pifferi, A.

D. Contini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, F. Paglia, and R. Cubeddu, "Multi-channel time-resolved system for functional near infrared spectroscopy," Opt. Express 14, 5418-5432 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, A. Bassi, P. Taroni, R. Cubeddu, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, J. Swartling, T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, R. L. P. van Veen, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. M. Tualle, H. L. Nghiem, S. Avrillier, M. Whelan, and H. Stamm, "Performance assessment of photon migration instruments: the MEDPHOT protocol," Appl. Opt. 44, 2104-2114 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, E. Giambattistelli, and R. Cubeddu "In vivo optical characterization of human tissues from 610 to 1010 nm by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2227-2237 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, "Time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy in tissues," in Laser-Tissue Interaction X: Photochemical, Photothermal, and Photomechanical, S. L. Jacques, G. J. Muller, A. Roggan, and D. H. Sliney, eds., Proc. SPIE 3601, 486-490 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, "Experimental test of theoretical models for time-resolved reflectance," Med. Phys. 23, 1625-1633 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Taroni, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, "Absorption properties of breast: the contribution of collagen," presented at the Biomedical Optics Topical Meeting, Fort Lauderdale, Fla. (19-22 March 2006).

Piguet, D.

Polzonetti, C.

J. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 221-229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Safonova, L. P.

J. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 221-229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sassaroli, A.

F. Martelli, A. Sassaroli, G. Del Bianco, S. Yamada, and G. Zaccanti, "Solution of the time-dependent diffusion equation for layered diffusive media by the eigenfunction method," Phys. Rev. E 67, 056623 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Martelli, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, and G. Zaccanti, "Analytical approximate solutions of the time-domain diffusion equation in layered slabs," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 71-80 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schober, R.

A. N. Yaroslavsky, P. C. Schulze, I. V. Yaroslavsky, R. Schober, F. Ulrich, and H. J. Schwarzmaier, "Optical properties of selected native and coagulated human brain tissues in vitro in the visible and near infrared spectral range," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2059-2073 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schulze, P. C.

A. N. Yaroslavsky, P. C. Schulze, I. V. Yaroslavsky, R. Schober, F. Ulrich, and H. J. Schwarzmaier, "Optical properties of selected native and coagulated human brain tissues in vitro in the visible and near infrared spectral range," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2059-2073 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwarzmaier, H. J.

A. N. Yaroslavsky, P. C. Schulze, I. V. Yaroslavsky, R. Schober, F. Ulrich, and H. J. Schwarzmaier, "Optical properties of selected native and coagulated human brain tissues in vitro in the visible and near infrared spectral range," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2059-2073 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweiger, M.

H. Dehghani, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, "Optical tomography in the presence of void regions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1659-1670 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, "An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767-783 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Selb, J.

J. Selb, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, and D. A. Boas, "Improved sensitivity to cerebral hemodynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011013 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorensen, A. G.

J. Selb, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, and D. A. Boas, "Improved sensitivity to cerebral hemodynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011013 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Barnett, J. P. Culver, A. G. Sorensen, A. Dale, and D. A. Boas "Robust inference of baseline optical properties of the human head with three-dimensional segmentation from magnetic resonance imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 3095-3108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Spinelli, L.

Stamm, H.

Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.

Strangman, G.

G. Strangman, D. A. Boas, and J. P. Sutton, "Non-invasive neuroimaging using near-infrared light," Biol. Psychiatry 52, 679-693 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sutton, J. P.

G. Strangman, D. A. Boas, and J. P. Sutton, "Non-invasive neuroimaging using near-infrared light," Biol. Psychiatry 52, 679-693 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svasaand, L. O.

Svensson, T.

Swartling, J.

Taroni, P.

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, A. Bassi, P. Taroni, R. Cubeddu, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, J. Swartling, T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, R. L. P. van Veen, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. M. Tualle, H. L. Nghiem, S. Avrillier, M. Whelan, and H. Stamm, "Performance assessment of photon migration instruments: the MEDPHOT protocol," Appl. Opt. 44, 2104-2114 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, E. Giambattistelli, and R. Cubeddu "In vivo optical characterization of human tissues from 610 to 1010 nm by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2227-2237 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, "Time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy in tissues," in Laser-Tissue Interaction X: Photochemical, Photothermal, and Photomechanical, S. L. Jacques, G. J. Muller, A. Roggan, and D. H. Sliney, eds., Proc. SPIE 3601, 486-490 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, "Experimental test of theoretical models for time-resolved reflectance," Med. Phys. 23, 1625-1633 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Taroni, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, "Absorption properties of breast: the contribution of collagen," presented at the Biomedical Optics Topical Meeting, Fort Lauderdale, Fla. (19-22 March 2006).

Tittel, F. K.

Toronov, V.

J. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 221-229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torricelli, A.

D. Contini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, F. Paglia, and R. Cubeddu, "Multi-channel time-resolved system for functional near infrared spectroscopy," Opt. Express 14, 5418-5432 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, A. Bassi, P. Taroni, R. Cubeddu, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, J. Swartling, T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, R. L. P. van Veen, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. M. Tualle, H. L. Nghiem, S. Avrillier, M. Whelan, and H. Stamm, "Performance assessment of photon migration instruments: the MEDPHOT protocol," Appl. Opt. 44, 2104-2114 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, E. Giambattistelli, and R. Cubeddu "In vivo optical characterization of human tissues from 610 to 1010 nm by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2227-2237 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, "Time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy in tissues," in Laser-Tissue Interaction X: Photochemical, Photothermal, and Photomechanical, S. L. Jacques, G. J. Muller, A. Roggan, and D. H. Sliney, eds., Proc. SPIE 3601, 486-490 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, "Experimental test of theoretical models for time-resolved reflectance," Med. Phys. 23, 1625-1633 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Taroni, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, "Absorption properties of breast: the contribution of collagen," presented at the Biomedical Optics Topical Meeting, Fort Lauderdale, Fla. (19-22 March 2006).

Tromberg, B. J.

Tsay, T. T.

Tualle, J. M.

Ulrich, F.

A. N. Yaroslavsky, P. C. Schulze, I. V. Yaroslavsky, R. Schober, F. Ulrich, and H. J. Schwarzmaier, "Optical properties of selected native and coagulated human brain tissues in vitro in the visible and near infrared spectral range," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2059-2073 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valentini, G.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, "Time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy in tissues," in Laser-Tissue Interaction X: Photochemical, Photothermal, and Photomechanical, S. L. Jacques, G. J. Muller, A. Roggan, and D. H. Sliney, eds., Proc. SPIE 3601, 486-490 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, "Experimental test of theoretical models for time-resolved reflectance," Med. Phys. 23, 1625-1633 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van den Bergh, H.

van Veen, R. L. P.

Villringer, A.

A. Villringer and B. Chance, "Noninvasive optical spectroscopy and imaging of human brain function," Trends Neurosci. 20, 435-442 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wabnitz, H.

Wagnieres, G.

Wells, W. M.

Whelan, M.

Wilson, B. C.

Wolf, M.

J. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 221-229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, U.

J. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 221-229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamada, S.

F. Martelli, A. Sassaroli, G. Del Bianco, S. Yamada, and G. Zaccanti, "Solution of the time-dependent diffusion equation for layered diffusive media by the eigenfunction method," Phys. Rev. E 67, 056623 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, Y.

F. Martelli, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, and G. Zaccanti, "Analytical approximate solutions of the time-domain diffusion equation in layered slabs," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 71-80 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Furutsu and Y. Yamada, "Diffusion approximation for a dissipative random medium and the applications," Phys. Rev. E 50, 3634-3640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yaroslavsky, A. N.

A. N. Yaroslavsky, P. C. Schulze, I. V. Yaroslavsky, R. Schober, F. Ulrich, and H. J. Schwarzmaier, "Optical properties of selected native and coagulated human brain tissues in vitro in the visible and near infrared spectral range," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2059-2073 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yaroslavsky, I. V.

A. N. Yaroslavsky, P. C. Schulze, I. V. Yaroslavsky, R. Schober, F. Ulrich, and H. J. Schwarzmaier, "Optical properties of selected native and coagulated human brain tissues in vitro in the visible and near infrared spectral range," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2059-2073 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaccanti, G.

F. Martelli, A. Sassaroli, G. Del Bianco, S. Yamada, and G. Zaccanti, "Solution of the time-dependent diffusion equation for layered diffusive media by the eigenfunction method," Phys. Rev. E 67, 056623 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Martelli, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, and G. Zaccanti, "Analytical approximate solutions of the time-domain diffusion equation in layered slabs," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 71-80 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, and B. C. Wilson, "Time-resolved reflectance and transmittance for the noninvasive measurement of tissue optical properties," Appl. Opt. 28, 2331-2336 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Hielscher, H. Liu, B. Chance, F. K. Tittel, and S. L. Jacques, "Time-resolved photon emission from layered turbid media," Appl. Opt. 35, 719-728 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kienle, M. S. Patterson, N. Dognitz, R. Bays, G. Wagnieres, and H. van den Bergh, "Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of two-layered turbid media" Appl. Opt. 37, 779-791 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Bevilacqua, D. Piguet, P. Marquet, J. D. Gross, B. J. Tromberg, and C. Depeursinge, "In vivo local determination of tissue optical properties: applications to human brain," Appl. Opt. 38, 4939-4950 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fukui, Y. Ajichi, and E. Okada, "Monte Carlo prediction of near-infrared light propagation in realistic adult and neonatal head models," Appl. Opt. 42, 2881-2887 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Okada and D. T. Delpy, "Near-infrared light propagation in an adult head model. I. Modeling of low-level scattering in the cerebrospinal fluid layer," Appl. Opt. 42, 2906-2914 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Okada and D. T. Delpy, "Near-infrared light propagation in an adult head model. II. Effect of superficial tissue thickness on the sensitivity of the near-infrared spectroscopy signal," Appl. Opt. 42, 2915-2922 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Barnett, J. P. Culver, A. G. Sorensen, A. Dale, and D. A. Boas "Robust inference of baseline optical properties of the human head with three-dimensional segmentation from magnetic resonance imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 3095-3108 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, A. Bassi, P. Taroni, R. Cubeddu, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, J. Swartling, T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, R. L. P. van Veen, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. M. Tualle, H. L. Nghiem, S. Avrillier, M. Whelan, and H. Stamm, "Performance assessment of photon migration instruments: the MEDPHOT protocol," Appl. Opt. 44, 2104-2114 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Custo, W. M. Wells, A. H. Barnett, E. M. C. Hillman, and D. A. Boas, "Effective scattering coefficient of the cerebral spinal fluid in adult head models for diffuse optical imaging," Appl. Opt. 45, 4747-4755 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biol. Psychiatry

G. Strangman, D. A. Boas, and J. P. Sutton, "Non-invasive neuroimaging using near-infrared light," Biol. Psychiatry 52, 679-693 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inverse Probl.

S. R. Arridge, "Optical tomography in medical imaging," Inverse Probl. 15, R41-R93 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Physiol.

M. Firbank, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, and D. T. Delpy, "Experimental and theoretical comparison of NIR spectroscopy measurements of cerebral hemoglobin changes," J. Appl. Physiol. 85, 1915-1921 (1998).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

J. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 221-229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Selb, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, and D. A. Boas, "Improved sensitivity to cerebral hemodynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011013 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas and R. D. Frostig, "Optics in neuroscience," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, and R. Macdonald, "Fiber dispersion in time domain measurements compromising the accuracy of determination of optical properties of strongly scattering media," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 512-516 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Photochem. Photobiol.

H. Kostron, A. Obwegeser, and R. Jakober, "Photodynamic therapy in neurosurgery: a review," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 36, 157-168 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, "Experimental test of theoretical models for time-resolved reflectance," Med. Phys. 23, 1625-1633 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Phys. Med. Biol.

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, E. Giambattistelli, and R. Cubeddu "In vivo optical characterization of human tissues from 610 to 1010 nm by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2227-2237 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Gibson, J. C. Hebden, and S. R. Arridge, "Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, R1-R43 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Yaroslavsky, P. C. Schulze, I. V. Yaroslavsky, R. Schober, F. Ulrich, and H. J. Schwarzmaier, "Optical properties of selected native and coagulated human brain tissues in vitro in the visible and near infrared spectral range," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2059-2073 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, "An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767-783 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Hielscher, R. E. Alcouffe, and R. L. Barbour, "Comparison of finite-difference transport and diffusion calculations for photon migration in homogeneous and heterogeneous tissues," Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 1285-1302 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E

F. Martelli, A. Sassaroli, G. Del Bianco, S. Yamada, and G. Zaccanti, "Solution of the time-dependent diffusion equation for layered diffusive media by the eigenfunction method," Phys. Rev. E 67, 056623 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Furutsu and Y. Yamada, "Diffusion approximation for a dissipative random medium and the applications," Phys. Rev. E 50, 3634-3640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, "Time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy in tissues," in Laser-Tissue Interaction X: Photochemical, Photothermal, and Photomechanical, S. L. Jacques, G. J. Muller, A. Roggan, and D. H. Sliney, eds., Proc. SPIE 3601, 486-490 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Okada and D. T. Delpy, "Effect of discrete scatterers in CSF layer on optical path length in the brain," in Diffuse Spectroscopy and Optical Coherence Tomography: Imaging and Functional Assessment, S. Andersson-Engels and J. G. Fujimoto, eds., Proc. SPIE 4160, 196-203 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Trends Neurosci.

A. Villringer and B. Chance, "Noninvasive optical spectroscopy and imaging of human brain function," Trends Neurosci. 20, 435-442 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

For latest results see Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, 2006).

P. Taroni, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, "Absorption properties of breast: the contribution of collagen," presented at the Biomedical Optics Topical Meeting, Fort Lauderdale, Fla. (19-22 March 2006).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectra (left panel) and reduced scattering spectra (right panel) of a solid phantom made of epoxy resin, titanium oxide powder, and black toner, measured in the reflectance mode at five different interfiber distances (from 2 up to 6   cm ).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a)–(e) Absorption spectra of the forehead of the five volunteers in reflectance mode at five different interfiber distances.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a)–(e) Reduced scattering spectra of the forehead of the five volunteers in reflectance mode at five different interfiber distances.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Absorption spectra (left panel) and reduced scattering spectra (right panel) of the forehead of the five volunteers acquired in reflectance mode at the shortest interfiber distance ( ρ = 2   cm ) .

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Thickness, μ a and μ′ s Values at λ = 800 nm, of the Four-Layer Model of the Human Forehead used for MC Simulations

Tables Icon

Table 2 Hemoglobin Concentrations, Total Hemoglobin Content, and Hemoglobin Oxygen Saturation a

Tables Icon

Table 3 μ a and μ′ s Values Retrieved by Fitting the Four-Layer MC Simulations with a Homogeneous Model for the Human Head

Metrics