Abstract

Beetles of the scarab family are known to reflect circularly polarized light from incident unpolarized light. They are unusual in that there are many animals that use polarized light in some form and several that actually create it, but there are few examples of the creation of circularly polarized light by animals. Scarabs have been measured with a spectropolarimetric reflectometer and are found to reflect light that is generally left-hand circularly polarized. Previous work is summarized, and what is believed to be new measurements of several scarab specimens are presented.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. A. Michelson, "On metallic colouring in birds and insects," Philos. Mag. 21, 554-567 (1911).
  2. P. Gaubert, "Sur la polarisation circulaire de la lumière réfléchie par les Insectes," Compt. Rend. 179, 1148-1150 (1924).
  3. J. P. Mathieu and N. Faraggi, "Étude de la lumière polarisée circulairements réfléchie par certains coléoptères," Compt. Rend. 205, 1378-1380 (1937).
  4. C. Robinson, "The cholesteric phase in polypeptide solutions and biological structures," Mol. Cryst. 1, 467-494 (1966).
  5. A. C. Neville and S. Caveney, "Scarabaeid beetle exocuticle as an optical analogue of cholesteric liquid crystals," Biol. Rev. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 44, 531-562 (1969).
  6. S. Caveney, "Cuticle reflectivity and optical activity in scarab beetles: the role of uric acid," Proc. R. Soc. London , Ser. B 178, 205-225 (1971).
  7. G. P. Können, Polarized Light in Nature (Cambridge U. Press, 1985).
  8. G. W. Kattawar, "A search for circular polarization in nature," Opt. Photonics News , 5, 42-43 (1994).
  9. M. Srinivasarao, "Nano-optics in the biological world: Beetles, butterflies, birds, and moths," Chem. Rev. 99, 1935-1961 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Horváth and D. Varjú, Polarized Light in Animal Vision (Springer, 2004).
  11. D. H. Goldstein and D. B. Chenault, "Spectropolarimetric reflectometer," Opt. Eng. 41, 1013-1020 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, and M. Owens, "Spectropolarimetric reflectometer," U.S. patent 6.618, 145 (9 September 2003).
  13. R. M. A. Azzam, "Photopolarimetric measurement of the Mueller matrix by Fourier analysis of a single detected signal," Opt. Lett. 2, 148-150 (1978).
  14. D. H. Goldstein, "Mueller matrix dual-rotating retarder polarimeter," Appl. Opt. 31, 6676-6683 (1992).
  15. D. H. Goldstein and R. A. Chipman, "An error analysis of a Mueller matrix polarimeter," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 693-700 (1990).
  16. D. B. Chenault, J. L. Pezzaniti, and R. A. Chipman, "Mueller matrix algorithms," in Polarization Analysis and Measurement, D. H. Goldstein and R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE 1746, 231-246 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. De and R. M. A. Azzam, "Optimal coated silicon membrane beam splitters for the division-of-amplitude photopolarimeter (DOAP)," presented at the Optical Society of America Annual Meeting, Orlando, Fla., 2 October 2002.

2004 (1)

G. Horváth and D. Varjú, Polarized Light in Animal Vision (Springer, 2004).

2003 (1)

D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, and M. Owens, "Spectropolarimetric reflectometer," U.S. patent 6.618, 145 (9 September 2003).

2002 (1)

D. H. Goldstein and D. B. Chenault, "Spectropolarimetric reflectometer," Opt. Eng. 41, 1013-1020 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. Srinivasarao, "Nano-optics in the biological world: Beetles, butterflies, birds, and moths," Chem. Rev. 99, 1935-1961 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

G. W. Kattawar, "A search for circular polarization in nature," Opt. Photonics News , 5, 42-43 (1994).

1992 (2)

D. H. Goldstein, "Mueller matrix dual-rotating retarder polarimeter," Appl. Opt. 31, 6676-6683 (1992).

D. B. Chenault, J. L. Pezzaniti, and R. A. Chipman, "Mueller matrix algorithms," in Polarization Analysis and Measurement, D. H. Goldstein and R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE 1746, 231-246 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1985 (1)

G. P. Können, Polarized Light in Nature (Cambridge U. Press, 1985).

1978 (1)

1971 (1)

S. Caveney, "Cuticle reflectivity and optical activity in scarab beetles: the role of uric acid," Proc. R. Soc. London , Ser. B 178, 205-225 (1971).

1969 (1)

A. C. Neville and S. Caveney, "Scarabaeid beetle exocuticle as an optical analogue of cholesteric liquid crystals," Biol. Rev. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 44, 531-562 (1969).

1966 (1)

C. Robinson, "The cholesteric phase in polypeptide solutions and biological structures," Mol. Cryst. 1, 467-494 (1966).

1937 (1)

J. P. Mathieu and N. Faraggi, "Étude de la lumière polarisée circulairements réfléchie par certains coléoptères," Compt. Rend. 205, 1378-1380 (1937).

1924 (1)

P. Gaubert, "Sur la polarisation circulaire de la lumière réfléchie par les Insectes," Compt. Rend. 179, 1148-1150 (1924).

1911 (1)

A. A. Michelson, "On metallic colouring in birds and insects," Philos. Mag. 21, 554-567 (1911).

Azzam, R. M. A.

R. M. A. Azzam, "Photopolarimetric measurement of the Mueller matrix by Fourier analysis of a single detected signal," Opt. Lett. 2, 148-150 (1978).

A. De and R. M. A. Azzam, "Optimal coated silicon membrane beam splitters for the division-of-amplitude photopolarimeter (DOAP)," presented at the Optical Society of America Annual Meeting, Orlando, Fla., 2 October 2002.

Caveney, S.

S. Caveney, "Cuticle reflectivity and optical activity in scarab beetles: the role of uric acid," Proc. R. Soc. London , Ser. B 178, 205-225 (1971).

A. C. Neville and S. Caveney, "Scarabaeid beetle exocuticle as an optical analogue of cholesteric liquid crystals," Biol. Rev. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 44, 531-562 (1969).

Chenault, D. B.

D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, and M. Owens, "Spectropolarimetric reflectometer," U.S. patent 6.618, 145 (9 September 2003).

D. H. Goldstein and D. B. Chenault, "Spectropolarimetric reflectometer," Opt. Eng. 41, 1013-1020 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Chenault, J. L. Pezzaniti, and R. A. Chipman, "Mueller matrix algorithms," in Polarization Analysis and Measurement, D. H. Goldstein and R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE 1746, 231-246 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chipman, R. A.

D. B. Chenault, J. L. Pezzaniti, and R. A. Chipman, "Mueller matrix algorithms," in Polarization Analysis and Measurement, D. H. Goldstein and R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE 1746, 231-246 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Goldstein and R. A. Chipman, "An error analysis of a Mueller matrix polarimeter," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 693-700 (1990).

De, A.

A. De and R. M. A. Azzam, "Optimal coated silicon membrane beam splitters for the division-of-amplitude photopolarimeter (DOAP)," presented at the Optical Society of America Annual Meeting, Orlando, Fla., 2 October 2002.

Faraggi, N.

J. P. Mathieu and N. Faraggi, "Étude de la lumière polarisée circulairements réfléchie par certains coléoptères," Compt. Rend. 205, 1378-1380 (1937).

Gaubert, P.

P. Gaubert, "Sur la polarisation circulaire de la lumière réfléchie par les Insectes," Compt. Rend. 179, 1148-1150 (1924).

Goldstein, D. H.

D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, and M. Owens, "Spectropolarimetric reflectometer," U.S. patent 6.618, 145 (9 September 2003).

D. H. Goldstein and D. B. Chenault, "Spectropolarimetric reflectometer," Opt. Eng. 41, 1013-1020 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Goldstein, "Mueller matrix dual-rotating retarder polarimeter," Appl. Opt. 31, 6676-6683 (1992).

D. H. Goldstein and R. A. Chipman, "An error analysis of a Mueller matrix polarimeter," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 693-700 (1990).

Horváth, G.

G. Horváth and D. Varjú, Polarized Light in Animal Vision (Springer, 2004).

Kattawar, G. W.

G. W. Kattawar, "A search for circular polarization in nature," Opt. Photonics News , 5, 42-43 (1994).

Können, G. P.

G. P. Können, Polarized Light in Nature (Cambridge U. Press, 1985).

Mathieu, J. P.

J. P. Mathieu and N. Faraggi, "Étude de la lumière polarisée circulairements réfléchie par certains coléoptères," Compt. Rend. 205, 1378-1380 (1937).

Michelson, A. A.

A. A. Michelson, "On metallic colouring in birds and insects," Philos. Mag. 21, 554-567 (1911).

Neville, A. C.

A. C. Neville and S. Caveney, "Scarabaeid beetle exocuticle as an optical analogue of cholesteric liquid crystals," Biol. Rev. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 44, 531-562 (1969).

Owens, M.

D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, and M. Owens, "Spectropolarimetric reflectometer," U.S. patent 6.618, 145 (9 September 2003).

Pezzaniti, J. L.

D. B. Chenault, J. L. Pezzaniti, and R. A. Chipman, "Mueller matrix algorithms," in Polarization Analysis and Measurement, D. H. Goldstein and R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE 1746, 231-246 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, C.

C. Robinson, "The cholesteric phase in polypeptide solutions and biological structures," Mol. Cryst. 1, 467-494 (1966).

Srinivasarao, M.

M. Srinivasarao, "Nano-optics in the biological world: Beetles, butterflies, birds, and moths," Chem. Rev. 99, 1935-1961 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Varjú, D.

G. Horváth and D. Varjú, Polarized Light in Animal Vision (Springer, 2004).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biol. Rev. Cambridge Philos. Soc. (1)

A. C. Neville and S. Caveney, "Scarabaeid beetle exocuticle as an optical analogue of cholesteric liquid crystals," Biol. Rev. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 44, 531-562 (1969).

Chem. Rev. (1)

M. Srinivasarao, "Nano-optics in the biological world: Beetles, butterflies, birds, and moths," Chem. Rev. 99, 1935-1961 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Compt. Rend. (2)

P. Gaubert, "Sur la polarisation circulaire de la lumière réfléchie par les Insectes," Compt. Rend. 179, 1148-1150 (1924).

J. P. Mathieu and N. Faraggi, "Étude de la lumière polarisée circulairements réfléchie par certains coléoptères," Compt. Rend. 205, 1378-1380 (1937).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Mol. Cryst. (1)

C. Robinson, "The cholesteric phase in polypeptide solutions and biological structures," Mol. Cryst. 1, 467-494 (1966).

Opt. Eng. (1)

D. H. Goldstein and D. B. Chenault, "Spectropolarimetric reflectometer," Opt. Eng. 41, 1013-1020 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Photonics News (1)

G. W. Kattawar, "A search for circular polarization in nature," Opt. Photonics News , 5, 42-43 (1994).

Philos. Mag. (1)

A. A. Michelson, "On metallic colouring in birds and insects," Philos. Mag. 21, 554-567 (1911).

Proc. R. Soc. London (1)

S. Caveney, "Cuticle reflectivity and optical activity in scarab beetles: the role of uric acid," Proc. R. Soc. London , Ser. B 178, 205-225 (1971).

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. B. Chenault, J. L. Pezzaniti, and R. A. Chipman, "Mueller matrix algorithms," in Polarization Analysis and Measurement, D. H. Goldstein and R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE 1746, 231-246 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

A. De and R. M. A. Azzam, "Optimal coated silicon membrane beam splitters for the division-of-amplitude photopolarimeter (DOAP)," presented at the Optical Society of America Annual Meeting, Orlando, Fla., 2 October 2002.

D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, and M. Owens, "Spectropolarimetric reflectometer," U.S. patent 6.618, 145 (9 September 2003).

G. P. Können, Polarized Light in Nature (Cambridge U. Press, 1985).

G. Horváth and D. Varjú, Polarized Light in Animal Vision (Springer, 2004).

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