Abstract

Using exact 3D vectorial simulations of radiation coupling into uncoated dielectric fiber probes, we calculate amplitude transfer functions for conical single-mode fiber tips at the light wavelength of 633  nm. The coupling efficiency of glass fiber tips is determined in a wide range of spatial frequencies of the incident radiation for opening angles varying from 30° to 120°. The resolution in near-field imaging with these tips is considered for field distributions limited in both direct and spatial-frequency space. The characteristics of the transfer functions describing the relation between probed optical fields and near-field images are analyzed in detail. The importance of utilizing a perfectly sharp tip is also examined.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, T. Søndergaard, A. Boltasseva, P. I. Borel, and M. Kristensen, "Near-field imaging of light propagation in photonic crystal waveguides: explicit role of Bloch harmonics," Phys. Rev. B 66, 235204 (2002).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  13. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Near-field mapping of surface polariton fields," J. Microsc. 202, 313-319 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. C. Weeber, F. de Fornel, and J. P. Goudonnet, "Numerical study of the tip-sample interaction in the photon scanning tunneling microscope," Opt. Commun. 126, 285-292 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, A. Dereux, J. P. Goudonnet, Y. Chen, and C. Girard, "Observation of light confinement effects with a near-field optical microscope," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5332-5335 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. A. Markel, V. Coello, W. Kim, and V. M. Shalaev, "Direct observation of localized dipolar excitations on rough nanostructured surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 58, 11441-11448 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. N. Gregersen, B. Tromborg, V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and J. Holm, "Topography characterization of a deep grating using near-field imaging," Appl. Opt. 45, 117-121 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  25. S. I. Bozhevolnyi and E. A. Bozhevolnaya, "Near-field imaging of the interference pattern of counterpropagating evanescent waves," Opt. Lett. 24, 747-749 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2006

2005

S. Goumri-Said, L. Salomon, J. P. Dufour, F. de Fornel, and A. V. Zayats, "Numerical simulations of photon scanning tunneling microscopy: role of a probe tip geometry in image formation," Opt. Commun. 244, 245-258 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, T. Søndergaard, A. Boltasseva, P. I. Borel, and M. Kristensen, "Near-field imaging of light propagation in photonic crystal waveguides: explicit role of Bloch harmonics," Phys. Rev. B 66, 235204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Nesci, R. Dändliker, M. Salt, and H. P. Herzig, "Measuring amplitude and phase distributions of fields generated by gratings with subwavelength resolution," Opt. Commun. 205, 229-238 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Optical modelling of photonic crystals and VCSELs using eigenmode expansion and perfectly matched layers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 327-341 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Near-field mapping of surface polariton fields," J. Microsc. 202, 313-319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, and E. A. Bozhevolnaya, "Transfer functions in collection scanning near-field optical microscopy," Opt. Commun. 172, 171-179 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and C. Girard, "Squeezing the optical near-field zone by plasmon coupling of metallic nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590-2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi and E. A. Bozhevolnaya, "Near-field imaging of the interference pattern of counterpropagating evanescent waves," Opt. Lett. 24, 747-749 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. A. Markel, V. Coello, W. Kim, and V. M. Shalaev, "Direct observation of localized dipolar excitations on rough nanostructured surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 58, 11441-11448 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

J.-J. Greffet and R. Carminati, "Image formation in near-field optics," Prog. Surf. Sci. 56, 133-237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Schöfer, M. J. Gregor, P. G. Blome, and R. G. Ulbrich, "Influence of aperture diameter on image contrast and resolution in scanning near-field optical microscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 5871-5877 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, E. A. Bozhevolnaya, and S. Berntsen, "Self-consistent model for photon scanning tunneling microscopy: implications for image formation and light scattering near a phase-conjugating mirror," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 2381-2392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Weeber, F. de Fornel, and J. P. Goudonnet, "Numerical study of the tip-sample interaction in the photon scanning tunneling microscope," Opt. Commun. 126, 285-292 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, A. Dereux, J. P. Goudonnet, Y. Chen, and C. Girard, "Observation of light confinement effects with a near-field optical microscope," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5332-5335 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, "Local excitation, scattering and interference of surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889-1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

R. Carminati and J.-J. Greffet, "Two-dimensional numerical simulation of the photon scanning tunneling microscope. Concept of transfer function," Opt. Commun. 116, 316-321 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

1992

1991

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, "Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale," Science 251, 1468-1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, "Optical stethoscopy: Image recording with resolution λ/20," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651-653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, and A. Muray, "Development of a 500 Å spatial resolution light microscope. I. Light is efficiently transmitted through λ/16 diameter apertures," Ultramicroscopy 13, 227-231 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F. R.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and C. Girard, "Squeezing the optical near-field zone by plasmon coupling of metallic nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590-2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Optical modelling of photonic crystals and VCSELs using eigenmode expansion and perfectly matched layers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 327-341 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barchiesi, D.

Berntsen, S.

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, "Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale," Science 251, 1468-1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bielefeldt, H.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, "Local excitation, scattering and interference of surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889-1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bienstman, P.

P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Optical modelling of photonic crystals and VCSELs using eigenmode expansion and perfectly matched layers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 327-341 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Blome, P. G.

J. Schöfer, M. J. Gregor, P. G. Blome, and R. G. Ulbrich, "Influence of aperture diameter on image contrast and resolution in scanning near-field optical microscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 5871-5877 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boltasseva, A.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, T. Søndergaard, A. Boltasseva, P. I. Borel, and M. Kristensen, "Near-field imaging of light propagation in photonic crystal waveguides: explicit role of Bloch harmonics," Phys. Rev. B 66, 235204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Borel, P. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, T. Søndergaard, A. Boltasseva, P. I. Borel, and M. Kristensen, "Near-field imaging of light propagation in photonic crystal waveguides: explicit role of Bloch harmonics," Phys. Rev. B 66, 235204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bourillot, E.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and C. Girard, "Squeezing the optical near-field zone by plasmon coupling of metallic nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590-2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, A. Dereux, J. P. Goudonnet, Y. Chen, and C. Girard, "Observation of light confinement effects with a near-field optical microscope," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5332-5335 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bozhevolnaya, E. A.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

N. Gregersen, B. Tromborg, V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and J. Holm, "Topography characterization of a deep grating using near-field imaging," Appl. Opt. 45, 117-121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and N. Gregersen, "Transfer function and near-field detection of evanescent waves," Appl. Opt. 45, 4054-4061 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, T. Søndergaard, A. Boltasseva, P. I. Borel, and M. Kristensen, "Near-field imaging of light propagation in photonic crystal waveguides: explicit role of Bloch harmonics," Phys. Rev. B 66, 235204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Near-field mapping of surface polariton fields," J. Microsc. 202, 313-319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, and E. A. Bozhevolnaya, "Transfer functions in collection scanning near-field optical microscopy," Opt. Commun. 172, 171-179 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi and E. A. Bozhevolnaya, "Near-field imaging of the interference pattern of counterpropagating evanescent waves," Opt. Lett. 24, 747-749 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. A. Markel, V. Coello, W. Kim, and V. M. Shalaev, "Direct observation of localized dipolar excitations on rough nanostructured surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 58, 11441-11448 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, E. A. Bozhevolnaya, and S. Berntsen, "Self-consistent model for photon scanning tunneling microscopy: implications for image formation and light scattering near a phase-conjugating mirror," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 2381-2392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Carminati, R.

J.-J. Greffet and R. Carminati, "Image formation in near-field optics," Prog. Surf. Sci. 56, 133-237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Carminati and J.-J. Greffet, "Two-dimensional numerical simulation of the photon scanning tunneling microscope. Concept of transfer function," Opt. Commun. 116, 316-321 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, A. Dereux, J. P. Goudonnet, Y. Chen, and C. Girard, "Observation of light confinement effects with a near-field optical microscope," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5332-5335 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coello, V.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. A. Markel, V. Coello, W. Kim, and V. M. Shalaev, "Direct observation of localized dipolar excitations on rough nanostructured surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 58, 11441-11448 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Courjon, D.

Dändliker, R.

A. Nesci, R. Dändliker, M. Salt, and H. P. Herzig, "Measuring amplitude and phase distributions of fields generated by gratings with subwavelength resolution," Opt. Commun. 205, 229-238 (2002).
[CrossRef]

de Fornel, F.

S. Goumri-Said, L. Salomon, J. P. Dufour, F. de Fornel, and A. V. Zayats, "Numerical simulations of photon scanning tunneling microscopy: role of a probe tip geometry in image formation," Opt. Commun. 244, 245-258 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Weeber, F. de Fornel, and J. P. Goudonnet, "Numerical study of the tip-sample interaction in the photon scanning tunneling microscope," Opt. Commun. 126, 285-292 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Denk, W.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, "Optical stethoscopy: Image recording with resolution λ/20," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651-653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and C. Girard, "Squeezing the optical near-field zone by plasmon coupling of metallic nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590-2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, A. Dereux, J. P. Goudonnet, Y. Chen, and C. Girard, "Observation of light confinement effects with a near-field optical microscope," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5332-5335 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dufour, J. P.

S. Goumri-Said, L. Salomon, J. P. Dufour, F. de Fornel, and A. V. Zayats, "Numerical simulations of photon scanning tunneling microscopy: role of a probe tip geometry in image formation," Opt. Commun. 244, 245-258 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Girard, C.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and C. Girard, "Squeezing the optical near-field zone by plasmon coupling of metallic nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590-2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, A. Dereux, J. P. Goudonnet, Y. Chen, and C. Girard, "Observation of light confinement effects with a near-field optical microscope," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5332-5335 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gotschy, W.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and C. Girard, "Squeezing the optical near-field zone by plasmon coupling of metallic nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590-2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goudonnet, J. P.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and C. Girard, "Squeezing the optical near-field zone by plasmon coupling of metallic nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590-2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, A. Dereux, J. P. Goudonnet, Y. Chen, and C. Girard, "Observation of light confinement effects with a near-field optical microscope," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5332-5335 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Weeber, F. de Fornel, and J. P. Goudonnet, "Numerical study of the tip-sample interaction in the photon scanning tunneling microscope," Opt. Commun. 126, 285-292 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Goumri-Said, S.

S. Goumri-Said, L. Salomon, J. P. Dufour, F. de Fornel, and A. V. Zayats, "Numerical simulations of photon scanning tunneling microscopy: role of a probe tip geometry in image formation," Opt. Commun. 244, 245-258 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Greffet, J.-J.

J.-J. Greffet and R. Carminati, "Image formation in near-field optics," Prog. Surf. Sci. 56, 133-237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Carminati and J.-J. Greffet, "Two-dimensional numerical simulation of the photon scanning tunneling microscope. Concept of transfer function," Opt. Commun. 116, 316-321 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gregersen, N.

Gregor, M. J.

J. Schöfer, M. J. Gregor, P. G. Blome, and R. G. Ulbrich, "Influence of aperture diameter on image contrast and resolution in scanning near-field optical microscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 5871-5877 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Harootunian, A.

A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, and A. Muray, "Development of a 500 Å spatial resolution light microscope. I. Light is efficiently transmitted through λ/16 diameter apertures," Ultramicroscopy 13, 227-231 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Harris, T. D.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, "Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale," Science 251, 1468-1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hecht, B.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, "Local excitation, scattering and interference of surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889-1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herzig, H. P.

A. Nesci, R. Dändliker, M. Salt, and H. P. Herzig, "Measuring amplitude and phase distributions of fields generated by gratings with subwavelength resolution," Opt. Commun. 205, 229-238 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Holm, J.

Inouye, Y.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, "Local excitation, scattering and interference of surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889-1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Isaacson, M.

A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, and A. Muray, "Development of a 500 Å spatial resolution light microscope. I. Light is efficiently transmitted through λ/16 diameter apertures," Ultramicroscopy 13, 227-231 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kim, W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. A. Markel, V. Coello, W. Kim, and V. M. Shalaev, "Direct observation of localized dipolar excitations on rough nanostructured surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 58, 11441-11448 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kostelak, R. L.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, "Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale," Science 251, 1468-1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krenn, J. R.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and C. Girard, "Squeezing the optical near-field zone by plasmon coupling of metallic nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590-2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, M.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, T. Søndergaard, A. Boltasseva, P. I. Borel, and M. Kristensen, "Near-field imaging of light propagation in photonic crystal waveguides: explicit role of Bloch harmonics," Phys. Rev. B 66, 235204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lacroute, Y.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and C. Girard, "Squeezing the optical near-field zone by plasmon coupling of metallic nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590-2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lanz, M.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, "Optical stethoscopy: Image recording with resolution λ/20," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651-653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, A.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and C. Girard, "Squeezing the optical near-field zone by plasmon coupling of metallic nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590-2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, A.

A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, and A. Muray, "Development of a 500 Å spatial resolution light microscope. I. Light is efficiently transmitted through λ/16 diameter apertures," Ultramicroscopy 13, 227-231 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Markel, V. A.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. A. Markel, V. Coello, W. Kim, and V. M. Shalaev, "Direct observation of localized dipolar excitations on rough nanostructured surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 58, 11441-11448 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Muray, A.

A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, and A. Muray, "Development of a 500 Å spatial resolution light microscope. I. Light is efficiently transmitted through λ/16 diameter apertures," Ultramicroscopy 13, 227-231 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Nesci, A.

A. Nesci, R. Dändliker, M. Salt, and H. P. Herzig, "Measuring amplitude and phase distributions of fields generated by gratings with subwavelength resolution," Opt. Commun. 205, 229-238 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, "Local excitation, scattering and interference of surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889-1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pohl, D. W.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, "Local excitation, scattering and interference of surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889-1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, "Optical stethoscopy: Image recording with resolution λ/20," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651-653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Radko, I. P.

Salomon, L.

S. Goumri-Said, L. Salomon, J. P. Dufour, F. de Fornel, and A. V. Zayats, "Numerical simulations of photon scanning tunneling microscopy: role of a probe tip geometry in image formation," Opt. Commun. 244, 245-258 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Salt, M.

A. Nesci, R. Dändliker, M. Salt, and H. P. Herzig, "Measuring amplitude and phase distributions of fields generated by gratings with subwavelength resolution," Opt. Commun. 205, 229-238 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schider, G.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and C. Girard, "Squeezing the optical near-field zone by plasmon coupling of metallic nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590-2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schöfer, J.

J. Schöfer, M. J. Gregor, P. G. Blome, and R. G. Ulbrich, "Influence of aperture diameter on image contrast and resolution in scanning near-field optical microscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 5871-5877 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. A. Markel, V. Coello, W. Kim, and V. M. Shalaev, "Direct observation of localized dipolar excitations on rough nanostructured surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 58, 11441-11448 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Søndergaard, T.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, T. Søndergaard, A. Boltasseva, P. I. Borel, and M. Kristensen, "Near-field imaging of light propagation in photonic crystal waveguides: explicit role of Bloch harmonics," Phys. Rev. B 66, 235204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Trautman, J. K.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, "Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale," Science 251, 1468-1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tromborg, B.

Ulbrich, R. G.

J. Schöfer, M. J. Gregor, P. G. Blome, and R. G. Ulbrich, "Influence of aperture diameter on image contrast and resolution in scanning near-field optical microscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 5871-5877 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Van Labeke, D.

Vigoureux, J. M.

Vohnsen, B.

Volkov, V. S.

N. Gregersen, B. Tromborg, V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and J. Holm, "Topography characterization of a deep grating using near-field imaging," Appl. Opt. 45, 117-121 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, T. Søndergaard, A. Boltasseva, P. I. Borel, and M. Kristensen, "Near-field imaging of light propagation in photonic crystal waveguides: explicit role of Bloch harmonics," Phys. Rev. B 66, 235204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weeber, J. C.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and C. Girard, "Squeezing the optical near-field zone by plasmon coupling of metallic nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590-2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Weeber, F. de Fornel, and J. P. Goudonnet, "Numerical study of the tip-sample interaction in the photon scanning tunneling microscope," Opt. Commun. 126, 285-292 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, A. Dereux, J. P. Goudonnet, Y. Chen, and C. Girard, "Observation of light confinement effects with a near-field optical microscope," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5332-5335 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiner, J. S.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, "Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale," Science 251, 1468-1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications (Oxford U. Press, 1997).

Zayats, A. V.

S. Goumri-Said, L. Salomon, J. P. Dufour, F. de Fornel, and A. V. Zayats, "Numerical simulations of photon scanning tunneling microscopy: role of a probe tip geometry in image formation," Opt. Commun. 244, 245-258 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, "Optical stethoscopy: Image recording with resolution λ/20," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651-653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

J. Schöfer, M. J. Gregor, P. G. Blome, and R. G. Ulbrich, "Influence of aperture diameter on image contrast and resolution in scanning near-field optical microscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 5871-5877 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Near-field mapping of surface polariton fields," J. Microsc. 202, 313-319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Commun.

R. Carminati and J.-J. Greffet, "Two-dimensional numerical simulation of the photon scanning tunneling microscope. Concept of transfer function," Opt. Commun. 116, 316-321 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, and E. A. Bozhevolnaya, "Transfer functions in collection scanning near-field optical microscopy," Opt. Commun. 172, 171-179 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Weeber, F. de Fornel, and J. P. Goudonnet, "Numerical study of the tip-sample interaction in the photon scanning tunneling microscope," Opt. Commun. 126, 285-292 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Goumri-Said, L. Salomon, J. P. Dufour, F. de Fornel, and A. V. Zayats, "Numerical simulations of photon scanning tunneling microscopy: role of a probe tip geometry in image formation," Opt. Commun. 244, 245-258 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Nesci, R. Dändliker, M. Salt, and H. P. Herzig, "Measuring amplitude and phase distributions of fields generated by gratings with subwavelength resolution," Opt. Commun. 205, 229-238 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Quantum Electron.

P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Optical modelling of photonic crystals and VCSELs using eigenmode expansion and perfectly matched layers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 327-341 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. A. Markel, V. Coello, W. Kim, and V. M. Shalaev, "Direct observation of localized dipolar excitations on rough nanostructured surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 58, 11441-11448 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, T. Søndergaard, A. Boltasseva, P. I. Borel, and M. Kristensen, "Near-field imaging of light propagation in photonic crystal waveguides: explicit role of Bloch harmonics," Phys. Rev. B 66, 235204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, A. Dereux, J. P. Goudonnet, Y. Chen, and C. Girard, "Observation of light confinement effects with a near-field optical microscope," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5332-5335 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and C. Girard, "Squeezing the optical near-field zone by plasmon coupling of metallic nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590-2593 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, "Local excitation, scattering and interference of surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889-1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J.-J. Greffet and R. Carminati, "Image formation in near-field optics," Prog. Surf. Sci. 56, 133-237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, "Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale," Science 251, 1468-1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ultramicroscopy

A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, and A. Muray, "Development of a 500 Å spatial resolution light microscope. I. Light is efficiently transmitted through λ/16 diameter apertures," Ultramicroscopy 13, 227-231 (1984).
[CrossRef]

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D. Courjon, Near-Field Microscopy and Near-Field Optics (Imperial College Press, 2003).

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications (Oxford U. Press, 1997).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Illustration of the SNOM measurement setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Unit vectors in cylindrical coordinates.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Transfer functions for opening angles β from 30° to 120° for (a) s polarization and (b) p polarization.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SNOM images of near-field delta functions as a function of opening angle β. (a) The x component of the field is a delta function. (b) The z component is a delta function.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Local effective plane of detection height for (a) s polarization and (b) p polarization.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Illustration of cutoff tip geometry. The end of the cutoff tip has a diameter d t .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Transfer functions for p polarization for tips of fixed opening angle β of 90° with varying cutoff diameter d t .

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 AD of Images of Delta Functions

Tables Icon

Table 2 SNOM Tip Resolving Power

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E ( r , z d ) = F ( k ) exp ( i k · r ) d k .
E z ( r , z d ) = F · k k z  exp ( i k · r ) d k .
A n , m ( r ) = H n , m ( k ) · F ( k ) exp ( i k · r ) d k ,
E ( r , z d ) = [ F p ( k , θ ) e k + F s ( k , θ ) e θ ] exp ( i k · r ) × d k .
[ A x ( r ) A y ( r ) ] = [ sin   θ cos   θ cos   θ sin   θ ] [ H s ( k ) F s ( k , θ ) H p ( k ) F p ( k , θ ) ] × exp ( i k · r ) d k .
E ( r , ϕ , z ) = m e m ( r , z ) e i m ϕ .
[ F s ( k , θ ) F p ( k , θ ) ] = 1 4 π 2 [ sin   θ / H s ( k ) cos   θ / H p ( k ) cos   θ / H s ( k ) sin   θ / H p ( k ) ] × [ A x ( r ) A y ( r ) ] exp ( i k r ) d r .
E ( r , z d ) = ( F s ( k , θ ) | k , θ , s + F p ( k , θ ) | k , θ , p ) d k .
± 1 | H ^ | k , θ , s = ± 1 | H ^ e i J z θ | k , 0 , s = e i θ ± 1 | H ^ | k , 0 , s .
A ± 1 ( r ) = ( 1 i 2 H s     ± 1 ( k ) F s ( k , θ ) + 1 2 H p     ± 1 ( k ) F p ( k , θ ) ) × exp ( i θ  +  i k · r ) d k .
[ A x ( r ) A y ( r ) ] = [ sin   θ cos   θ cos   θ sin   θ ] [ H s ( k ) F s ( k , θ ) H p ( k ) F p ( k , θ ) ] × exp ( i k · r ) d k .

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