Abstract

Accurate recovery of tissue optical properties from in vivo spectral measurements is crucial for improving the clinical utility of optical spectroscopic techniques. The performance of inversion algorithms can be optimized for the specific fiber optic probe illumination–collection geometry. A diffusion-theory-based inversion method has been developed for the extraction of tissue optical properties from the shape of normalized tissue diffusion reflectance spectra, specifically tuned for a fiber probe that comprises seven hexagonally close-packed fibers. The central fiber of the probe goes to the spectrometer as the detecting fiber, and the surrounding six outer fibers are connected to the white-light source as illumination fibers. The accuracy of the diffusion-based inversion algorithm has been systematically assessed against Monte Carlo (MC) simulation as a function of probe geometry and tissue optical property combinations. By use of this algorithm, the spectral absorption and scattering coefficients of normal and cancerous tissue are efficiently retrieved. Although there are significant differences between the diffusion approximation and the MC simulation at short source–detector (SD) separations, we show that with our algorithm the tissue optical properties are well retrieved within the SD separation of 0.53mm that is compatible with endoscopic specifications. The presented inversion method is computationally efficient for eventual real-time in vivo tissue diagnostics application.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2006 (1)

S. K. Chang, N. Marin, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Model-based analysis of clinical fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical intraepithelial dysplasia," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 024008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

2004 (6)

G. Lubawy and N. Ramanujam, "Endoscopically compatible near-infrared photon migration probe," Opt. Lett. 29, 2022-2024 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, D. Arifler, R. Drezek, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Analytical model to describe fluorescence spectra of normal and pre-neoplastic epithelial tissue: comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and clinical measurements," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 511-522 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheets, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer," Faraday Discuss. 126, 265-279 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Motz, M. Hunter, L. H. Galindo, J. A. Gardecki, J. R. Kramer, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Optical fiber probe for biomedical Raman spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 43, 542-554 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 221-229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. K. Dudko, G. H. Weiss, V. Chemomordik, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, "Photon migration in turbid media with anisotropic optical properties," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 3979-3989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (6)

U. Utzinger and R. Richards-Kortum, "Fiber optic probes for biomedical spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 127-147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Drezek, T. Collier, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear size, DNA content, and chromatin texture," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 7-16 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, R. Richards-Kortum, M. A. Brewer, M. S. Feld, S. Pitris, A. Ferenczy, M. L. Faupel, and M. Follen, "Optical imaging of the cervix," Cancer Suppl. 98, 2015-2027 (2003).

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-14 (2003).
[PubMed]

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Stasic, T. J. Farrell, and M. S. Patterson, "The use of spatially-resolved fluorescence and reflectance to determine interface depth in layered fluorophore distributions," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 3459-3474 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Müller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes," Cancer Res. 62, 682-687 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (4)

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelma, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light scattering spectroscopy," Nat. Med. 7, 1245-1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Hyde, T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved fluorescence from depth-dependent fluorophore concentrations," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 369-383 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and imliications," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 385-396 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Müller, I. Georgakoudi, Q. Zhang, J. Wu, and M. S. Feld, "Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media: disentangling effects of scattering and absorption," Appl. Opt. 40, 4633-4646 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1999 (2)

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. M. Backman, R. Manoharan, V. D. Fitzmaurice, M., J., and F. S. Feld, "Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo," Appl. Opt. 38, 6628-6637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, G. Los, and I. J. Bigio, "Non-invasive measurement of chemotherapy drug concentrations in tissue: preliminary demonstrations of in vivo measurements," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1397-1417 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (5)

S. Prahl, "Optical absorption of hemoglobin," Oregon Medical Laser Center, Portland, Oreg.; available at http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/hemoglobin/index.html (1998).

A. Kienle, M. S. Patterson, N. Dögnitz, R. Bays, G. Wagnières, and H. Van Den Gergh, "Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of two-layered turbid media," Appl. Opt. 37, 797-791 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Alexandrakis, T. J. Farrell, and M. S. Patterson, "Accuracy of the diffusion approximation in determining the optical properties of a two-layer turbid medium," Appl. Opt. 37, 7401-7409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Venugopalan, J. S. You, and B. J. Tromberg, "Radiative transport in the diffusion approximation: an extension for highly absorbing media and small source-detector separations," Phys. Rev. E 58, 2395-2407 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Mourant, J. P. Freyer, A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, D. Shen, and T. M. Johnson, "Mechanisms of light scattering from biological cells relevant to noninvasive optical-tissue diagnostics," Appl. Opt. 37, 3586-3593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (5)

1996 (3)

1995 (1)

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L.-Q. Zheng, "MCML-Monte Carlo modeling of photon transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1993 (3)

1992 (1)

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance for the non-invasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo," Med. Phys. 19, 879-888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

W. G. Zijlstra, A. Buursma, and W. P. Meeuwsen-van der Roest, "Absorption spectra of human fetal and adult oxyhemoglobin, de-oxyhemoglobin, carboxyhemoglobin, and methemoglobin," Clin. Chem. 37, 1633-1638 (1991).
[PubMed]

1990 (1)

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, "Review of the optical properties of biological tissues," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166-2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

Alexandrakis, G.

Arifler, D.

S. K. Chang, D. Arifler, R. Drezek, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Analytical model to describe fluorescence spectra of normal and pre-neoplastic epithelial tissue: comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and clinical measurements," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 511-522 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backman, V.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheets, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer," Faraday Discuss. 126, 265-279 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelma, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light scattering spectroscopy," Nat. Med. 7, 1245-1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backman, V. M.

Badizadegan, K.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheets, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer," Faraday Discuss. 126, 265-279 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Müller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes," Cancer Res. 62, 682-687 (2002).
[PubMed]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelma, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light scattering spectroscopy," Nat. Med. 7, 1245-1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bays, R.

A. Kienle, M. S. Patterson, N. Dögnitz, R. Bays, G. Wagnières, and H. Van Den Gergh, "Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of two-layered turbid media," Appl. Opt. 37, 797-791 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bender, J. E.

A. M. J. Wang, J. E. Bender, J. Pfefer, U. Utzinger, and R. A. Drezek, "Depth-sensitive reflectance measurements using obliquely oriented fiber probes," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Berger, A. J.

Bevilacqua, F.

Bigio, I. J.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, G. Los, and I. J. Bigio, "Non-invasive measurement of chemotherapy drug concentrations in tissue: preliminary demonstrations of in vivo measurements," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1397-1417 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, D. A. Jack, T. M. Johnson, and H. D. Miller, "Measuring absorption coefficients in small volumes of highly scattering media: source-detector separations for which path lengths do not depend on scattering properties," Appl. Opt. 36, 5655-5661 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. J. Bigio and J. R. Mourant, "Ultraviolet and visible spectroscopies for tissue diagnostics: fluorescence spectroscopy and elastic-scattering spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 803-814 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, J. Boyers, A. H. Hielscher, and I. J. Bigio, "Influence of the scattering phase function on light transport measurements in turbid media performed with small source-detector separations," Opt. Lett. 21, 546-548 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boiko, I.

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and imliications," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 385-396 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boone, C. W.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheets, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer," Faraday Discuss. 126, 265-279 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Müller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes," Cancer Res. 62, 682-687 (2002).
[PubMed]

Boyers, J.

Brewer, M. A.

R. Drezek, R. Richards-Kortum, M. A. Brewer, M. S. Feld, S. Pitris, A. Ferenczy, M. L. Faupel, and M. Follen, "Optical imaging of the cervix," Cancer Suppl. 98, 2015-2027 (2003).

Buursma, A.

W. G. Zijlstra, A. Buursma, and W. P. Meeuwsen-van der Roest, "Absorption spectra of human fetal and adult oxyhemoglobin, de-oxyhemoglobin, carboxyhemoglobin, and methemoglobin," Clin. Chem. 37, 1633-1638 (1991).
[PubMed]

Carr-Locke, D. L.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Müller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes," Cancer Res. 62, 682-687 (2002).
[PubMed]

Chance, B.

Chang, S. K.

S. K. Chang, N. Marin, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Model-based analysis of clinical fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical intraepithelial dysplasia," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 024008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, D. Arifler, R. Drezek, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Analytical model to describe fluorescence spectra of normal and pre-neoplastic epithelial tissue: comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and clinical measurements," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 511-522 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chemomordik, V.

O. K. Dudko, G. H. Weiss, V. Chemomordik, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, "Photon migration in turbid media with anisotropic optical properties," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 3979-3989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, "Review of the optical properties of biological tissues," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166-2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.

J. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 221-229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collier, T.

R. Drezek, T. Collier, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear size, DNA content, and chromatin texture," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 7-16 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crum, C. P.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheets, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer," Faraday Discuss. 126, 265-279 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Müller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes," Cancer Res. 62, 682-687 (2002).
[PubMed]

Cuccia, D. J.

Dasari, R. R.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheets, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer," Faraday Discuss. 126, 265-279 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Motz, M. Hunter, L. H. Galindo, J. A. Gardecki, J. R. Kramer, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Optical fiber probe for biomedical Raman spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 43, 542-554 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-14 (2003).
[PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Müller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes," Cancer Res. 62, 682-687 (2002).
[PubMed]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelma, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light scattering spectroscopy," Nat. Med. 7, 1245-1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desjardins, A. E.

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-14 (2003).
[PubMed]

Dögnitz, N.

A. Kienle, M. S. Patterson, N. Dögnitz, R. Bays, G. Wagnières, and H. Van Den Gergh, "Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of two-layered turbid media," Appl. Opt. 37, 797-791 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Drezek, R.

S. K. Chang, D. Arifler, R. Drezek, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Analytical model to describe fluorescence spectra of normal and pre-neoplastic epithelial tissue: comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and clinical measurements," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 511-522 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, R. Richards-Kortum, M. A. Brewer, M. S. Feld, S. Pitris, A. Ferenczy, M. L. Faupel, and M. Follen, "Optical imaging of the cervix," Cancer Suppl. 98, 2015-2027 (2003).

R. Drezek, T. Collier, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear size, DNA content, and chromatin texture," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 7-16 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and imliications," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 385-396 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drezek, R. A.

A. M. J. Wang, J. E. Bender, J. Pfefer, U. Utzinger, and R. A. Drezek, "Depth-sensitive reflectance measurements using obliquely oriented fiber probes," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dudko, O. K.

O. K. Dudko, G. H. Weiss, V. Chemomordik, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, "Photon migration in turbid media with anisotropic optical properties," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 3979-3989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durkin, A. J.

Eick, A. A.

Farrell, T. J.

D. Stasic, T. J. Farrell, and M. S. Patterson, "The use of spatially-resolved fluorescence and reflectance to determine interface depth in layered fluorophore distributions," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 3459-3474 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Hyde, T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved fluorescence from depth-dependent fluorophore concentrations," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 369-383 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Alexandrakis, T. J. Farrell, and M. S. Patterson, "Accuracy of the diffusion approximation in determining the optical properties of a two-layer turbid medium," Appl. Opt. 37, 7401-7409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance for the non-invasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo," Med. Phys. 19, 879-888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faupel, M. L.

R. Drezek, R. Richards-Kortum, M. A. Brewer, M. S. Feld, S. Pitris, A. Ferenczy, M. L. Faupel, and M. Follen, "Optical imaging of the cervix," Cancer Suppl. 98, 2015-2027 (2003).

Feld, F. S.

Feld, M. S.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheets, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer," Faraday Discuss. 126, 265-279 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Motz, M. Hunter, L. H. Galindo, J. A. Gardecki, J. R. Kramer, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Optical fiber probe for biomedical Raman spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 43, 542-554 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, R. Richards-Kortum, M. A. Brewer, M. S. Feld, S. Pitris, A. Ferenczy, M. L. Faupel, and M. Follen, "Optical imaging of the cervix," Cancer Suppl. 98, 2015-2027 (2003).

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-14 (2003).
[PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Müller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes," Cancer Res. 62, 682-687 (2002).
[PubMed]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelma, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light scattering spectroscopy," Nat. Med. 7, 1245-1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Müller, I. Georgakoudi, Q. Zhang, J. Wu, and M. S. Feld, "Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media: disentangling effects of scattering and absorption," Appl. Opt. 40, 4633-4646 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, M. G. Müller, J. Wu, and M. S. Feld, "Turbidity-free fluorescence spectroscopy of biological tissue," Opt. Lett. 25, 1451-1453 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, F. Partovi, M. S. Feld, and R. P. Rava, "Diffuse reflectance from turbid media: and analytical model of photon migration," Appl. Opt. 32, 1115-1121 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wu, M. S. Feld, and R. P. Rava, "Analytical model for extracting intrinsic fluorescence in turbid media," Appl. Opt. 32, 3585-3595 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Keijzer, R. R. Richards-Kortum, S. L. Jacques, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence spectroscopy of turbid media: autofluorescence of the human aorta," Appl. Opt. 28, 4286-4292 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferenczy, A.

R. Drezek, R. Richards-Kortum, M. A. Brewer, M. S. Feld, S. Pitris, A. Ferenczy, M. L. Faupel, and M. Follen, "Optical imaging of the cervix," Cancer Suppl. 98, 2015-2027 (2003).

Fitzmaurice, V. D.

Follen, M.

S. K. Chang, N. Marin, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Model-based analysis of clinical fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical intraepithelial dysplasia," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 024008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, D. Arifler, R. Drezek, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Analytical model to describe fluorescence spectra of normal and pre-neoplastic epithelial tissue: comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and clinical measurements," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 511-522 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, R. Richards-Kortum, M. A. Brewer, M. S. Feld, S. Pitris, A. Ferenczy, M. L. Faupel, and M. Follen, "Optical imaging of the cervix," Cancer Suppl. 98, 2015-2027 (2003).

R. Drezek, T. Collier, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear size, DNA content, and chromatin texture," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 7-16 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and imliications," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 385-396 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freyer, J. P.

Fuentes, C.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galindo, L.

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-14 (2003).
[PubMed]

Galindo, L. H.

Gandjbakhche, A. H.

O. K. Dudko, G. H. Weiss, V. Chemomordik, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, "Photon migration in turbid media with anisotropic optical properties," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 3979-3989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gardecki, J. A.

Gebhart, S. C.

Georgakoudi, I.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheets, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer," Faraday Discuss. 126, 265-279 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-14 (2003).
[PubMed]

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Müller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes," Cancer Res. 62, 682-687 (2002).
[PubMed]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelma, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light scattering spectroscopy," Nat. Med. 7, 1245-1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Müller, I. Georgakoudi, Q. Zhang, J. Wu, and M. S. Feld, "Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media: disentangling effects of scattering and absorption," Appl. Opt. 40, 4633-4646 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gratton, E.

J. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 221-229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gupta, R.

J. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 221-229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gurjar, R. S.

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelma, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light scattering spectroscopy," Nat. Med. 7, 1245-1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayakawa, C.

Hibst, R.

Hielscher, A. H.

Hueber, D.

J. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 221-229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunter, M.

Hyde, D. E.

D. E. Hyde, T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved fluorescence from depth-dependent fluorophore concentrations," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 369-383 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itzkan, I.

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelma, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light scattering spectroscopy," Nat. Med. 7, 1245-1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jack, D. A.

Jacobson, B. C.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Müller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes," Cancer Res. 62, 682-687 (2002).
[PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

Johnson, T. M.

Kabani, S.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keefe, K.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheets, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer," Faraday Discuss. 126, 265-279 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keijzer, M.

Kienle, A.

Kramer, J. R.

Lam, S.

Laver, N.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lilge, L.

Lin, W.-C.

Los, G.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, G. Los, and I. J. Bigio, "Non-invasive measurement of chemotherapy drug concentrations in tissue: preliminary demonstrations of in vivo measurements," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1397-1417 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lubawy, G.

MacAulay, C.

R. Drezek, T. Collier, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear size, DNA content, and chromatin texture," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 7-16 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Qu, C. MacAulay, S. Lam, and B. Palcic, "Optical properties of normal and carcinomatous bronchial tissue," Appl. Opt. 33, 7397-7405 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahadenvan-Jansen, A.

Malpica, A.

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and imliications," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 385-396 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manoharan, R.

Mantulin, W.

J. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 221-229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marin, N.

S. K. Chang, N. Marin, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Model-based analysis of clinical fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical intraepithelial dysplasia," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 024008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGee, S. A.

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-14 (2003).
[PubMed]

Meeuwsen-van der Roest, W. P.

W. G. Zijlstra, A. Buursma, and W. P. Meeuwsen-van der Roest, "Absorption spectra of human fetal and adult oxyhemoglobin, de-oxyhemoglobin, carboxyhemoglobin, and methemoglobin," Clin. Chem. 37, 1633-1638 (1991).
[PubMed]

Michalos, A.

J. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 221-229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, H. D.

Mirkovic, J.

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-14 (2003).
[PubMed]

Motz, J. T.

Mourant, J. R.

Mueller, M. G.

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-14 (2003).
[PubMed]

Müller, M. G.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Müller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes," Cancer Res. 62, 682-687 (2002).
[PubMed]

M. G. Müller, I. Georgakoudi, Q. Zhang, J. Wu, and M. S. Feld, "Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media: disentangling effects of scattering and absorption," Appl. Opt. 40, 4633-4646 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, M. G. Müller, J. Wu, and M. S. Feld, "Turbidity-free fluorescence spectroscopy of biological tissue," Opt. Lett. 25, 1451-1453 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Munger, K.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheets, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer," Faraday Discuss. 126, 265-279 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mycek, M.-A.

M.-A. Mycek and B. W. Pogue, eds., Handbook of Biomedical Fluorescence (Marcel Dekker, 2003).

Nazemi, J.

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-14 (2003).
[PubMed]

Nguyen, F. T.

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-14 (2003).
[PubMed]

Ostermeyer, M. R.

Palcic, B.

Partovi, F.

Patterson, M. S.

D. Stasic, T. J. Farrell, and M. S. Patterson, "The use of spatially-resolved fluorescence and reflectance to determine interface depth in layered fluorophore distributions," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 3459-3474 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Hyde, T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved fluorescence from depth-dependent fluorophore concentrations," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 369-383 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Alexandrakis, T. J. Farrell, and M. S. Patterson, "Accuracy of the diffusion approximation in determining the optical properties of a two-layer turbid medium," Appl. Opt. 37, 7401-7409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Kienle, M. S. Patterson, N. Dögnitz, R. Bays, G. Wagnières, and H. Van Den Gergh, "Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of two-layered turbid media," Appl. Opt. 37, 797-791 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Kienle and M. S. Patterson, "Improved solutions of the steady-state and the time-resolved diffusion equations for reflectance from a semi-infinite turbid medium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 246-254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Kienle, L. Lilge, M. S. Patterson, R. Hibst, R. Steiner, and B. C. Wilson, "Spatially resolved absolute diffuse reflectance measurements for noninvasive determination of the optical scattering and absorption coefficients of biological tissue," Appl. Opt. 35, 2304-2314 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance for the non-invasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo," Med. Phys. 19, 879-888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, and B. C. Wilson, "Time resolved reflectance and transmittance for the non-invasive measurement of tissue optical properties," Appl. Opt. 28, 2331-2336 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perelma, L. T.

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelma, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light scattering spectroscopy," Nat. Med. 7, 1245-1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perelman, L. T.

Pfefer, J.

A. M. J. Wang, J. E. Bender, J. Pfefer, U. Utzinger, and R. A. Drezek, "Depth-sensitive reflectance measurements using obliquely oriented fiber probes," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pham, T.

Pitris, S.

R. Drezek, R. Richards-Kortum, M. A. Brewer, M. S. Feld, S. Pitris, A. Ferenczy, M. L. Faupel, and M. Follen, "Optical imaging of the cervix," Cancer Suppl. 98, 2015-2027 (2003).

Pogue, B. W.

M.-A. Mycek and B. W. Pogue, eds., Handbook of Biomedical Fluorescence (Marcel Dekker, 2003).

Polzonetti, C.

J. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 221-229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prahl, S.

S. Prahl, "Optical absorption of hemoglobin," Oregon Medical Laser Center, Portland, Oreg.; available at http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/hemoglobin/index.html (1998).

Prahl, S. A.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, "Review of the optical properties of biological tissues," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166-2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Qu, J.

Ramanujam, N.

Rava, R. P.

Richards-Kortum, R.

S. K. Chang, N. Marin, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Model-based analysis of clinical fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical intraepithelial dysplasia," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 024008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, D. Arifler, R. Drezek, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Analytical model to describe fluorescence spectra of normal and pre-neoplastic epithelial tissue: comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and clinical measurements," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 511-522 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, T. Collier, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear size, DNA content, and chromatin texture," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 7-16 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, R. Richards-Kortum, M. A. Brewer, M. S. Feld, S. Pitris, A. Ferenczy, M. L. Faupel, and M. Follen, "Optical imaging of the cervix," Cancer Suppl. 98, 2015-2027 (2003).

U. Utzinger and R. Richards-Kortum, "Fiber optic probes for biomedical spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 127-147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and imliications," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 385-396 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Richards-Kortum and E. Sevick-Muraca, "Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 555-606 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R. R.

Safonova, L. P.

J. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 221-229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sevick-Muraca, E.

R. Richards-Kortum and E. Sevick-Muraca, "Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 555-606 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shapshay, S. M.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheets, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer," Faraday Discuss. 126, 265-279 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheets, E. E.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheets, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer," Faraday Discuss. 126, 265-279 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Müller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes," Cancer Res. 62, 682-687 (2002).
[PubMed]

Shen, D.

Sokolov, K.

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and imliications," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 385-396 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spanier, J.

Stasic, D.

D. Stasic, T. J. Farrell, and M. S. Patterson, "The use of spatially-resolved fluorescence and reflectance to determine interface depth in layered fluorophore distributions," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 3459-3474 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steiner, R.

Toronov, V.

J. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 221-229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

Tseng, S.-H.

Tunnell, J. W.

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-14 (2003).
[PubMed]

Utzinger, U.

A. M. J. Wang, J. E. Bender, J. Pfefer, U. Utzinger, and R. A. Drezek, "Depth-sensitive reflectance measurements using obliquely oriented fiber probes," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

U. Utzinger and R. Richards-Kortum, "Fiber optic probes for biomedical spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 127-147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and imliications," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 385-396 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valdez, T. A.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Dam, J.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Müller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes," Cancer Res. 62, 682-687 (2002).
[PubMed]

Van Den Gergh, H.

A. Kienle, M. S. Patterson, N. Dögnitz, R. Bays, G. Wagnières, and H. Van Den Gergh, "Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of two-layered turbid media," Appl. Opt. 37, 797-791 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Venugopalan, V.

A. J. Berger, V. Venugopalan, A. J. Durkin, T. Pham, and B. J. Tromberg, "Chemometric analysis of frequency-domain photon migration data: quantitative measurements of optical properties and chromophore concentrations in multicomponent turbid media," Appl. Opt. 39, 1659-1667 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Venugopalan, J. S. You, and B. J. Tromberg, "Radiative transport in the diffusion approximation: an extension for highly absorbing media and small source-detector separations," Phys. Rev. E 58, 2395-2407 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wagnières, G.

A. Kienle, M. S. Patterson, N. Dögnitz, R. Bays, G. Wagnières, and H. Van Den Gergh, "Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of two-layered turbid media," Appl. Opt. 37, 797-791 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A. M. J.

A. M. J. Wang, J. E. Bender, J. Pfefer, U. Utzinger, and R. A. Drezek, "Depth-sensitive reflectance measurements using obliquely oriented fiber probes," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.-H.

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L.-Q. Zheng, "CONV--convolution for response to a finite diameter photon beam incident on multilayered tissue," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 54, 141-150 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L.-Q. Zheng, "MCML-Monte Carlo modeling of photon transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-H. Wang and S. L. Jacques, "Hybrid model of Monte Carlo simulation and diffusion theory for light reflectance by turbid media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1746-1752 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wax, A.

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-14 (2003).
[PubMed]

Weiss, G. H.

O. K. Dudko, G. H. Weiss, V. Chemomordik, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, "Photon migration in turbid media with anisotropic optical properties," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 3979-3989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welch, A. J.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, "Review of the optical properties of biological tissues," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166-2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, B. C.

D. E. Hyde, T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved fluorescence from depth-dependent fluorophore concentrations," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 369-383 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kienle, L. Lilge, M. S. Patterson, R. Hibst, R. Steiner, and B. C. Wilson, "Spatially resolved absolute diffuse reflectance measurements for noninvasive determination of the optical scattering and absorption coefficients of biological tissue," Appl. Opt. 35, 2304-2314 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, "A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance for the non-invasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo," Med. Phys. 19, 879-888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, and B. C. Wilson, "Time resolved reflectance and transmittance for the non-invasive measurement of tissue optical properties," Appl. Opt. 28, 2331-2336 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, M.

J. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 221-229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, U.

J. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 221-229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

You, J. S.

V. Venugopalan, J. S. You, and B. J. Tromberg, "Radiative transport in the diffusion approximation: an extension for highly absorbing media and small source-detector separations," Phys. Rev. E 58, 2395-2407 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

J. W. Tunnell, A. E. Desjardins, L. Galindo, I. Georgakoudi, S. A. McGee, J. Mirkovic, M. G. Mueller, J. Nazemi, F. T. Nguyen, A. Wax, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Instrumentation for multi-modal spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2, 505-14 (2003).
[PubMed]

M. G. Müller, I. Georgakoudi, Q. Zhang, J. Wu, and M. S. Feld, "Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media: disentangling effects of scattering and absorption," Appl. Opt. 40, 4633-4646 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, M. G. Müller, J. Wu, and M. S. Feld, "Turbidity-free fluorescence spectroscopy of biological tissue," Opt. Lett. 25, 1451-1453 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, L.-Q.

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L.-Q. Zheng, "CONV--convolution for response to a finite diameter photon beam incident on multilayered tissue," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 54, 141-150 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L.-Q. Zheng, "MCML-Monte Carlo modeling of photon transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zijlstra, W. G.

W. G. Zijlstra, A. Buursma, and W. P. Meeuwsen-van der Roest, "Absorption spectra of human fetal and adult oxyhemoglobin, de-oxyhemoglobin, carboxyhemoglobin, and methemoglobin," Clin. Chem. 37, 1633-1638 (1991).
[PubMed]

Zonios, G.

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

R. Richards-Kortum and E. Sevick-Muraca, "Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 555-606 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (15)

A. Kienle, M. S. Patterson, N. Dögnitz, R. Bays, G. Wagnières, and H. Van Den Gergh, "Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of two-layered turbid media," Appl. Opt. 37, 797-791 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Kienle, L. Lilge, M. S. Patterson, R. Hibst, R. Steiner, and B. C. Wilson, "Spatially resolved absolute diffuse reflectance measurements for noninvasive determination of the optical scattering and absorption coefficients of biological tissue," Appl. Opt. 35, 2304-2314 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, J. P. Freyer, A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, D. Shen, and T. M. Johnson, "Mechanisms of light scattering from biological cells relevant to noninvasive optical-tissue diagnostics," Appl. Opt. 37, 3586-3593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, D. A. Jack, T. M. Johnson, and H. D. Miller, "Measuring absorption coefficients in small volumes of highly scattering media: source-detector separations for which path lengths do not depend on scattering properties," Appl. Opt. 36, 5655-5661 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Gebhart, A. Mahadenvan-Jansen, and W.-C. Lin, "Experimental and simulated angular profiles of fluoresence and diffuse reflectance emission from turbid media," Appl. Opt. 44, 4884-4901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. M. Backman, R. Manoharan, V. D. Fitzmaurice, M., J., and F. S. Feld, "Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo," Appl. Opt. 38, 6628-6637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, F. Partovi, M. S. Feld, and R. P. Rava, "Diffuse reflectance from turbid media: and analytical model of photon migration," Appl. Opt. 32, 1115-1121 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Keijzer, R. R. Richards-Kortum, S. L. Jacques, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence spectroscopy of turbid media: autofluorescence of the human aorta," Appl. Opt. 28, 4286-4292 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, and B. C. Wilson, "Time resolved reflectance and transmittance for the non-invasive measurement of tissue optical properties," Appl. Opt. 28, 2331-2336 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Berger, V. Venugopalan, A. J. Durkin, T. Pham, and B. J. Tromberg, "Chemometric analysis of frequency-domain photon migration data: quantitative measurements of optical properties and chromophore concentrations in multicomponent turbid media," Appl. Opt. 39, 1659-1667 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Alexandrakis, T. J. Farrell, and M. S. Patterson, "Accuracy of the diffusion approximation in determining the optical properties of a two-layer turbid medium," Appl. Opt. 37, 7401-7409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Müller, I. Georgakoudi, Q. Zhang, J. Wu, and M. S. Feld, "Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media: disentangling effects of scattering and absorption," Appl. Opt. 40, 4633-4646 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Qu, C. MacAulay, S. Lam, and B. Palcic, "Optical properties of normal and carcinomatous bronchial tissue," Appl. Opt. 33, 7397-7405 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wu, M. S. Feld, and R. P. Rava, "Analytical model for extracting intrinsic fluorescence in turbid media," Appl. Opt. 32, 3585-3595 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Motz, M. Hunter, L. H. Galindo, J. A. Gardecki, J. R. Kramer, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Optical fiber probe for biomedical Raman spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 43, 542-554 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer (1)

M. G. Müller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer Res. (1)

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Müller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes," Cancer Res. 62, 682-687 (2002).
[PubMed]

Cancer Suppl. (1)

R. Drezek, R. Richards-Kortum, M. A. Brewer, M. S. Feld, S. Pitris, A. Ferenczy, M. L. Faupel, and M. Follen, "Optical imaging of the cervix," Cancer Suppl. 98, 2015-2027 (2003).

Clin. Chem. (1)

W. G. Zijlstra, A. Buursma, and W. P. Meeuwsen-van der Roest, "Absorption spectra of human fetal and adult oxyhemoglobin, de-oxyhemoglobin, carboxyhemoglobin, and methemoglobin," Clin. Chem. 37, 1633-1638 (1991).
[PubMed]

Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. (2)

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L.-Q. Zheng, "CONV--convolution for response to a finite diameter photon beam incident on multilayered tissue," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 54, 141-150 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L.-Q. Zheng, "MCML-Monte Carlo modeling of photon transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faraday Discuss. (1)

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheets, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer," Faraday Discuss. 126, 265-279 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, "Review of the optical properties of biological tissues," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166-2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (7)

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross section of the hexagonally close-packed fiber optic probe. The central collection fiber goes to the spectrometer, and the six outer illumination fibers go to the white-light source.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

2D Semi-infinite homogeneous tissue model.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Extraction results of stromal tissue recovered at SD separations of(a1)–(a3) 1.19   mm and (b1)–(b3) 3 .01   mm with a 1 mm diameter collection fiber: (a1), (b1) input diffuse reflectance spectra (Rd_M) and best-fit spectra; (a2), (b2) real absorption coefficients (u_a stroma) and the best-fit results; (a3), (b3) real scattering coefficients (u_s stroma) and the best-fit results.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Extraction results of tumor recovered at a SD separation of 1 .19   mm with a 1   mm diameter collection fiber: (a) normalized input diffuse reflectance spectrum (Rd_M) and best-fit spectrum; (b) absolute input diffuse reflectance spectrum (MC) and best-fit spectrum; (c) real absorption coefficients (u_a tumor) and the best-fit results; (d) real scattering coefficients (u_s tumor) and the best-fit results.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Extraction results of stromal tissue recovered at a SD separation of 1 .19   mm , with 0.4 and 1   mm diameter collection fibers; (a) real absorption coefficients (u_a stroma) and the best-fit results; (b) real scattering coefficients (u_s stroma) and the best-fit results.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

APE(r) of the diffusion approximation and the MC simulation with g = 0.84 , μ a = 0.25 mm 1 , μ s = 0.1 mm 1 , and μs = 4 mm−1.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Integrated percent errors of the diffusion approximation and the MC simulation with g = 0.84 , μ a = 0.01 mm 1 μ s = 10 mm 1 , μ a = 0.1 mm 1 μ s = 7 mm 1 , and μ a = 0.25 mm 1 μ s = 4 mm 1 .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Integrated percent errors of the diffusion approximation and the MC simulation for various diameter (d) fibers with μ a = 0.25 mm 1 , μ s = 4 mm 1 , and g = 0.84 . (The incident and collection fibers are assumed to have the same diameters.)

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Diffusion reflectance spectra of stromal tissue obtained by MC simulation (Rd_M) and diffusion approximation (Rd_D) at SD separations of 1.19 and 2.29   mm , with n rel = 1.37 and g = 0.9 . A 1 mm diameter fiber was used to collect the reflectance signals.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Extraction results for normal and cancerous human breast tissue: input and recovered diffuse reflectance (normalized) of (a) normal tissue and (b) tumor; (c) extracted absorption coefficients spectra; (d) extracted scattering coefficients spectra.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Real scattering coefficients of stromal tissue (u_s stroma) and the adjusted best-fit scattering results for different probe geometries.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 AAPE of the Diffusion Approximation and the MC Simulation for Different μ a and μ s Combinations in the SD Separation Region of 0.5–3 mm with g = 0.84

Equations (3)

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R d ( r ) = a 4 π [ 1 μ t ( μ eff + 1 r 1 ) exp ( μ eff r 1 ) r 1 2 + ( 1 μ t + 2 z b ) × ( μ eff + 1 r 2 ) exp ( μ eff r 2 ) r 2 2 ] ,
RPE = μ a ( s ) r μ a ( s ) μ a ( s ) × 100 % .
PE ( r ) = R dD ( r ) R dM ( r ) R dD ( r ) × 100 % ,

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