Abstract

To develop x-ray mirrors for micropore optics, smooth silicon (111) sidewalls obtained after anisotropic wet etching of a silicon (110) wafer were studied. A sample device with 19 μm wide (111) sidewalls was fabricated using a 220 μm thick silicon (110) wafer and potassium hydroxide solution. For what we believe to be the first time, x-ray reflection on the (111) sidewalls was detected in the angular response measurement. Compared to ray-tracing simulations, the surface roughness of the sidewalls was estimated to be 3–5 nm, which is consistent with the atomic force microscope and the surface profiler measurements.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. W. Fraser, "Microchannel plate x-ray optics," in The Next Generation of X-Ray Observatories, M. J. L. Turner and M. G. Watson, eds., Leicester X-Ray Astronomy Group Special Report XRA97/02, p. 191. (1997).
  2. S. W. Wilkins, A. W. Stevenson, K. A. Nugent, H. Chapman, and S. Steenstrup, "On the concentration, focusing, and collimation of x rays and neutrons using microchannel plates and configurations of holes," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1026-1036 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, A. J. Peacock, M. Beijersbergen, and S. Kraft, "Status of x-ray optics development for the XEUS Mission," in Design and Microfabrication of Novel X-Ray Optics, A. A. Snigirev and D. C. Mancini, eds., Proc. SPIE 5488, 829-836 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O'Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, and A. Lawrence, "LOBSTER-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station," in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan and O. H. Siegmun, eds., Proc. SPIE 4497, 115-126 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijerbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, "X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 490, 276-289 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Bavdaz, A. J. Peacock, M. W. Beijersbergen, and A. N. Parmar, "Development of x-ray optics at ESA," in X-Ray Optics for Astronomy, P. Gorenstein and R. B. Hoover, eds., Proc. SPIE 4496, 94-103 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Wallace, M. Collon, M. Bavdaz, M. Beijersbergen, R. Fairbend, J. Seguy, M. Hoffmann, and M. Krumrey, "Development of micro-pore optics for x-ray applications," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy II, O. Citterio and L. S. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5900, 309-318 (2005).
  8. M. Beijersbergen, S. Kraft, R. Guenther, A. L. Mieremet, M. Collon, M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, and A. Peacock, "Silicon pore optics: novel lightweight high-resolution x-ray optics developed for XEUS," in UV and Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Systems, G. Hasinger and M. J. Turner, eds., Proc. SPIE 5488, 868-874 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Beijersbergen, S. Kraft, M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, R. Guenther, M. Collon, A. L. Mieremet, R. Fairbend, and A. Peacock, "Development of x-ray pore optics: novel high-resolution silicon millipore optics for XEUS and ultralow mass glass micropore optics for imaging and timing," in Design and Microfabrication of Novel X-Ray Optics II, A. A. Snigirev and D. C. Mancini, eds., Proc. SPIE 5539, 104-115 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Bavdaz, D. Lumb, K. M. Wallace, A. Peacock, M. Beijersbergen, and S. Kraft, "The XEUS x-ray telescope," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy II, O. Citterio and L. S. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5900, 288-296 (2005).
  11. A. G. Peele, "Investigation of etched silicon wafers for lobster-eye optics," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1268-1273 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Chen, P. Kaaret, and T. Kenny, "Focusing of x rays using micromachined silicon lobster eye lenses," in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. SPIE 2011, 227-231 (1994).
  13. A. Chen, P. Kaaret, and T. Kenny, "Micromachined silicon x-ray optics," in Advances in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV/FUV Optics, R. B. Hoover and A. B. Walker, Jr., eds., Proc. SPIE 2279, 298-304 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Ezoe, K. Mitsuda, M. Mita, M. Koshiishi, Y. Ishisaki, K. Shinozaki, and A. Hoshino, "Research and development of MEMS x-ray optics," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy II, O. Citterio and L. S. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5900, 328-337 (2005).
  15. K. Sato, M. Shikida, Y. Matsushima, T. Yamamoto, K. Asaumi, Y. Iriye, and M. Yamamoto, "Characterization of orientation dependent etching properties of single-crystal silicon: effect of KOH concentration," Sens. Actuators A 64, 87-93 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Song, J. Bu, Y. Jeon, C. Park, J. Jeong, H. Koh, and M. Choi, "Micromachined silicon optical bench for the low-cost optical module," in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and MEMS, M. E. Motamedi and R. Goering, eds., Proc. SPIE 3878, 375-383 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Tanaka, S. Yamashita, Y. Abe, M. Shikida, and K. Sato, "Fast wet anisotropic etching of Si 100 and 110 with a smooth surface in ultra-high temperature KOH solution," in 12th International Conference on Transducers, Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (IEEE, 2003), pp. 1675-1678.
  18. K. Ohwada, Y. Negoro, Y. Konaka, and T. Oguchi, "Uniform groove-depths in (110) Si anisotropic etching by ultrasonic waves and application to accelerometer fabrication," Sens. Actuators A 50, 93-98 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. Mihalcea, S. Khumpuang, M. Kuwahara, Z. Yang, R. Maeda, J. Tominaga, and N. Atoda, "Ultra-fast anisotropic silicon etching with resulting mirror surfaces in ammonia solutions," in Transducers '01 Eurosensors XV: The 11th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators (Springer, 2001), pp. 608-611.

2005 (3)

K. Wallace, M. Collon, M. Bavdaz, M. Beijersbergen, R. Fairbend, J. Seguy, M. Hoffmann, and M. Krumrey, "Development of micro-pore optics for x-ray applications," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy II, O. Citterio and L. S. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5900, 309-318 (2005).

M. Bavdaz, D. Lumb, K. M. Wallace, A. Peacock, M. Beijersbergen, and S. Kraft, "The XEUS x-ray telescope," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy II, O. Citterio and L. S. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5900, 288-296 (2005).

Y. Ezoe, K. Mitsuda, M. Mita, M. Koshiishi, Y. Ishisaki, K. Shinozaki, and A. Hoshino, "Research and development of MEMS x-ray optics," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy II, O. Citterio and L. S. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5900, 328-337 (2005).

2004 (3)

M. Beijersbergen, S. Kraft, R. Guenther, A. L. Mieremet, M. Collon, M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, and A. Peacock, "Silicon pore optics: novel lightweight high-resolution x-ray optics developed for XEUS," in UV and Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Systems, G. Hasinger and M. J. Turner, eds., Proc. SPIE 5488, 868-874 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Beijersbergen, S. Kraft, M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, R. Guenther, M. Collon, A. L. Mieremet, R. Fairbend, and A. Peacock, "Development of x-ray pore optics: novel high-resolution silicon millipore optics for XEUS and ultralow mass glass micropore optics for imaging and timing," in Design and Microfabrication of Novel X-Ray Optics II, A. A. Snigirev and D. C. Mancini, eds., Proc. SPIE 5539, 104-115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, A. J. Peacock, M. Beijersbergen, and S. Kraft, "Status of x-ray optics development for the XEUS Mission," in Design and Microfabrication of Novel X-Ray Optics, A. A. Snigirev and D. C. Mancini, eds., Proc. SPIE 5488, 829-836 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O'Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, and A. Lawrence, "LOBSTER-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station," in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan and O. H. Siegmun, eds., Proc. SPIE 4497, 115-126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijerbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, "X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 490, 276-289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Bavdaz, A. J. Peacock, M. W. Beijersbergen, and A. N. Parmar, "Development of x-ray optics at ESA," in X-Ray Optics for Astronomy, P. Gorenstein and R. B. Hoover, eds., Proc. SPIE 4496, 94-103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

K. Song, J. Bu, Y. Jeon, C. Park, J. Jeong, H. Koh, and M. Choi, "Micromachined silicon optical bench for the low-cost optical module," in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and MEMS, M. E. Motamedi and R. Goering, eds., Proc. SPIE 3878, 375-383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Peele, "Investigation of etched silicon wafers for lobster-eye optics," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1268-1273 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

K. Sato, M. Shikida, Y. Matsushima, T. Yamamoto, K. Asaumi, Y. Iriye, and M. Yamamoto, "Characterization of orientation dependent etching properties of single-crystal silicon: effect of KOH concentration," Sens. Actuators A 64, 87-93 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

G. W. Fraser, "Microchannel plate x-ray optics," in The Next Generation of X-Ray Observatories, M. J. L. Turner and M. G. Watson, eds., Leicester X-Ray Astronomy Group Special Report XRA97/02, p. 191. (1997).

1995 (1)

K. Ohwada, Y. Negoro, Y. Konaka, and T. Oguchi, "Uniform groove-depths in (110) Si anisotropic etching by ultrasonic waves and application to accelerometer fabrication," Sens. Actuators A 50, 93-98 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

A. Chen, P. Kaaret, and T. Kenny, "Focusing of x rays using micromachined silicon lobster eye lenses," in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. SPIE 2011, 227-231 (1994).

A. Chen, P. Kaaret, and T. Kenny, "Micromachined silicon x-ray optics," in Advances in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV/FUV Optics, R. B. Hoover and A. B. Walker, Jr., eds., Proc. SPIE 2279, 298-304 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

S. W. Wilkins, A. W. Stevenson, K. A. Nugent, H. Chapman, and S. Steenstrup, "On the concentration, focusing, and collimation of x rays and neutrons using microchannel plates and configurations of holes," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1026-1036 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Abe, Y.

H. Tanaka, S. Yamashita, Y. Abe, M. Shikida, and K. Sato, "Fast wet anisotropic etching of Si 100 and 110 with a smooth surface in ultra-high temperature KOH solution," in 12th International Conference on Transducers, Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (IEEE, 2003), pp. 1675-1678.

Asaumi, K.

K. Sato, M. Shikida, Y. Matsushima, T. Yamamoto, K. Asaumi, Y. Iriye, and M. Yamamoto, "Characterization of orientation dependent etching properties of single-crystal silicon: effect of KOH concentration," Sens. Actuators A 64, 87-93 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Atoda, N.

C. Mihalcea, S. Khumpuang, M. Kuwahara, Z. Yang, R. Maeda, J. Tominaga, and N. Atoda, "Ultra-fast anisotropic silicon etching with resulting mirror surfaces in ammonia solutions," in Transducers '01 Eurosensors XV: The 11th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators (Springer, 2001), pp. 608-611.

Bannister, N. P.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O'Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, and A. Lawrence, "LOBSTER-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station," in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan and O. H. Siegmun, eds., Proc. SPIE 4497, 115-126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bavdaz, M.

K. Wallace, M. Collon, M. Bavdaz, M. Beijersbergen, R. Fairbend, J. Seguy, M. Hoffmann, and M. Krumrey, "Development of micro-pore optics for x-ray applications," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy II, O. Citterio and L. S. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5900, 309-318 (2005).

M. Bavdaz, D. Lumb, K. M. Wallace, A. Peacock, M. Beijersbergen, and S. Kraft, "The XEUS x-ray telescope," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy II, O. Citterio and L. S. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5900, 288-296 (2005).

M. Beijersbergen, S. Kraft, M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, R. Guenther, M. Collon, A. L. Mieremet, R. Fairbend, and A. Peacock, "Development of x-ray pore optics: novel high-resolution silicon millipore optics for XEUS and ultralow mass glass micropore optics for imaging and timing," in Design and Microfabrication of Novel X-Ray Optics II, A. A. Snigirev and D. C. Mancini, eds., Proc. SPIE 5539, 104-115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Beijersbergen, S. Kraft, R. Guenther, A. L. Mieremet, M. Collon, M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, and A. Peacock, "Silicon pore optics: novel lightweight high-resolution x-ray optics developed for XEUS," in UV and Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Systems, G. Hasinger and M. J. Turner, eds., Proc. SPIE 5488, 868-874 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, A. J. Peacock, M. Beijersbergen, and S. Kraft, "Status of x-ray optics development for the XEUS Mission," in Design and Microfabrication of Novel X-Ray Optics, A. A. Snigirev and D. C. Mancini, eds., Proc. SPIE 5488, 829-836 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijerbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, "X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 490, 276-289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Bavdaz, A. J. Peacock, M. W. Beijersbergen, and A. N. Parmar, "Development of x-ray optics at ESA," in X-Ray Optics for Astronomy, P. Gorenstein and R. B. Hoover, eds., Proc. SPIE 4496, 94-103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beijerbergen, M. W.

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijerbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, "X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 490, 276-289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beijersbergen, M.

K. Wallace, M. Collon, M. Bavdaz, M. Beijersbergen, R. Fairbend, J. Seguy, M. Hoffmann, and M. Krumrey, "Development of micro-pore optics for x-ray applications," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy II, O. Citterio and L. S. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5900, 309-318 (2005).

M. Bavdaz, D. Lumb, K. M. Wallace, A. Peacock, M. Beijersbergen, and S. Kraft, "The XEUS x-ray telescope," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy II, O. Citterio and L. S. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5900, 288-296 (2005).

M. Beijersbergen, S. Kraft, M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, R. Guenther, M. Collon, A. L. Mieremet, R. Fairbend, and A. Peacock, "Development of x-ray pore optics: novel high-resolution silicon millipore optics for XEUS and ultralow mass glass micropore optics for imaging and timing," in Design and Microfabrication of Novel X-Ray Optics II, A. A. Snigirev and D. C. Mancini, eds., Proc. SPIE 5539, 104-115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Beijersbergen, S. Kraft, R. Guenther, A. L. Mieremet, M. Collon, M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, and A. Peacock, "Silicon pore optics: novel lightweight high-resolution x-ray optics developed for XEUS," in UV and Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Systems, G. Hasinger and M. J. Turner, eds., Proc. SPIE 5488, 868-874 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, A. J. Peacock, M. Beijersbergen, and S. Kraft, "Status of x-ray optics development for the XEUS Mission," in Design and Microfabrication of Novel X-Ray Optics, A. A. Snigirev and D. C. Mancini, eds., Proc. SPIE 5488, 829-836 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

M. Bavdaz, A. J. Peacock, M. W. Beijersbergen, and A. N. Parmar, "Development of x-ray optics at ESA," in X-Ray Optics for Astronomy, P. Gorenstein and R. B. Hoover, eds., Proc. SPIE 4496, 94-103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Black, K.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O'Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, and A. Lawrence, "LOBSTER-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station," in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan and O. H. Siegmun, eds., Proc. SPIE 4497, 115-126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Borozdin, K. N.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O'Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, and A. Lawrence, "LOBSTER-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station," in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan and O. H. Siegmun, eds., Proc. SPIE 4497, 115-126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Boutot, J.-P.

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijerbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, "X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 490, 276-289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brumby, S. P.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O'Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, and A. Lawrence, "LOBSTER-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station," in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan and O. H. Siegmun, eds., Proc. SPIE 4497, 115-126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brunton, A. N.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O'Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, and A. Lawrence, "LOBSTER-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station," in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan and O. H. Siegmun, eds., Proc. SPIE 4497, 115-126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijerbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, "X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 490, 276-289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bu, J.

K. Song, J. Bu, Y. Jeon, C. Park, J. Jeong, H. Koh, and M. Choi, "Micromachined silicon optical bench for the low-cost optical module," in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and MEMS, M. E. Motamedi and R. Goering, eds., Proc. SPIE 3878, 375-383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, H.

S. W. Wilkins, A. W. Stevenson, K. A. Nugent, H. Chapman, and S. Steenstrup, "On the concentration, focusing, and collimation of x rays and neutrons using microchannel plates and configurations of holes," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1026-1036 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chen, A.

A. Chen, P. Kaaret, and T. Kenny, "Micromachined silicon x-ray optics," in Advances in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV/FUV Optics, R. B. Hoover and A. B. Walker, Jr., eds., Proc. SPIE 2279, 298-304 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Chen, P. Kaaret, and T. Kenny, "Focusing of x rays using micromachined silicon lobster eye lenses," in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. SPIE 2011, 227-231 (1994).

Choi, M.

K. Song, J. Bu, Y. Jeon, C. Park, J. Jeong, H. Koh, and M. Choi, "Micromachined silicon optical bench for the low-cost optical module," in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and MEMS, M. E. Motamedi and R. Goering, eds., Proc. SPIE 3878, 375-383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Collon, M.

K. Wallace, M. Collon, M. Bavdaz, M. Beijersbergen, R. Fairbend, J. Seguy, M. Hoffmann, and M. Krumrey, "Development of micro-pore optics for x-ray applications," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy II, O. Citterio and L. S. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5900, 309-318 (2005).

M. Beijersbergen, S. Kraft, R. Guenther, A. L. Mieremet, M. Collon, M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, and A. Peacock, "Silicon pore optics: novel lightweight high-resolution x-ray optics developed for XEUS," in UV and Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Systems, G. Hasinger and M. J. Turner, eds., Proc. SPIE 5488, 868-874 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Beijersbergen, S. Kraft, M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, R. Guenther, M. Collon, A. L. Mieremet, R. Fairbend, and A. Peacock, "Development of x-ray pore optics: novel high-resolution silicon millipore optics for XEUS and ultralow mass glass micropore optics for imaging and timing," in Design and Microfabrication of Novel X-Ray Optics II, A. A. Snigirev and D. C. Mancini, eds., Proc. SPIE 5539, 104-115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Deines-Jones, P.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O'Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, and A. Lawrence, "LOBSTER-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station," in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan and O. H. Siegmun, eds., Proc. SPIE 4497, 115-126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eckersley, S.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O'Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, and A. Lawrence, "LOBSTER-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station," in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan and O. H. Siegmun, eds., Proc. SPIE 4497, 115-126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ezoe, Y.

Y. Ezoe, K. Mitsuda, M. Mita, M. Koshiishi, Y. Ishisaki, K. Shinozaki, and A. Hoshino, "Research and development of MEMS x-ray optics," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy II, O. Citterio and L. S. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5900, 328-337 (2005).

Fabian, A. C.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O'Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, and A. Lawrence, "LOBSTER-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station," in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan and O. H. Siegmun, eds., Proc. SPIE 4497, 115-126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fairbend, R.

K. Wallace, M. Collon, M. Bavdaz, M. Beijersbergen, R. Fairbend, J. Seguy, M. Hoffmann, and M. Krumrey, "Development of micro-pore optics for x-ray applications," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy II, O. Citterio and L. S. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5900, 309-318 (2005).

M. Beijersbergen, S. Kraft, M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, R. Guenther, M. Collon, A. L. Mieremet, R. Fairbend, and A. Peacock, "Development of x-ray pore optics: novel high-resolution silicon millipore optics for XEUS and ultralow mass glass micropore optics for imaging and timing," in Design and Microfabrication of Novel X-Ray Optics II, A. A. Snigirev and D. C. Mancini, eds., Proc. SPIE 5539, 104-115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijerbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, "X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 490, 276-289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Flyckt, S.-O.

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijerbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, "X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 490, 276-289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, G. W.

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijerbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, "X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 490, 276-289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O'Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, and A. Lawrence, "LOBSTER-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station," in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan and O. H. Siegmun, eds., Proc. SPIE 4497, 115-126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, "Microchannel plate x-ray optics," in The Next Generation of X-Ray Observatories, M. J. L. Turner and M. G. Watson, eds., Leicester X-Ray Astronomy Group Special Report XRA97/02, p. 191. (1997).

Guenther, R.

M. Beijersbergen, S. Kraft, R. Guenther, A. L. Mieremet, M. Collon, M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, and A. Peacock, "Silicon pore optics: novel lightweight high-resolution x-ray optics developed for XEUS," in UV and Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Systems, G. Hasinger and M. J. Turner, eds., Proc. SPIE 5488, 868-874 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Beijersbergen, S. Kraft, M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, R. Guenther, M. Collon, A. L. Mieremet, R. Fairbend, and A. Peacock, "Development of x-ray pore optics: novel high-resolution silicon millipore optics for XEUS and ultralow mass glass micropore optics for imaging and timing," in Design and Microfabrication of Novel X-Ray Optics II, A. A. Snigirev and D. C. Mancini, eds., Proc. SPIE 5539, 104-115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, M.

K. Wallace, M. Collon, M. Bavdaz, M. Beijersbergen, R. Fairbend, J. Seguy, M. Hoffmann, and M. Krumrey, "Development of micro-pore optics for x-ray applications," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy II, O. Citterio and L. S. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5900, 309-318 (2005).

Hoshino, A.

Y. Ezoe, K. Mitsuda, M. Mita, M. Koshiishi, Y. Ishisaki, K. Shinozaki, and A. Hoshino, "Research and development of MEMS x-ray optics," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy II, O. Citterio and L. S. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5900, 328-337 (2005).

Hunter, S. D.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O'Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, and A. Lawrence, "LOBSTER-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station," in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan and O. H. Siegmun, eds., Proc. SPIE 4497, 115-126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Iriye, Y.

K. Sato, M. Shikida, Y. Matsushima, T. Yamamoto, K. Asaumi, Y. Iriye, and M. Yamamoto, "Characterization of orientation dependent etching properties of single-crystal silicon: effect of KOH concentration," Sens. Actuators A 64, 87-93 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Irving, T. H.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O'Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, and A. Lawrence, "LOBSTER-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station," in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan and O. H. Siegmun, eds., Proc. SPIE 4497, 115-126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ishisaki, Y.

Y. Ezoe, K. Mitsuda, M. Mita, M. Koshiishi, Y. Ishisaki, K. Shinozaki, and A. Hoshino, "Research and development of MEMS x-ray optics," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy II, O. Citterio and L. S. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5900, 328-337 (2005).

Jahoda, K.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O'Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, and A. Lawrence, "LOBSTER-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station," in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan and O. H. Siegmun, eds., Proc. SPIE 4497, 115-126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, Y.

K. Song, J. Bu, Y. Jeon, C. Park, J. Jeong, H. Koh, and M. Choi, "Micromachined silicon optical bench for the low-cost optical module," in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and MEMS, M. E. Motamedi and R. Goering, eds., Proc. SPIE 3878, 375-383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, J.

K. Song, J. Bu, Y. Jeon, C. Park, J. Jeong, H. Koh, and M. Choi, "Micromachined silicon optical bench for the low-cost optical module," in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and MEMS, M. E. Motamedi and R. Goering, eds., Proc. SPIE 3878, 375-383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kaaret, P.

A. Chen, P. Kaaret, and T. Kenny, "Micromachined silicon x-ray optics," in Advances in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV/FUV Optics, R. B. Hoover and A. B. Walker, Jr., eds., Proc. SPIE 2279, 298-304 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Chen, P. Kaaret, and T. Kenny, "Focusing of x rays using micromachined silicon lobster eye lenses," in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. SPIE 2011, 227-231 (1994).

Kenny, T.

A. Chen, P. Kaaret, and T. Kenny, "Focusing of x rays using micromachined silicon lobster eye lenses," in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. SPIE 2011, 227-231 (1994).

A. Chen, P. Kaaret, and T. Kenny, "Micromachined silicon x-ray optics," in Advances in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV/FUV Optics, R. B. Hoover and A. B. Walker, Jr., eds., Proc. SPIE 2279, 298-304 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Khumpuang, S.

C. Mihalcea, S. Khumpuang, M. Kuwahara, Z. Yang, R. Maeda, J. Tominaga, and N. Atoda, "Ultra-fast anisotropic silicon etching with resulting mirror surfaces in ammonia solutions," in Transducers '01 Eurosensors XV: The 11th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators (Springer, 2001), pp. 608-611.

Koh, H.

K. Song, J. Bu, Y. Jeon, C. Park, J. Jeong, H. Koh, and M. Choi, "Micromachined silicon optical bench for the low-cost optical module," in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and MEMS, M. E. Motamedi and R. Goering, eds., Proc. SPIE 3878, 375-383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Konaka, Y.

K. Ohwada, Y. Negoro, Y. Konaka, and T. Oguchi, "Uniform groove-depths in (110) Si anisotropic etching by ultrasonic waves and application to accelerometer fabrication," Sens. Actuators A 50, 93-98 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Koshiishi, M.

Y. Ezoe, K. Mitsuda, M. Mita, M. Koshiishi, Y. Ishisaki, K. Shinozaki, and A. Hoshino, "Research and development of MEMS x-ray optics," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy II, O. Citterio and L. S. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5900, 328-337 (2005).

Kraft, S.

M. Bavdaz, D. Lumb, K. M. Wallace, A. Peacock, M. Beijersbergen, and S. Kraft, "The XEUS x-ray telescope," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy II, O. Citterio and L. S. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5900, 288-296 (2005).

M. Beijersbergen, S. Kraft, M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, R. Guenther, M. Collon, A. L. Mieremet, R. Fairbend, and A. Peacock, "Development of x-ray pore optics: novel high-resolution silicon millipore optics for XEUS and ultralow mass glass micropore optics for imaging and timing," in Design and Microfabrication of Novel X-Ray Optics II, A. A. Snigirev and D. C. Mancini, eds., Proc. SPIE 5539, 104-115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, A. J. Peacock, M. Beijersbergen, and S. Kraft, "Status of x-ray optics development for the XEUS Mission," in Design and Microfabrication of Novel X-Ray Optics, A. A. Snigirev and D. C. Mancini, eds., Proc. SPIE 5488, 829-836 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Beijersbergen, S. Kraft, R. Guenther, A. L. Mieremet, M. Collon, M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, and A. Peacock, "Silicon pore optics: novel lightweight high-resolution x-ray optics developed for XEUS," in UV and Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Systems, G. Hasinger and M. J. Turner, eds., Proc. SPIE 5488, 868-874 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krumrey, M.

K. Wallace, M. Collon, M. Bavdaz, M. Beijersbergen, R. Fairbend, J. Seguy, M. Hoffmann, and M. Krumrey, "Development of micro-pore optics for x-ray applications," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy II, O. Citterio and L. S. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5900, 309-318 (2005).

Kuwahara, M.

C. Mihalcea, S. Khumpuang, M. Kuwahara, Z. Yang, R. Maeda, J. Tominaga, and N. Atoda, "Ultra-fast anisotropic silicon etching with resulting mirror surfaces in ammonia solutions," in Transducers '01 Eurosensors XV: The 11th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators (Springer, 2001), pp. 608-611.

Lawrence, A.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O'Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, and A. Lawrence, "LOBSTER-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station," in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan and O. H. Siegmun, eds., Proc. SPIE 4497, 115-126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lumb, D.

M. Bavdaz, D. Lumb, K. M. Wallace, A. Peacock, M. Beijersbergen, and S. Kraft, "The XEUS x-ray telescope," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy II, O. Citterio and L. S. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5900, 288-296 (2005).

Lumb, D. H.

M. Beijersbergen, S. Kraft, M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, R. Guenther, M. Collon, A. L. Mieremet, R. Fairbend, and A. Peacock, "Development of x-ray pore optics: novel high-resolution silicon millipore optics for XEUS and ultralow mass glass micropore optics for imaging and timing," in Design and Microfabrication of Novel X-Ray Optics II, A. A. Snigirev and D. C. Mancini, eds., Proc. SPIE 5539, 104-115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Beijersbergen, S. Kraft, R. Guenther, A. L. Mieremet, M. Collon, M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, and A. Peacock, "Silicon pore optics: novel lightweight high-resolution x-ray optics developed for XEUS," in UV and Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Systems, G. Hasinger and M. J. Turner, eds., Proc. SPIE 5488, 868-874 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, A. J. Peacock, M. Beijersbergen, and S. Kraft, "Status of x-ray optics development for the XEUS Mission," in Design and Microfabrication of Novel X-Ray Optics, A. A. Snigirev and D. C. Mancini, eds., Proc. SPIE 5488, 829-836 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, R.

C. Mihalcea, S. Khumpuang, M. Kuwahara, Z. Yang, R. Maeda, J. Tominaga, and N. Atoda, "Ultra-fast anisotropic silicon etching with resulting mirror surfaces in ammonia solutions," in Transducers '01 Eurosensors XV: The 11th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators (Springer, 2001), pp. 608-611.

Matsushima, Y.

K. Sato, M. Shikida, Y. Matsushima, T. Yamamoto, K. Asaumi, Y. Iriye, and M. Yamamoto, "Characterization of orientation dependent etching properties of single-crystal silicon: effect of KOH concentration," Sens. Actuators A 64, 87-93 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McHardy, I. M.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O'Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, and A. Lawrence, "LOBSTER-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station," in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan and O. H. Siegmun, eds., Proc. SPIE 4497, 115-126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mieremet, A. L.

M. Beijersbergen, S. Kraft, R. Guenther, A. L. Mieremet, M. Collon, M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, and A. Peacock, "Silicon pore optics: novel lightweight high-resolution x-ray optics developed for XEUS," in UV and Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Systems, G. Hasinger and M. J. Turner, eds., Proc. SPIE 5488, 868-874 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Beijersbergen, S. Kraft, M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, R. Guenther, M. Collon, A. L. Mieremet, R. Fairbend, and A. Peacock, "Development of x-ray pore optics: novel high-resolution silicon millipore optics for XEUS and ultralow mass glass micropore optics for imaging and timing," in Design and Microfabrication of Novel X-Ray Optics II, A. A. Snigirev and D. C. Mancini, eds., Proc. SPIE 5539, 104-115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mihalcea, C.

C. Mihalcea, S. Khumpuang, M. Kuwahara, Z. Yang, R. Maeda, J. Tominaga, and N. Atoda, "Ultra-fast anisotropic silicon etching with resulting mirror surfaces in ammonia solutions," in Transducers '01 Eurosensors XV: The 11th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators (Springer, 2001), pp. 608-611.

Mita, M.

Y. Ezoe, K. Mitsuda, M. Mita, M. Koshiishi, Y. Ishisaki, K. Shinozaki, and A. Hoshino, "Research and development of MEMS x-ray optics," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy II, O. Citterio and L. S. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5900, 328-337 (2005).

Mitsuda, K.

Y. Ezoe, K. Mitsuda, M. Mita, M. Koshiishi, Y. Ishisaki, K. Shinozaki, and A. Hoshino, "Research and development of MEMS x-ray optics," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy II, O. Citterio and L. S. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5900, 328-337 (2005).

Negoro, Y.

K. Ohwada, Y. Negoro, Y. Konaka, and T. Oguchi, "Uniform groove-depths in (110) Si anisotropic etching by ultrasonic waves and application to accelerometer fabrication," Sens. Actuators A 50, 93-98 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nugent, K. A.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O'Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, and A. Lawrence, "LOBSTER-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station," in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan and O. H. Siegmun, eds., Proc. SPIE 4497, 115-126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Wilkins, A. W. Stevenson, K. A. Nugent, H. Chapman, and S. Steenstrup, "On the concentration, focusing, and collimation of x rays and neutrons using microchannel plates and configurations of holes," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1026-1036 (1989).
[CrossRef]

O'Brian, P.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O'Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, and A. Lawrence, "LOBSTER-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station," in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan and O. H. Siegmun, eds., Proc. SPIE 4497, 115-126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Oguchi, T.

K. Ohwada, Y. Negoro, Y. Konaka, and T. Oguchi, "Uniform groove-depths in (110) Si anisotropic etching by ultrasonic waves and application to accelerometer fabrication," Sens. Actuators A 50, 93-98 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ohwada, K.

K. Ohwada, Y. Negoro, Y. Konaka, and T. Oguchi, "Uniform groove-depths in (110) Si anisotropic etching by ultrasonic waves and application to accelerometer fabrication," Sens. Actuators A 50, 93-98 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Park, C.

K. Song, J. Bu, Y. Jeon, C. Park, J. Jeong, H. Koh, and M. Choi, "Micromachined silicon optical bench for the low-cost optical module," in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and MEMS, M. E. Motamedi and R. Goering, eds., Proc. SPIE 3878, 375-383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Parmar, A. N.

M. Bavdaz, A. J. Peacock, M. W. Beijersbergen, and A. N. Parmar, "Development of x-ray optics at ESA," in X-Ray Optics for Astronomy, P. Gorenstein and R. B. Hoover, eds., Proc. SPIE 4496, 94-103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O'Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, and A. Lawrence, "LOBSTER-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station," in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan and O. H. Siegmun, eds., Proc. SPIE 4497, 115-126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peacock, A.

M. Bavdaz, D. Lumb, K. M. Wallace, A. Peacock, M. Beijersbergen, and S. Kraft, "The XEUS x-ray telescope," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy II, O. Citterio and L. S. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5900, 288-296 (2005).

M. Beijersbergen, S. Kraft, M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, R. Guenther, M. Collon, A. L. Mieremet, R. Fairbend, and A. Peacock, "Development of x-ray pore optics: novel high-resolution silicon millipore optics for XEUS and ultralow mass glass micropore optics for imaging and timing," in Design and Microfabrication of Novel X-Ray Optics II, A. A. Snigirev and D. C. Mancini, eds., Proc. SPIE 5539, 104-115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Beijersbergen, S. Kraft, R. Guenther, A. L. Mieremet, M. Collon, M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, and A. Peacock, "Silicon pore optics: novel lightweight high-resolution x-ray optics developed for XEUS," in UV and Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Systems, G. Hasinger and M. J. Turner, eds., Proc. SPIE 5488, 868-874 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijerbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, "X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 490, 276-289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peacock, A. J.

M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, A. J. Peacock, M. Beijersbergen, and S. Kraft, "Status of x-ray optics development for the XEUS Mission," in Design and Microfabrication of Novel X-Ray Optics, A. A. Snigirev and D. C. Mancini, eds., Proc. SPIE 5488, 829-836 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Bavdaz, A. J. Peacock, M. W. Beijersbergen, and A. N. Parmar, "Development of x-ray optics at ESA," in X-Ray Optics for Astronomy, P. Gorenstein and R. B. Hoover, eds., Proc. SPIE 4496, 94-103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, J. F.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O'Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, and A. Lawrence, "LOBSTER-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station," in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan and O. H. Siegmun, eds., Proc. SPIE 4497, 115-126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peele, A. G.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O'Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, and A. Lawrence, "LOBSTER-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station," in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan and O. H. Siegmun, eds., Proc. SPIE 4497, 115-126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Peele, "Investigation of etched silicon wafers for lobster-eye optics," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1268-1273 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Price, G. J.

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijerbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, "X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 490, 276-289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Price, S.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O'Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, and A. Lawrence, "LOBSTER-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station," in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan and O. H. Siegmun, eds., Proc. SPIE 4497, 115-126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Priedhorsky, W. C.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O'Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, and A. Lawrence, "LOBSTER-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station," in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan and O. H. Siegmun, eds., Proc. SPIE 4497, 115-126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Renouf, I.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O'Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, and A. Lawrence, "LOBSTER-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station," in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan and O. H. Siegmun, eds., Proc. SPIE 4497, 115-126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sato, K.

K. Sato, M. Shikida, Y. Matsushima, T. Yamamoto, K. Asaumi, Y. Iriye, and M. Yamamoto, "Characterization of orientation dependent etching properties of single-crystal silicon: effect of KOH concentration," Sens. Actuators A 64, 87-93 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Tanaka, S. Yamashita, Y. Abe, M. Shikida, and K. Sato, "Fast wet anisotropic etching of Si 100 and 110 with a smooth surface in ultra-high temperature KOH solution," in 12th International Conference on Transducers, Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (IEEE, 2003), pp. 1675-1678.

Seguy, J.

K. Wallace, M. Collon, M. Bavdaz, M. Beijersbergen, R. Fairbend, J. Seguy, M. Hoffmann, and M. Krumrey, "Development of micro-pore optics for x-ray applications," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy II, O. Citterio and L. S. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5900, 309-318 (2005).

Shikida, M.

K. Sato, M. Shikida, Y. Matsushima, T. Yamamoto, K. Asaumi, Y. Iriye, and M. Yamamoto, "Characterization of orientation dependent etching properties of single-crystal silicon: effect of KOH concentration," Sens. Actuators A 64, 87-93 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Tanaka, S. Yamashita, Y. Abe, M. Shikida, and K. Sato, "Fast wet anisotropic etching of Si 100 and 110 with a smooth surface in ultra-high temperature KOH solution," in 12th International Conference on Transducers, Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (IEEE, 2003), pp. 1675-1678.

Shinozaki, K.

Y. Ezoe, K. Mitsuda, M. Mita, M. Koshiishi, Y. Ishisaki, K. Shinozaki, and A. Hoshino, "Research and development of MEMS x-ray optics," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy II, O. Citterio and L. S. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5900, 328-337 (2005).

Smith, M.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O'Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, and A. Lawrence, "LOBSTER-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station," in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan and O. H. Siegmun, eds., Proc. SPIE 4497, 115-126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Song, K.

K. Song, J. Bu, Y. Jeon, C. Park, J. Jeong, H. Koh, and M. Choi, "Micromachined silicon optical bench for the low-cost optical module," in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and MEMS, M. E. Motamedi and R. Goering, eds., Proc. SPIE 3878, 375-383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Steenstrup, S.

S. W. Wilkins, A. W. Stevenson, K. A. Nugent, H. Chapman, and S. Steenstrup, "On the concentration, focusing, and collimation of x rays and neutrons using microchannel plates and configurations of holes," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1026-1036 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, A. W.

S. W. Wilkins, A. W. Stevenson, K. A. Nugent, H. Chapman, and S. Steenstrup, "On the concentration, focusing, and collimation of x rays and neutrons using microchannel plates and configurations of holes," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1026-1036 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, T. J.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O'Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, and A. Lawrence, "LOBSTER-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station," in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan and O. H. Siegmun, eds., Proc. SPIE 4497, 115-126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, H.

H. Tanaka, S. Yamashita, Y. Abe, M. Shikida, and K. Sato, "Fast wet anisotropic etching of Si 100 and 110 with a smooth surface in ultra-high temperature KOH solution," in 12th International Conference on Transducers, Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (IEEE, 2003), pp. 1675-1678.

Tomaselli, E.

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijerbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, "X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 490, 276-289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tominaga, J.

C. Mihalcea, S. Khumpuang, M. Kuwahara, Z. Yang, R. Maeda, J. Tominaga, and N. Atoda, "Ultra-fast anisotropic silicon etching with resulting mirror surfaces in ammonia solutions," in Transducers '01 Eurosensors XV: The 11th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators (Springer, 2001), pp. 608-611.

Uttley, P.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O'Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, and A. Lawrence, "LOBSTER-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station," in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan and O. H. Siegmun, eds., Proc. SPIE 4497, 115-126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vestrand, T.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O'Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, and A. Lawrence, "LOBSTER-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station," in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan and O. H. Siegmun, eds., Proc. SPIE 4497, 115-126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, K.

K. Wallace, M. Collon, M. Bavdaz, M. Beijersbergen, R. Fairbend, J. Seguy, M. Hoffmann, and M. Krumrey, "Development of micro-pore optics for x-ray applications," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy II, O. Citterio and L. S. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5900, 309-318 (2005).

Wallace, K. M.

M. Bavdaz, D. Lumb, K. M. Wallace, A. Peacock, M. Beijersbergen, and S. Kraft, "The XEUS x-ray telescope," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy II, O. Citterio and L. S. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5900, 288-296 (2005).

Ward, M.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O'Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, and A. Lawrence, "LOBSTER-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station," in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan and O. H. Siegmun, eds., Proc. SPIE 4497, 115-126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Warwick, B.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O'Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, and A. Lawrence, "LOBSTER-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station," in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan and O. H. Siegmun, eds., Proc. SPIE 4497, 115-126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Watson, D. J.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O'Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, and A. Lawrence, "LOBSTER-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station," in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan and O. H. Siegmun, eds., Proc. SPIE 4497, 115-126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

White, N.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O'Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, and A. Lawrence, "LOBSTER-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station," in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan and O. H. Siegmun, eds., Proc. SPIE 4497, 115-126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Whitehead, S.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O'Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, and A. Lawrence, "LOBSTER-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station," in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan and O. H. Siegmun, eds., Proc. SPIE 4497, 115-126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wilkins, S. W.

S. W. Wilkins, A. W. Stevenson, K. A. Nugent, H. Chapman, and S. Steenstrup, "On the concentration, focusing, and collimation of x rays and neutrons using microchannel plates and configurations of holes," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1026-1036 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, M.

K. Sato, M. Shikida, Y. Matsushima, T. Yamamoto, K. Asaumi, Y. Iriye, and M. Yamamoto, "Characterization of orientation dependent etching properties of single-crystal silicon: effect of KOH concentration," Sens. Actuators A 64, 87-93 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, T.

K. Sato, M. Shikida, Y. Matsushima, T. Yamamoto, K. Asaumi, Y. Iriye, and M. Yamamoto, "Characterization of orientation dependent etching properties of single-crystal silicon: effect of KOH concentration," Sens. Actuators A 64, 87-93 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, S.

H. Tanaka, S. Yamashita, Y. Abe, M. Shikida, and K. Sato, "Fast wet anisotropic etching of Si 100 and 110 with a smooth surface in ultra-high temperature KOH solution," in 12th International Conference on Transducers, Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (IEEE, 2003), pp. 1675-1678.

Yang, Z.

C. Mihalcea, S. Khumpuang, M. Kuwahara, Z. Yang, R. Maeda, J. Tominaga, and N. Atoda, "Ultra-fast anisotropic silicon etching with resulting mirror surfaces in ammonia solutions," in Transducers '01 Eurosensors XV: The 11th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators (Springer, 2001), pp. 608-611.

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

G. J. Price, A. N. Brunton, M. W. Beijerbergen, G. W. Fraser, M. Bavdaz, J.-P. Boutot, R. Fairbend, S.-O. Flyckt, A. Peacock, and E. Tomaselli, "X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 490, 276-289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (10)

M. Bavdaz, A. J. Peacock, M. W. Beijersbergen, and A. N. Parmar, "Development of x-ray optics at ESA," in X-Ray Optics for Astronomy, P. Gorenstein and R. B. Hoover, eds., Proc. SPIE 4496, 94-103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Wallace, M. Collon, M. Bavdaz, M. Beijersbergen, R. Fairbend, J. Seguy, M. Hoffmann, and M. Krumrey, "Development of micro-pore optics for x-ray applications," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy II, O. Citterio and L. S. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5900, 309-318 (2005).

M. Beijersbergen, S. Kraft, R. Guenther, A. L. Mieremet, M. Collon, M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, and A. Peacock, "Silicon pore optics: novel lightweight high-resolution x-ray optics developed for XEUS," in UV and Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Systems, G. Hasinger and M. J. Turner, eds., Proc. SPIE 5488, 868-874 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Beijersbergen, S. Kraft, M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, R. Guenther, M. Collon, A. L. Mieremet, R. Fairbend, and A. Peacock, "Development of x-ray pore optics: novel high-resolution silicon millipore optics for XEUS and ultralow mass glass micropore optics for imaging and timing," in Design and Microfabrication of Novel X-Ray Optics II, A. A. Snigirev and D. C. Mancini, eds., Proc. SPIE 5539, 104-115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Bavdaz, D. Lumb, K. M. Wallace, A. Peacock, M. Beijersbergen, and S. Kraft, "The XEUS x-ray telescope," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy II, O. Citterio and L. S. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5900, 288-296 (2005).

M. Bavdaz, D. H. Lumb, A. J. Peacock, M. Beijersbergen, and S. Kraft, "Status of x-ray optics development for the XEUS Mission," in Design and Microfabrication of Novel X-Ray Optics, A. A. Snigirev and D. C. Mancini, eds., Proc. SPIE 5488, 829-836 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, N. P. Bannister, J. F. Pearson, M. Ward, T. J. Stevenson, D. J. Watson, B. Warwick, S. Whitehead, P. O'Brian, N. White, K. Jahoda, K. Black, S. D. Hunter, P. Deines-Jones, W. C. Priedhorsky, S. P. Brumby, K. N. Borozdin, T. Vestrand, A. C. Fabian, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, T. H. Irving, S. Price, S. Eckersley, I. Renouf, M. Smith, A. N. Parmar, I. M. McHardy, P. Uttley, and A. Lawrence, "LOBSTER-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station," in X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy XII, K. A. Flanagan and O. H. Siegmun, eds., Proc. SPIE 4497, 115-126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Chen, P. Kaaret, and T. Kenny, "Micromachined silicon x-ray optics," in Advances in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV/FUV Optics, R. B. Hoover and A. B. Walker, Jr., eds., Proc. SPIE 2279, 298-304 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ezoe, K. Mitsuda, M. Mita, M. Koshiishi, Y. Ishisaki, K. Shinozaki, and A. Hoshino, "Research and development of MEMS x-ray optics," in Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy II, O. Citterio and L. S. O'Dell, eds., Proc. SPIE 5900, 328-337 (2005).

K. Song, J. Bu, Y. Jeon, C. Park, J. Jeong, H. Koh, and M. Choi, "Micromachined silicon optical bench for the low-cost optical module," in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and MEMS, M. E. Motamedi and R. Goering, eds., Proc. SPIE 3878, 375-383 (1999).
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Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Theoretical x-ray reflectivity of silicon at the incident angle of 0.5° as a function of energy. Four lines correspond to the reflectivities assuming surface roughness of 0, 1, 3, and 5   nm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Concept of an approximated Wolter type-I optic using the anisotropically etched silicon wafers. The upper and lower panels show the horizontal and cross-section views of the optic, respectively. Squares in the upper panel are silicon wafers, while the thick arrow indicates the individual wafer with a number of (111) slitlike holes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical process flow to obtain the (111) sidewalls using the anistropic wet etching of a silicon (110) wafer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scanning electron microscope image of the sample device consisting of 19 μm wide slits. The upper-right panel shows a close-up view of the (111) sidewalls.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Example of an AFM image of the (111) sidewall.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The rms surface roughness of the (111) sidewalls as a function of the measured scale. Squares, asterisks, and circles are the results from the AFM images, and the 1D Dektak profiles in (1) the wafer-depth direction and (2) the slit-length direction, respectively. Two dotted lines indicate the half-power diameter of the focus of 1 and 10 arc min.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

An example surface profile in direction (2).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental setup for the x-ray reflection test. Gray and light gray parts are bellows joints and pinholes, respectively. TMP and GV represent the turbo molecular pump and gate valve, respectively. Vacuum conditions in the x-ray generator and the beam line can be different, separated by a thin film composed of Al and polietilen tereftalato (PET) layers.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Angular responses of the 19   μm wide slit in the Mg K α line (boxes) and 2–3 keV continuum bands (red circles). The vertical axis is normalized x-ray counts, while the horizontal is the rotation angle of the slit. A solid line indicates an expected collimator profile against a parallel x-ray beam, calculated from slit width and wafer thickness. The vertical error bars include 1 σ statistical errors and also the time variations, while the horizontal ones include the angle uncertainties (see text). (b) Same as (a) but for the Mg K α line. Five lines in different colors indicate ray-tracing simulations with silicon surface roughness of 0, 2, 3, 4, and 5   nm . (c) Same as (b) but for the 2–3 keV continuum and also a close-up view of the central part of the profile.

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