Abstract

The controlled Monte Carlo method is generalized to model photon migration in turbid media of arbitrary geometries. Its implementation for the reflection geometry is exemplified in this paper. The most probable diffuse direction of light is used as the local attractive vector that serves as the basis of biased sampling of scattering angles. Consequently, path-length resolved photon trajectories can be generated with a significantly improved efficiency. We report a more than 29 times reduction in simulation time for early arriving photons in a typical configuration.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Yates, J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, N. Everdell, S. R. Arridge, and M. Douek, "Optical tomography of the breast using a multichannel time-resolved imager," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2503-2517 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  24. J. Ripoll, V. Ntziachristos, R. Carminati, and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, "Kirchhoff approximation for diffusive waves," Phys. Rev. E 64, 051917 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (7)

T. Yates, J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, N. Everdell, S. R. Arridge, and M. Douek, "Optical tomography of the breast using a multichannel time-resolved imager," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2503-2517 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Taroni, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, G. M. Danesini, and R. Cubeddu, "Multiwavelength time domain optical mammography," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 4, 527-537 (2005).
[PubMed]

T. Tanifuji, T. Ohtomo, D. Ohmori, and T. Ishikawa, "Time-resolved reflectance of an optical pulse in adult heads based on the finite difference time domain (FDTD) analysis," Opt. Rev. 12, 42-45 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhu, E. B. Cronin, A. A. Currier, H. S. Vine, M. Huang, N. G. Chen, and C. Xu, "Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US-guided optical imaging reconstruction," Radiology 237, 57-66 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bai, T. X. Gao, Y. Kui, and N. G. Chen, "Locating inhomogeneities in tissue by using the most probable diffuse path of light," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024024 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Heiskala, I. Nissila, T. Neuvonen, S. Jarvenpaa, and E. Somersalo, "Modeling anisotropic light propagation in a realistic model of the human head," Appl. Opt. 44, 2049-2057 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Chauchard, S. Roussel, J. M. Roger, V. Bellon-Maurel, C. Abrahamsson, T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, and S. Svanberg, "Least-squares support vector machines modelization for time-resolved spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 44, 7091-7097 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

L. Marti-Lopez, J. Bouza-Dominguez, and J. C. Hebden, "Interpretation of the failure of the time-independent diffusion equation near a point source," Opt. Commun. 242, 23-43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

D. A. Boas, J. P. Culver, J. J. Stott, and A. K. Dunn, "Three-dimensional Monte Carlo code for photon migration through complex heterogeneous medical including the adult human head," Opt. Express 10, 159-170 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (5)

1999 (2)

N. G. Chen and J. Bai, "Estimation of quasi-straight-forward propagating light in tissue," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1669-1676 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Hielscher, A. D. Klose, and K. M. Hanson, "Gradient-based iterative image reconstruction scheme for time-resolved optical tomography," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 18, 262-271 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

N. G. Chen and J. Bai, "Monte Carlo approach to modeling of boundary conditions for the diffusion equation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5321-5324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

E. Tinet, S. Avrillier, and J. M. Tualle, "Fast semianalytic Monte Carlo simulation for time-resolved light propagation in turbid media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1903-1915 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. P. van Houten, D. A. Benaron, S. Spilman, and D. K. Stevenson, "Imaging brain injury using time-resolved near-infrared light scanning," Pediatr. Res. 39, 470-476 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, "MCML-Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multilayered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, M. S. Patterson, H. Jiang, and K. D. Paulsen, "Initial assessment of a simple system for frequency-domain diffuse optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1709-1729 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abrahamsson, C.

Andersson-Engels, S.

Arridge, S. R.

T. Yates, J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, N. Everdell, S. R. Arridge, and M. Douek, "Optical tomography of the breast using a multichannel time-resolved imager," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2503-2517 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, H. Veenstra, H. Dehghani, E. M. C. Hillman, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, "Three-dimensional time-resolved optical tomography of a conical breast phantom," Appl. Opt. 40, 3278-3287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Austin, T.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avrillier, S.

Bai, J.

J. Bai, T. X. Gao, Y. Kui, and N. G. Chen, "Locating inhomogeneities in tissue by using the most probable diffuse path of light," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024024 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. G. Chen and J. Bai, "Estimation of quasi-straight-forward propagating light in tissue," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1669-1676 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. G. Chen and J. Bai, "Monte Carlo approach to modeling of boundary conditions for the diffusion equation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5321-5324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bellon-Maurel, V.

Benaron, D. A.

J. P. van Houten, D. A. Benaron, S. Spilman, and D. K. Stevenson, "Imaging brain injury using time-resolved near-infrared light scanning," Pediatr. Res. 39, 470-476 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

Bolster, M. B.

Bouza-Dominguez, J.

L. Marti-Lopez, J. Bouza-Dominguez, and J. C. Hebden, "Interpretation of the failure of the time-independent diffusion equation near a point source," Opt. Commun. 242, 23-43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carminati, R.

J. Ripoll, V. Ntziachristos, R. Carminati, and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, "Kirchhoff approximation for diffusive waves," Phys. Rev. E 64, 051917 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chauchard, F.

Chen, N. G.

J. Bai, T. X. Gao, Y. Kui, and N. G. Chen, "Locating inhomogeneities in tissue by using the most probable diffuse path of light," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024024 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhu, E. B. Cronin, A. A. Currier, H. S. Vine, M. Huang, N. G. Chen, and C. Xu, "Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US-guided optical imaging reconstruction," Radiology 237, 57-66 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. G. Chen, P. Guo, S. Yan, D. Piao, and Q. Zhu, "Simultaneous near-infrared diffusive light and ultrasound imaging," Appl. Opt. 40, 6367-6280 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. G. Chen and Q. Zhu, "Optical tomography with early arriving photons: sensitivity and resolution analysis," Proc. SPIE 4250, 37-44 (2001).

N. G. Chen and J. Bai, "Estimation of quasi-straight-forward propagating light in tissue," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1669-1676 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. G. Chen and J. Bai, "Monte Carlo approach to modeling of boundary conditions for the diffusion equation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5321-5324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cronin, E. B.

Q. Zhu, E. B. Cronin, A. A. Currier, H. S. Vine, M. Huang, N. G. Chen, and C. Xu, "Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US-guided optical imaging reconstruction," Radiology 237, 57-66 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cubeddu, R.

P. Taroni, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, G. M. Danesini, and R. Cubeddu, "Multiwavelength time domain optical mammography," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 4, 527-537 (2005).
[PubMed]

Culver, J. P.

Currier, A. A.

Q. Zhu, E. B. Cronin, A. A. Currier, H. S. Vine, M. Huang, N. G. Chen, and C. Xu, "Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US-guided optical imaging reconstruction," Radiology 237, 57-66 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Danesini, G. M.

P. Taroni, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, G. M. Danesini, and R. Cubeddu, "Multiwavelength time domain optical mammography," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 4, 527-537 (2005).
[PubMed]

Dehghani, H.

Delpy, D. T.

Douek, M.

T. Yates, J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, N. Everdell, S. R. Arridge, and M. Douek, "Optical tomography of the breast using a multichannel time-resolved imager," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2503-2517 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunn, A. K.

Everdell, N.

T. Yates, J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, N. Everdell, S. R. Arridge, and M. Douek, "Optical tomography of the breast using a multichannel time-resolved imager," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2503-2517 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, T. X.

J. Bai, T. X. Gao, Y. Kui, and N. G. Chen, "Locating inhomogeneities in tissue by using the most probable diffuse path of light," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024024 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, A.

T. Yates, J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, N. Everdell, S. R. Arridge, and M. Douek, "Optical tomography of the breast using a multichannel time-resolved imager," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2503-2517 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grosenick, D.

Guo, P.

Hall, D. J.

Hanson, K. M.

A. H. Hielscher, A. D. Klose, and K. M. Hanson, "Gradient-based iterative image reconstruction scheme for time-resolved optical tomography," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 18, 262-271 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hebden, J. C.

T. Yates, J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, N. Everdell, S. R. Arridge, and M. Douek, "Optical tomography of the breast using a multichannel time-resolved imager," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2503-2517 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Marti-Lopez, J. Bouza-Dominguez, and J. C. Hebden, "Interpretation of the failure of the time-independent diffusion equation near a point source," Opt. Commun. 242, 23-43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, H. Veenstra, H. Dehghani, E. M. C. Hillman, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, "Three-dimensional time-resolved optical tomography of a conical breast phantom," Appl. Opt. 40, 3278-3287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hall, J. C. Hebden, and D. T. Delpy, "Imaging very-low-contrast objects in breastlike scattering media with a time-resolved method," Appl. Opt. 36, 7270-7276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Heiskala, J.

Hielscher, A. H.

A. H. Hielscher, A. D. Klose, and K. M. Hanson, "Gradient-based iterative image reconstruction scheme for time-resolved optical tomography," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 18, 262-271 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillman, E. M. C.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, H. Veenstra, H. Dehghani, E. M. C. Hillman, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, "Three-dimensional time-resolved optical tomography of a conical breast phantom," Appl. Opt. 40, 3278-3287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

Q. Zhu, E. B. Cronin, A. A. Currier, H. S. Vine, M. Huang, N. G. Chen, and C. Xu, "Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US-guided optical imaging reconstruction," Radiology 237, 57-66 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N.

Ishikawa, T.

T. Tanifuji, T. Ohtomo, D. Ohmori, and T. Ishikawa, "Time-resolved reflectance of an optical pulse in adult heads based on the finite difference time domain (FDTD) analysis," Opt. Rev. 12, 42-45 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jacques, S. L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, "MCML-Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multilayered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jarvenpaa, S.

Jiang, H.

B. W. Pogue, M. S. Patterson, H. Jiang, and K. D. Paulsen, "Initial assessment of a simple system for frequency-domain diffuse optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1709-1729 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, H. B.

Key, L. L.

Klose, A. D.

A. H. Hielscher, A. D. Klose, and K. M. Hanson, "Gradient-based iterative image reconstruction scheme for time-resolved optical tomography," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 18, 262-271 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kui, Y.

J. Bai, T. X. Gao, Y. Kui, and N. G. Chen, "Locating inhomogeneities in tissue by using the most probable diffuse path of light," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024024 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macdonald, R.

Marti-Lopez, L.

L. Marti-Lopez, J. Bouza-Dominguez, and J. C. Hebden, "Interpretation of the failure of the time-independent diffusion equation near a point source," Opt. Commun. 242, 23-43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meek, J. H.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moesta, K. T.

Mucke, J.

Neuvonen, T.

Nieto-Vesperinas, M.

J. Ripoll, V. Ntziachristos, R. Carminati, and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, "Kirchhoff approximation for diffusive waves," Phys. Rev. E 64, 051917 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nissila, I.

Ntziachristos, V.

J. Ripoll, V. Ntziachristos, R. Carminati, and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, "Kirchhoff approximation for diffusive waves," Phys. Rev. E 64, 051917 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ohmori, D.

T. Tanifuji, T. Ohtomo, D. Ohmori, and T. Ishikawa, "Time-resolved reflectance of an optical pulse in adult heads based on the finite difference time domain (FDTD) analysis," Opt. Rev. 12, 42-45 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ohtomo, T.

T. Tanifuji, T. Ohtomo, D. Ohmori, and T. Ishikawa, "Time-resolved reflectance of an optical pulse in adult heads based on the finite difference time domain (FDTD) analysis," Opt. Rev. 12, 42-45 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, M. S.

B. W. Pogue, M. S. Patterson, H. Jiang, and K. D. Paulsen, "Initial assessment of a simple system for frequency-domain diffuse optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1709-1729 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulsen, K. D.

B. W. Pogue, M. S. Patterson, H. Jiang, and K. D. Paulsen, "Initial assessment of a simple system for frequency-domain diffuse optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1709-1729 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piao, D.

Pifferi, A.

P. Taroni, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, G. M. Danesini, and R. Cubeddu, "Multiwavelength time domain optical mammography," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 4, 527-537 (2005).
[PubMed]

Pogue, B. W.

B. W. Pogue, M. S. Patterson, H. Jiang, and K. D. Paulsen, "Initial assessment of a simple system for frequency-domain diffuse optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1709-1729 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rinneberg, H.

Ripoll, J.

J. Ripoll, V. Ntziachristos, R. Carminati, and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, "Kirchhoff approximation for diffusive waves," Phys. Rev. E 64, 051917 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Roger, J. M.

Roussel, S.

Schlag, P. M.

Schweiger, M.

Somersalo, E.

Spilman, S.

J. P. van Houten, D. A. Benaron, S. Spilman, and D. K. Stevenson, "Imaging brain injury using time-resolved near-infrared light scanning," Pediatr. Res. 39, 470-476 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spinelli, L.

P. Taroni, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, G. M. Danesini, and R. Cubeddu, "Multiwavelength time domain optical mammography," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 4, 527-537 (2005).
[PubMed]

Stevenson, D. K.

J. P. van Houten, D. A. Benaron, S. Spilman, and D. K. Stevenson, "Imaging brain injury using time-resolved near-infrared light scanning," Pediatr. Res. 39, 470-476 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stott, J. J.

Stroszczynski, C.

Svanberg, S.

Svensson, T.

Tanifuji, T.

T. Tanifuji, T. Ohtomo, D. Ohmori, and T. Ishikawa, "Time-resolved reflectance of an optical pulse in adult heads based on the finite difference time domain (FDTD) analysis," Opt. Rev. 12, 42-45 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taroni, P.

P. Taroni, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, G. M. Danesini, and R. Cubeddu, "Multiwavelength time domain optical mammography," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 4, 527-537 (2005).
[PubMed]

Tinet, E.

Torricelli, A.

P. Taroni, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, G. M. Danesini, and R. Cubeddu, "Multiwavelength time domain optical mammography," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 4, 527-537 (2005).
[PubMed]

Tualle, J. M.

van Houten, J. P.

J. P. van Houten, D. A. Benaron, S. Spilman, and D. K. Stevenson, "Imaging brain injury using time-resolved near-infrared light scanning," Pediatr. Res. 39, 470-476 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veenstra, H.

Vine, H. S.

Q. Zhu, E. B. Cronin, A. A. Currier, H. S. Vine, M. Huang, N. G. Chen, and C. Xu, "Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US-guided optical imaging reconstruction," Radiology 237, 57-66 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wabnitz, H.

Wang, L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, "MCML-Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multilayered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyatt, J. S.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, C.

Q. Zhu, E. B. Cronin, A. A. Currier, H. S. Vine, M. Huang, N. G. Chen, and C. Xu, "Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US-guided optical imaging reconstruction," Radiology 237, 57-66 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Y.

Yan, S.

Yates, T.

T. Yates, J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, N. Everdell, S. R. Arridge, and M. Douek, "Optical tomography of the breast using a multichannel time-resolved imager," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2503-2517 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yusof, R. M.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, "MCML-Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multilayered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, Q.

Q. Zhu, E. B. Cronin, A. A. Currier, H. S. Vine, M. Huang, N. G. Chen, and C. Xu, "Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US-guided optical imaging reconstruction," Radiology 237, 57-66 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. G. Chen, P. Guo, S. Yan, D. Piao, and Q. Zhu, "Simultaneous near-infrared diffusive light and ultrasound imaging," Appl. Opt. 40, 6367-6280 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. G. Chen and Q. Zhu, "Optical tomography with early arriving photons: sensitivity and resolution analysis," Proc. SPIE 4250, 37-44 (2001).

Appl. Opt. (6)

Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. (1)

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Zheng, "MCML-Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multilayered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

A. H. Hielscher, A. D. Klose, and K. M. Hanson, "Gradient-based iterative image reconstruction scheme for time-resolved optical tomography," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 18, 262-271 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

J. Bai, T. X. Gao, Y. Kui, and N. G. Chen, "Locating inhomogeneities in tissue by using the most probable diffuse path of light," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024024 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. Marti-Lopez, J. Bouza-Dominguez, and J. C. Hebden, "Interpretation of the failure of the time-independent diffusion equation near a point source," Opt. Commun. 242, 23-43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Rev. (1)

T. Tanifuji, T. Ohtomo, D. Ohmori, and T. Ishikawa, "Time-resolved reflectance of an optical pulse in adult heads based on the finite difference time domain (FDTD) analysis," Opt. Rev. 12, 42-45 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pediatr. Res. (1)

J. P. van Houten, D. A. Benaron, S. Spilman, and D. K. Stevenson, "Imaging brain injury using time-resolved near-infrared light scanning," Pediatr. Res. 39, 470-476 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (4)

B. W. Pogue, M. S. Patterson, H. Jiang, and K. D. Paulsen, "Initial assessment of a simple system for frequency-domain diffuse optical tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1709-1729 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, and J. S. Wyatt, "Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155-4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yates, J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, N. Everdell, S. R. Arridge, and M. Douek, "Optical tomography of the breast using a multichannel time-resolved imager," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2503-2517 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. G. Chen and J. Bai, "Estimation of quasi-straight-forward propagating light in tissue," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1669-1676 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

J. Ripoll, V. Ntziachristos, R. Carminati, and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, "Kirchhoff approximation for diffusive waves," Phys. Rev. E 64, 051917 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

N. G. Chen and J. Bai, "Monte Carlo approach to modeling of boundary conditions for the diffusion equation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5321-5324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Radiology (1)

Q. Zhu, E. B. Cronin, A. A. Currier, H. S. Vine, M. Huang, N. G. Chen, and C. Xu, "Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US-guided optical imaging reconstruction," Radiology 237, 57-66 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. (1)

P. Taroni, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, G. M. Danesini, and R. Cubeddu, "Multiwavelength time domain optical mammography," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 4, 527-537 (2005).
[PubMed]

Other (1)

N. G. Chen and Q. Zhu, "Optical tomography with early arriving photons: sensitivity and resolution analysis," Proc. SPIE 4250, 37-44 (2001).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) The semi-infinite geometry for diffuse reflectance measurement. The origin of the coordinates system coincides with the entry point of the input beam (indicated by the double line arrow). r s , r s i , r d are the positions of the effective diffusive point source, the image source, the detector, and the simulation photon, respectively. v a is the local attractive vector, and k i , k f are the prescattering and postscattering directions of the photon trajectory.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Path-length resolved reflectance in the path length range of (a) 1000 l s and (b) 400 l s . The curves are given by the diffusion equation, while the lines are the results from CMC and conventional MC, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photon distributions in the cross-sectional plane ( X = 10   mm ) . Left column, CMC simulation results for path length in the ranges of (a) 200– 400 l s , (b) 400– 600 l s , (c) 600– 800 l s , and (d) 800– 1000 l s . Right column, diffusion equation results for path length in the ranges of (e) 200– 400 l s , (f) 400– 600 l s , (g) 600– 800 l s , and (h) 800– 1000 l s .

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of Computation Time

Equations (16)

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r 0 = [ x , y , z ] T = [ 0 , 0 , 0 ] T
k 0 = [ k x , k y , k z ] T = [ 0 , 0 , 1 ] T
w 0 = 1 ,
l = l s   ln ( 1 x ) .
r = r + k i l .
k f = A ( e z , k i ) [ cos   θ   sin   ϕ sin   θ   sin   ϕ cos   ϕ ] ,
f ( cos   θ ) = 1 g 2 2 ( 1 + g 2 2 g   cos   θ ) 3 / 2 ,
S ( k f , v a ) = [ 0.1 + 0.9 1 + k f · v a 2 ] n .
J = D φ ,
φ ( r ) = 1 | r r 1 | 1 | r r 2 | .
φ ( r ) = r r 2 | r r 2 | 3 r r 1 | r r 1 | 3 .
w w S ( k f , v a ) 1 2 π f ( k i · k f ) S ( k f , v a ) d k f .
w w   exp ( μ a L ) .
R ( L ) = 1 N Δ L m w m θ ( L m L ) θ ( L + Δ L L m ) .
R d ( L ) = A | J z ( L ) | = A D | φ d ( L ) z | ,
φ d ( L ) = 1 ( 4 π D L ) 3 / 2   exp ( μ a L ) { exp ( | r s r d | 2 4 D L ) exp ( | r s i r d | 2 4 D L ) } .

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