Abstract

The effect of light scattering on measurement of UV absorbance and penetration of germicidal UVC irradiance in a UV reactor were studied. Using a standard spectrophotometer, absorbance measurements exhibited significant error when particles that scatter light were present but could be corrected by integrating sphere spectroscopy. Particles from water treatment plants and wastewater effluents exhibited less scattering (20%30%) compared with particles such as clay (50%) and alumina (95%100%). The distribution of light intensity in a UV reactor for a scattering suspension was determined using a spherical chemical actinometry method. Highly scattering alumina particles increased the fluence rate in the reactor near the UV lamp, whereas clay particles and absorbing organic matter reduced the fluence rate. A radiative transfer fluence rate model reasonably predicted the fluence rate of absorbing media and highly scattering suspensions in the UV reactor.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. F. J. Loge, R. W. Emerick, M. Heath, J. Jacangelo, G. Tchobanoglous, and J. L. Darby, "Ultraviolet disinfection of secondary wastewater effluents: prediction of performance and design," Water Environ. Res. 68, 900-916 (1996).
  3. K. G. Linden and J. L. Darby, "Ultraviolet disinfection of marginal effluents: determining ultraviolet absorbance and subsequent estimation of ultraviolet intensity," Water Environ. Res. 70, 214-223 (1998).
  4. Y. Du and J. Rabani, "Determination of quantum yields in two-dimensional scattering systems," Photochem. Photobiol. 162, 575-578 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. B. Wright, "Comparison and validation of UV dose calculations for low and medium pressure mercury arc lamps," Water Environ. Res. 72, 439-443 (2000).
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  7. S. Tassan and K. Allali, "Proposal for the simultaneous measurement of light absorption and backscattering by aquatic particulates," J. Plankton Res. 24, 471-479 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. G. Qualls, M. P. Flynn, and D. Johnson, "The role of suspended particles in ultraviolet disinfection," J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 55, 1280-1285 (1983).
  9. S. Tassan and G. M. Ferrari, "Variability of light absorption by aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region," Appl. Opt. 42, 4802-4810 (2003).
  10. J. Christensen and K. G. Linden, "How particles affect UV light in the UV disinfection of unfiltered drinking water," J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 95, 179-189 (2003).
  11. H. Mamane and K. G. Linden, "Impact of particle aggregated microbes on UV disinfection. II: Proper absorbance measurement for UV fluence," ASCE J. Environ. Eng. (to be published).
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    [CrossRef]
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  16. L. Davydov and P. G. Smirniotis, "Quantification of the primary processes in aqueous heterogeneous photocatalysis using single-stage oxidation reactions," J. Catal. 191, 105-115 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. O. Rahn, P. Xu, and S. L. Miller, "Dosimetry of room-air germicidal (254 nm) radiation using spherical actinometry," Photochem. Photobiol. 70, 314-318 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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  20. R. O. Rahn, "Potassium iodide as a chemical actinometer for 254 nm radiation: use of iodate as an electron scavenger," Photochem. Photobiol. 66, 450-455 (1997).
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  22. S. Jin, "Fluence measurements for polychromatic UV disinfection systems: bench scale modeling and application to characterization of UV reactors," Ph.D. dissertation (Duke University, Durham, N.C., 2003).
  23. D. Liu, J. J. Ducoste, S. Jin, and K. G. Linden, "Evaluation of alternative fluence rate distribution models," J. Water Supply Res. Technol. Aqua 53, 391-408 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]
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2004 (3)

Y. Du and J. Rabani, "Determination of quantum yields in two-dimensional scattering systems," Photochem. Photobiol. 162, 575-578 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Liu, J. J. Ducoste, S. Jin, and K. G. Linden, "Evaluation of alternative fluence rate distribution models," J. Water Supply Res. Technol. Aqua 53, 391-408 (2004).

L. Passantino, J. Malley, M. Knudson, R. Ward, and J. Kim, "Effect of low turbidity and algae on UV disinfection performance," J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 96, 128-137 (2004).

2003 (2)

S. Tassan and G. M. Ferrari, "Variability of light absorption by aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region," Appl. Opt. 42, 4802-4810 (2003).

J. Christensen and K. G. Linden, "How particles affect UV light in the UV disinfection of unfiltered drinking water," J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 95, 179-189 (2003).

2002 (1)

S. Tassan and K. Allali, "Proposal for the simultaneous measurement of light absorption and backscattering by aquatic particulates," J. Plankton Res. 24, 471-479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

E. Castiglioni and P. Albertini, "An integrating sphere to measure CD from difficult samples," Chirality 12, 291-294 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Wright, "Comparison and validation of UV dose calculations for low and medium pressure mercury arc lamps," Water Environ. Res. 72, 439-443 (2000).

L. Davydov and P. G. Smirniotis, "Quantification of the primary processes in aqueous heterogeneous photocatalysis using single-stage oxidation reactions," J. Catal. 191, 105-115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. O. Rahn, P. Xu, and S. L. Miller, "Dosimetry of room-air germicidal (254 nm) radiation using spherical actinometry," Photochem. Photobiol. 70, 314-318 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

K. G. Linden and J. L. Darby, "Ultraviolet disinfection of marginal effluents: determining ultraviolet absorbance and subsequent estimation of ultraviolet intensity," Water Environ. Res. 70, 214-223 (1998).

E. Huber and M. Frost, "Light scattering by small particles," J. Water Supply Res. Technol. Aqua 47, 87-94 (1998).

1997 (1)

R. O. Rahn, "Potassium iodide as a chemical actinometer for 254 nm radiation: use of iodate as an electron scavenger," Photochem. Photobiol. 66, 450-455 (1997).

1996 (3)

B. T. Liou and C. Y. Wu, "Radiative transfer in a multi-layer medium with Fresnel interfaces," Heat Mass Transfer 32, 103-107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Cabrera, O. M. Alfano, and E. Cassano, "Absorption and scattering coefficients of titanium dioxide particulates suspensions in water," J. Phys. Chem. 100, 20043-20050 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Loge, R. W. Emerick, M. Heath, J. Jacangelo, G. Tchobanoglous, and J. L. Darby, "Ultraviolet disinfection of secondary wastewater effluents: prediction of performance and design," Water Environ. Res. 68, 900-916 (1996).

1994 (1)

J. C. Chai, H. S. Lee, and S. V. Patankar, "Finite volume method for radiation heat transfer," J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 8, 419-425 (1994).

1993 (1)

1988 (1)

1984 (1)

W. A. Fiveland, "Discrete ordinates solutions of the radiative transport-equation for rectangular enclosures," J. Heat Transfer 106, 699-706 (1984).

1983 (1)

R. G. Qualls, M. P. Flynn, and D. Johnson, "The role of suspended particles in ultraviolet disinfection," J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 55, 1280-1285 (1983).

1961 (1)

J. Jortner, R. Levine, M. Ottonlenghi, and G. Stein, "The photochemistry of the iodide ion in aqueous solution," J. Phys. Chem. 65, 1232-1238 (1961).

Albertini, P.

E. Castiglioni and P. Albertini, "An integrating sphere to measure CD from difficult samples," Chirality 12, 291-294 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, O. M.

M. I. Cabrera, O. M. Alfano, and E. Cassano, "Absorption and scattering coefficients of titanium dioxide particulates suspensions in water," J. Phys. Chem. 100, 20043-20050 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Allali, K.

S. Tassan and K. Allali, "Proposal for the simultaneous measurement of light absorption and backscattering by aquatic particulates," J. Plankton Res. 24, 471-479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-Interscience, 1983).

Bolton, J. R.

M. I. Stefan, R. O. Rahn, and J. R. Bolton, "Use of iodide/iodate actinometer together with spherical cells for determination of the fluence rate distribution in UV reactors: validation of the mathematical model," in Proceedings of the First International Congress on Ultraviolet Technologies (International Ultraviolet Association, 2001).

J. R. Bolton, Ultraviolet Application Handbook, 2nd ed. (Bolton Photosciences, 2001).

Cabrera, M. I.

M. I. Cabrera, O. M. Alfano, and E. Cassano, "Absorption and scattering coefficients of titanium dioxide particulates suspensions in water," J. Phys. Chem. 100, 20043-20050 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cassano, E.

M. I. Cabrera, O. M. Alfano, and E. Cassano, "Absorption and scattering coefficients of titanium dioxide particulates suspensions in water," J. Phys. Chem. 100, 20043-20050 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Castiglioni, E.

E. Castiglioni and P. Albertini, "An integrating sphere to measure CD from difficult samples," Chirality 12, 291-294 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chai, J. C.

J. C. Chai, H. S. Lee, and S. V. Patankar, "Finite volume method for radiation heat transfer," J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 8, 419-425 (1994).

Christensen, J.

J. Christensen and K. G. Linden, "How particles affect UV light in the UV disinfection of unfiltered drinking water," J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 95, 179-189 (2003).

Darby, J. L.

K. G. Linden and J. L. Darby, "Ultraviolet disinfection of marginal effluents: determining ultraviolet absorbance and subsequent estimation of ultraviolet intensity," Water Environ. Res. 70, 214-223 (1998).

F. J. Loge, R. W. Emerick, M. Heath, J. Jacangelo, G. Tchobanoglous, and J. L. Darby, "Ultraviolet disinfection of secondary wastewater effluents: prediction of performance and design," Water Environ. Res. 68, 900-916 (1996).

Davydov, L.

L. Davydov and P. G. Smirniotis, "Quantification of the primary processes in aqueous heterogeneous photocatalysis using single-stage oxidation reactions," J. Catal. 191, 105-115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Du, Y.

Y. Du and J. Rabani, "Determination of quantum yields in two-dimensional scattering systems," Photochem. Photobiol. 162, 575-578 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ducoste, J. J.

D. Liu, J. J. Ducoste, S. Jin, and K. G. Linden, "Evaluation of alternative fluence rate distribution models," J. Water Supply Res. Technol. Aqua 53, 391-408 (2004).

Emerick, R. W.

F. J. Loge, R. W. Emerick, M. Heath, J. Jacangelo, G. Tchobanoglous, and J. L. Darby, "Ultraviolet disinfection of secondary wastewater effluents: prediction of performance and design," Water Environ. Res. 68, 900-916 (1996).

Ferrari, G. M.

Fiveland, W. A.

W. A. Fiveland, "Discrete ordinates solutions of the radiative transport-equation for rectangular enclosures," J. Heat Transfer 106, 699-706 (1984).

Flynn, M. P.

R. G. Qualls, M. P. Flynn, and D. Johnson, "The role of suspended particles in ultraviolet disinfection," J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 55, 1280-1285 (1983).

Frost, M.

E. Huber and M. Frost, "Light scattering by small particles," J. Water Supply Res. Technol. Aqua 47, 87-94 (1998).

Heath, M.

F. J. Loge, R. W. Emerick, M. Heath, J. Jacangelo, G. Tchobanoglous, and J. L. Darby, "Ultraviolet disinfection of secondary wastewater effluents: prediction of performance and design," Water Environ. Res. 68, 900-916 (1996).

Huber, E.

E. Huber and M. Frost, "Light scattering by small particles," J. Water Supply Res. Technol. Aqua 47, 87-94 (1998).

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-Interscience, 1983).

Jacangelo, J.

F. J. Loge, R. W. Emerick, M. Heath, J. Jacangelo, G. Tchobanoglous, and J. L. Darby, "Ultraviolet disinfection of secondary wastewater effluents: prediction of performance and design," Water Environ. Res. 68, 900-916 (1996).

Jayaweera, K.

Jin, S.

D. Liu, J. J. Ducoste, S. Jin, and K. G. Linden, "Evaluation of alternative fluence rate distribution models," J. Water Supply Res. Technol. Aqua 53, 391-408 (2004).

S. Jin and K. G. Linden, "Determination of fluence rate distribution in UV reactors using spherical actinometry and mathematical analysis approaches," in Proceedings of Water Quality Technology Conference (American Water Works Association, 2002).

S. Jin, "Fluence measurements for polychromatic UV disinfection systems: bench scale modeling and application to characterization of UV reactors," Ph.D. dissertation (Duke University, Durham, N.C., 2003).

Johnson, D.

R. G. Qualls, M. P. Flynn, and D. Johnson, "The role of suspended particles in ultraviolet disinfection," J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 55, 1280-1285 (1983).

Jortner, J.

J. Jortner, R. Levine, M. Ottonlenghi, and G. Stein, "The photochemistry of the iodide ion in aqueous solution," J. Phys. Chem. 65, 1232-1238 (1961).

Kim, J.

L. Passantino, J. Malley, M. Knudson, R. Ward, and J. Kim, "Effect of low turbidity and algae on UV disinfection performance," J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 96, 128-137 (2004).

Knudson, M.

L. Passantino, J. Malley, M. Knudson, R. Ward, and J. Kim, "Effect of low turbidity and algae on UV disinfection performance," J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 96, 128-137 (2004).

Lee, H. S.

J. C. Chai, H. S. Lee, and S. V. Patankar, "Finite volume method for radiation heat transfer," J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 8, 419-425 (1994).

Levine, R.

J. Jortner, R. Levine, M. Ottonlenghi, and G. Stein, "The photochemistry of the iodide ion in aqueous solution," J. Phys. Chem. 65, 1232-1238 (1961).

Linden, K. G.

D. Liu, J. J. Ducoste, S. Jin, and K. G. Linden, "Evaluation of alternative fluence rate distribution models," J. Water Supply Res. Technol. Aqua 53, 391-408 (2004).

J. Christensen and K. G. Linden, "How particles affect UV light in the UV disinfection of unfiltered drinking water," J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 95, 179-189 (2003).

K. G. Linden and J. L. Darby, "Ultraviolet disinfection of marginal effluents: determining ultraviolet absorbance and subsequent estimation of ultraviolet intensity," Water Environ. Res. 70, 214-223 (1998).

S. Jin and K. G. Linden, "Determination of fluence rate distribution in UV reactors using spherical actinometry and mathematical analysis approaches," in Proceedings of Water Quality Technology Conference (American Water Works Association, 2002).

H. Mamane and K. G. Linden, "Impact of particle aggregated microbes on UV disinfection. II: Proper absorbance measurement for UV fluence," ASCE J. Environ. Eng. (to be published).

Liou, B. T.

B. T. Liou and C. Y. Wu, "Radiative transfer in a multi-layer medium with Fresnel interfaces," Heat Mass Transfer 32, 103-107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liu, D.

D. Liu, J. J. Ducoste, S. Jin, and K. G. Linden, "Evaluation of alternative fluence rate distribution models," J. Water Supply Res. Technol. Aqua 53, 391-408 (2004).

Loge, F. J.

F. J. Loge, R. W. Emerick, M. Heath, J. Jacangelo, G. Tchobanoglous, and J. L. Darby, "Ultraviolet disinfection of secondary wastewater effluents: prediction of performance and design," Water Environ. Res. 68, 900-916 (1996).

Malley, J.

L. Passantino, J. Malley, M. Knudson, R. Ward, and J. Kim, "Effect of low turbidity and algae on UV disinfection performance," J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 96, 128-137 (2004).

Mamane, H.

H. Mamane and K. G. Linden, "Impact of particle aggregated microbes on UV disinfection. II: Proper absorbance measurement for UV fluence," ASCE J. Environ. Eng. (to be published).

Miller, S. L.

R. O. Rahn, P. Xu, and S. L. Miller, "Dosimetry of room-air germicidal (254 nm) radiation using spherical actinometry," Photochem. Photobiol. 70, 314-318 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Modest, M. F.

M. F. Modest, Radiative Heat Transfer (McGraw-Hill, 1993).

Nelson, N. B.

Ottonlenghi, M.

J. Jortner, R. Levine, M. Ottonlenghi, and G. Stein, "The photochemistry of the iodide ion in aqueous solution," J. Phys. Chem. 65, 1232-1238 (1961).

Passantino, L.

L. Passantino, J. Malley, M. Knudson, R. Ward, and J. Kim, "Effect of low turbidity and algae on UV disinfection performance," J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 96, 128-137 (2004).

Patankar, S. V.

J. C. Chai, H. S. Lee, and S. V. Patankar, "Finite volume method for radiation heat transfer," J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 8, 419-425 (1994).

Prezelin, B. B.

Qualls, R. G.

R. G. Qualls, M. P. Flynn, and D. Johnson, "The role of suspended particles in ultraviolet disinfection," J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 55, 1280-1285 (1983).

Rabani, J.

Y. Du and J. Rabani, "Determination of quantum yields in two-dimensional scattering systems," Photochem. Photobiol. 162, 575-578 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rahn, R. O.

R. O. Rahn, P. Xu, and S. L. Miller, "Dosimetry of room-air germicidal (254 nm) radiation using spherical actinometry," Photochem. Photobiol. 70, 314-318 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Rahn, "Potassium iodide as a chemical actinometer for 254 nm radiation: use of iodate as an electron scavenger," Photochem. Photobiol. 66, 450-455 (1997).

M. I. Stefan, R. O. Rahn, and J. R. Bolton, "Use of iodide/iodate actinometer together with spherical cells for determination of the fluence rate distribution in UV reactors: validation of the mathematical model," in Proceedings of the First International Congress on Ultraviolet Technologies (International Ultraviolet Association, 2001).

Smirniotis, P. G.

L. Davydov and P. G. Smirniotis, "Quantification of the primary processes in aqueous heterogeneous photocatalysis using single-stage oxidation reactions," J. Catal. 191, 105-115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stamnes, K.

Stefan, M. I.

M. I. Stefan, R. O. Rahn, and J. R. Bolton, "Use of iodide/iodate actinometer together with spherical cells for determination of the fluence rate distribution in UV reactors: validation of the mathematical model," in Proceedings of the First International Congress on Ultraviolet Technologies (International Ultraviolet Association, 2001).

Stein, G.

J. Jortner, R. Levine, M. Ottonlenghi, and G. Stein, "The photochemistry of the iodide ion in aqueous solution," J. Phys. Chem. 65, 1232-1238 (1961).

Tassan, S.

S. Tassan and G. M. Ferrari, "Variability of light absorption by aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region," Appl. Opt. 42, 4802-4810 (2003).

S. Tassan and K. Allali, "Proposal for the simultaneous measurement of light absorption and backscattering by aquatic particulates," J. Plankton Res. 24, 471-479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tchobanoglous, G.

F. J. Loge, R. W. Emerick, M. Heath, J. Jacangelo, G. Tchobanoglous, and J. L. Darby, "Ultraviolet disinfection of secondary wastewater effluents: prediction of performance and design," Water Environ. Res. 68, 900-916 (1996).

Tsay, S. C.

Ward, R.

L. Passantino, J. Malley, M. Knudson, R. Ward, and J. Kim, "Effect of low turbidity and algae on UV disinfection performance," J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 96, 128-137 (2004).

Wiscombe, W.

Wright, H. B.

H. B. Wright, "Comparison and validation of UV dose calculations for low and medium pressure mercury arc lamps," Water Environ. Res. 72, 439-443 (2000).

Wu, C. Y.

B. T. Liou and C. Y. Wu, "Radiative transfer in a multi-layer medium with Fresnel interfaces," Heat Mass Transfer 32, 103-107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Xu, P.

R. O. Rahn, P. Xu, and S. L. Miller, "Dosimetry of room-air germicidal (254 nm) radiation using spherical actinometry," Photochem. Photobiol. 70, 314-318 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Chirality (1)

E. Castiglioni and P. Albertini, "An integrating sphere to measure CD from difficult samples," Chirality 12, 291-294 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Heat Mass Transfer (1)

B. T. Liou and C. Y. Wu, "Radiative transfer in a multi-layer medium with Fresnel interfaces," Heat Mass Transfer 32, 103-107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Water Works Assoc. (2)

L. Passantino, J. Malley, M. Knudson, R. Ward, and J. Kim, "Effect of low turbidity and algae on UV disinfection performance," J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 96, 128-137 (2004).

J. Christensen and K. G. Linden, "How particles affect UV light in the UV disinfection of unfiltered drinking water," J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 95, 179-189 (2003).

J. Catal. (1)

L. Davydov and P. G. Smirniotis, "Quantification of the primary processes in aqueous heterogeneous photocatalysis using single-stage oxidation reactions," J. Catal. 191, 105-115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Heat Transfer (1)

W. A. Fiveland, "Discrete ordinates solutions of the radiative transport-equation for rectangular enclosures," J. Heat Transfer 106, 699-706 (1984).

J. Phys. Chem. (2)

J. Jortner, R. Levine, M. Ottonlenghi, and G. Stein, "The photochemistry of the iodide ion in aqueous solution," J. Phys. Chem. 65, 1232-1238 (1961).

M. I. Cabrera, O. M. Alfano, and E. Cassano, "Absorption and scattering coefficients of titanium dioxide particulates suspensions in water," J. Phys. Chem. 100, 20043-20050 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Plankton Res. (1)

S. Tassan and K. Allali, "Proposal for the simultaneous measurement of light absorption and backscattering by aquatic particulates," J. Plankton Res. 24, 471-479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer (1)

J. C. Chai, H. S. Lee, and S. V. Patankar, "Finite volume method for radiation heat transfer," J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 8, 419-425 (1994).

J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. (1)

R. G. Qualls, M. P. Flynn, and D. Johnson, "The role of suspended particles in ultraviolet disinfection," J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 55, 1280-1285 (1983).

J. Water Supply Res. Technol. Aqua (2)

D. Liu, J. J. Ducoste, S. Jin, and K. G. Linden, "Evaluation of alternative fluence rate distribution models," J. Water Supply Res. Technol. Aqua 53, 391-408 (2004).

E. Huber and M. Frost, "Light scattering by small particles," J. Water Supply Res. Technol. Aqua 47, 87-94 (1998).

Photochem. Photobiol. (3)

R. O. Rahn, P. Xu, and S. L. Miller, "Dosimetry of room-air germicidal (254 nm) radiation using spherical actinometry," Photochem. Photobiol. 70, 314-318 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Rahn, "Potassium iodide as a chemical actinometer for 254 nm radiation: use of iodate as an electron scavenger," Photochem. Photobiol. 66, 450-455 (1997).

Y. Du and J. Rabani, "Determination of quantum yields in two-dimensional scattering systems," Photochem. Photobiol. 162, 575-578 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Water Environ. Res. (3)

H. B. Wright, "Comparison and validation of UV dose calculations for low and medium pressure mercury arc lamps," Water Environ. Res. 72, 439-443 (2000).

F. J. Loge, R. W. Emerick, M. Heath, J. Jacangelo, G. Tchobanoglous, and J. L. Darby, "Ultraviolet disinfection of secondary wastewater effluents: prediction of performance and design," Water Environ. Res. 68, 900-916 (1996).

K. G. Linden and J. L. Darby, "Ultraviolet disinfection of marginal effluents: determining ultraviolet absorbance and subsequent estimation of ultraviolet intensity," Water Environ. Res. 70, 214-223 (1998).

Other (9)

M. I. Stefan, R. O. Rahn, and J. R. Bolton, "Use of iodide/iodate actinometer together with spherical cells for determination of the fluence rate distribution in UV reactors: validation of the mathematical model," in Proceedings of the First International Congress on Ultraviolet Technologies (International Ultraviolet Association, 2001).

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-Interscience, 1983).

S. Jin and K. G. Linden, "Determination of fluence rate distribution in UV reactors using spherical actinometry and mathematical analysis approaches," in Proceedings of Water Quality Technology Conference (American Water Works Association, 2002).

S. Jin, "Fluence measurements for polychromatic UV disinfection systems: bench scale modeling and application to characterization of UV reactors," Ph.D. dissertation (Duke University, Durham, N.C., 2003).

J. R. Bolton, Ultraviolet Application Handbook, 2nd ed. (Bolton Photosciences, 2001).

American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, and Water Environment Federation,Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 19th ed. (1995).

M. F. Modest, Radiative Heat Transfer (McGraw-Hill, 1993).

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, "Ultraviolet disinfection guidance manual (draft)," EPA 815-D-03-007 (Office of Water, 2003).

H. Mamane and K. G. Linden, "Impact of particle aggregated microbes on UV disinfection. II: Proper absorbance measurement for UV fluence," ASCE J. Environ. Eng. (to be published).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A, Effect of particles on light scattering in all directions; B, one of the three scaffolds with three spherical quartz vessels attached to the scaffold; C, reactor with UV lamp (including shutter and sleeve) and three scaffolds inserted in the reactor (scaffold 1, 2, and 3) with spherical vessels attached to each scaffold.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM images of particles used in this experiment: A, images of alumina particles; B, clay; C, surface water; D, wastewater effluent. (Image A of alumina particles are type CR 15 from Baikowski International Corp., Charlotte, North Carolina).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Effect of varying suspended alumina particle concentration on direct (D) and IS absorbance measurements, with or without fixed humic acid concentration. H represents humic acid and the label values in parentheses represent the concentration of humic acid. Absorbance was measured in 1 cm cuvettes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Effect of varying humic acid concentration, measured in milligrams per liter TOC, on direct (D) and IS absorbance measurements of fixed concentration of suspended alumina and clay particles. Al represents alumina particles.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effect of varying humic acid concentration, measured in milligrams per liter TOC, on calculated light path length for a fixed concentration of suspended alumina (Al) and clay particles.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Direct (D) and IS spectral absorbance measurements and scattering albedo of alumina (Al), clay, and wastewater effluent suspensions at 280 mg∕L.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Three-dimensional surface plots of fluence rate distribution in the annular UV reactor at various X, Y locations for conditions of A, DI water; B, 0.74 mg∕L TOC solution (0.74 H); C, concentration of alumina particles (380 mg∕L Al); D, combination of particle and humic (H) (380 mg∕L + 0.74 H). Interpolation in the figure is based on a nine-point grid.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured actinometry fluence rate at vertical distances from the center of the reactor for each sphere in the case of a fixed alumina suspension of 190 mg∕L with varying humic (H) concentration. Data in boxes are the fluence rate values obtained for scaffold 3, situated closest to the lamp, for the various conditions in the legend.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Fluence rate distribution in the annular UV reactor for various conditions tested: A, varying Al and humic (H) concentrations; B, fixed Al and varying humic concentrations; C, fixed clay (Cl) with varying humic concentrations; D, similar concentration of alumina and clay particles.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Fluence rate distribution in the annular UV reactor for A, surface water and B, effluent augmented with MLSS particles. coag, cogulation; floc, flocculation; fil, filtration.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Comparison between RTE fluence rate model predictions (F) and experimental data (Exp): A, scaffold 2 humics with no particles; B, all scaffolds alumina particles; C, all scaffolds for wastewater effluent augmented with MLSS particles.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Coordinates of Spherical Actinometer Positions in the Annular Ultraviolet Reactor

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Table 2 Analytical Measurements of Total Suspended Solids, Dissolved Organic Matter, Mean Diameter, Percent Volatile Solids (% VSS∕TSS), Turbidity, and Particle Counts

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Table 3 Summary of Extinction Coefficient, Absorbance Coefficient, and Scattering Albedo for Various Conditions Tested in the Annular Ultraviolet Reactor

Equations (11)

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α ( cm 1 ) = A D   ln ( 10 ) l = A D   2 .303 l ,
β ( cm 1 ) = A D   ln ( 10 ) l = A D   2 .303 l .
μ ( cm 1 ) = A IS   ln ( 10 ) l = A IS   ln ( 10 ) l .
ω ( % ) = ( β μ ) β × 100.
A = ε l c ,
l = A D ε c ,
l = A IS ε c .
8 I + IO 3     - + 3 H 2 O + h ν 3 I 3     - + 6 OH .
E = [ A 352 ( sample ) A 352 ( blank ) ] V ( mL ) area   ( cm 2 ) exposure   time   ( s ) ϕ ε 352 U ( mW   cm 2 ) ,
( Ω ) I ( r , Ω ) I = - ( k a II + k s III ) I ( r , Ω ) + k a I b ( r ) IV + k s 4 π Ω = 4 π I ( r , Ω ) ϕ ( Ω Ω ) d Ω V ,
diff ( % ) = A D A IS A IS × 100.

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