Abstract

During the passage of a cold front in March 2002, bio-optical properties examined in coastal waters impacted by the Mississippi River indicated that westward advective flows and increasing river discharge containing high concentrations of nonalgal particles contributed significantly to surface optical variability. A comparison of seasonal data from three cruises indicated spectral models of absorption and scattering to be generally consistent with other coastal environments, while their parameterization in terms of chlorophyll (Chl) a concentration showed seasonal variability. The exponential slope of the colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) averaged 0.0161±0.00054nm1 and nonalgal absorption averaged 0.011 nm−1 with deviations from general trends observed due to anomalous water properties. Although the phytoplankton specific absorption coefficients varied over a wide range [0.02 to 0.1m 2(mg   Chl)1 at 443  nm] being higher in offshore surface waters, values of phytoplankton absorption spectra at the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) wave bands were highly correlated to modeled values. Particulate scattering characteristics were similar to observations for other coastal waters, while backscattering ratios were on average lower in phytoplankton-dominated surface waters (0 .011±0 .003) and higher in low Chl near-bottom waters (0.0191±0.0045). Average percent differences in remote sensing reflectance Rrs derived from modeled and in-water radiometric measurements were highest in the blue wave bands (52%) and at locations with more stratified water columns. SeaWiFS estimates of Chl and CDOM absorption derived using regional empirical algorithms were highly correlated to in situ data.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005

2004

R. E. Green and H. M. Sosik, "Analysis of apparent optical properties and ocean color models using measurements of seawater constituents in New England continental shelf surface waters," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Darecki and D. Stramski, "An evaluation of MODIS and SeaWiFS bio-optical algorithms in the Baltic Sea," Remote Sens. Environ. 89, 326-350 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, "Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution," J. Geophys. Res. , C: Oceans Atmos. 109, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. R. Morrison, "In situ determination of the quantum yield of phytoplankton chlorophyll a fluorescence: a simple algorithm, observations, and a model," Limnol. Oceanogr. 46, 618-631 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Hamre, O. Frette, S. R. Erga, J. J. Stamnes, and K. Stamnes, "Parameterization and analysis of the optical absorption and scattering coefficients in a western Norwegian fjord: a case II water study," Appl. Opt. 42, 883-892 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. D'Sa and R. L. Miller, "Bio-optical properties in waters influenced by the Mississippi River during low flow conditions," Remote Sens. Environ. 84, 538-549 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolenski, and N. Hoepffner, "Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, C. D. Mobley, E. Boss, and W. S. Pegau, "Toward closure of upwelling radiance in coastal waters," Appl. Opt. 42, 1574-1582 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Green, H. M. Sosik, and R. J. Olson, "Contributions of phytoplankton and other particles to inherent optical properties in New England continental shelf waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 2377-2391 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Amone, "Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters," Appl. Opt. 41, 5755-5772 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, and A. R. Peterson, "Optimization of a semianalytical ocean color model for global-scale applications," Appl. Opt. 41, 2705-2714 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. D'Sa, C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, and K. L. Carder, "Estimation of colored dissolved organic matter and salinity fields in case 2 waters using SeaWiFS: examples from Florida Bay and Florida Shelf," Earth Planet. Sci. 111, 197-207 (2002).

R. L. Miller, M. Belz, C. E. Del Castillo, and R. Trzaska, "Determining CDOM absorption spectra in diverse aquatic environments using a multiple pathlength, liquid core waveguide system," Cont. Shelf Res. 22, 1301-1310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

N. N. Rabalais, R. E. Turner, and W. J. Wiseman, "Hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico," J. Environ. Qual. 30, 320-329 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and II waters," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14129-14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Reynolds, D. Stramski, and B. G. Mitchell, "A chlorophyll-dependent semianalytical reflectance model derived from field measurements of absorption and backscattering coefficients within the Southern Ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7125-7138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, "Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163-7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel and A. Morel, "Non-isotropy of the upward-radiance field in typical coastal (case 2) waters," Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 275-295 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

1999

E. J. D'Sa, R. G. Steward, A. Vodacek, N. V. Blough, and D. Phinney, "Optical absorption of seawater colored dissolved organic matter determined using a liquid capillary waveguide," Limnol. Oceanogr. 44, 1142-1148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Lohrenz, G. L. Fahnenstiel, D. G. Redalje, G. A. Lang, X. Chen, M. J. Dagg, T. E. Whitledge, and Q. Dortch, "Nutrients, irradiance, and mixing as factors regulating primary production in coastal waters impacted by the Mississippi River," Cont. Shelf Res. 19, 1113-1141 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, Z. P. Lee, and S. K. Hawes, "Semianalytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403-5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, and P. M. Martinolich, "Spectral dependence of the scattering coefficient in case 1 and case 2 waters," Appl. Opt. 38, 2377-2383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, and J. S. Patch, "Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. I. An analytical model," Appl. Opt. 37, 6329-6338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, "Ocean color algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937-24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

S. A. Garver and D. A. Siegel, "Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation. I. Time series from the Sargasso Sea," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607-18625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Pope and E. S. Fry, "Absorption spectrum (380-700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements," Appl. Opt. 36, 8710-8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, D. Gray, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Absorption and attenuation of visible and near-infrared light in water: dependence on temperature and salinity," Appl. Opt. 36, 6035-6046 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. L. Hitchcock, W. J. Wiseman, Jr., W. C. Boicourt, A. J. Mariano, N. Walker, T. A. Nelsen, and E. Ryan, "Property fields in an effluent plume of the Mississippi River," J. Mar. Sys. 12, 109-126 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

N. D. Walker, "Satellite assessment of Mississippi River plume variability: causes and predictability," Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 21-35 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and B. Gentili, "Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. III. Implication of bidirectionality for the remote-sensing problem," Appl. Opt. 35, 4850-4862 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, "Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13321-13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. D. Sosik and B. G. Mitchell, "Light absorption by phytoplankton, photosynthetic pigments and detritus in the California Current System," Deep-Sea Res. Part II 44, 1717-1748 (1995).

1994

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. Moore, "The scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters," in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE 2258, 44-55 (1994).

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, "Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm," Appl. Opt. 33, 443-452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Hochman, F. E. Muller-Karger, and J. J. Walsh, "Interpretation of the coastal zone color scanner signature of the Orinoco River plume," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7443-7455 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

C. C. Moeller, O. K. Huh, H. H. Roberts, L. E. Gumley, and W. P. Menzel, "Response of Louisiana Coastal Environments to a cold front passage," J. Coastal Res. 9, 434-447 (1993).

A. Morel and B. Gentili, "Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. II. Bidirectional aspects," Appl. Opt. 32, 6864-6879 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Babin, J.-C. Therriault, L. Legendre, and A. Condal, "Variations in the specific absorption coefficient for natural phytoplankton assemblages: impact on estimates of primary production," Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 15-177 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

S. W. Wright, S. W. Jeffrey, R. F. C. Mantoura, C. A. Llewellyn, T. Bjornland, D. Repeta, and N. Welschmeyer, "Improved HPLC method for the analysis of chlorophylls and carotenoids from marine phytoplankton," Mar. Ecol.: Prog. Ser. 77, 183-196 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, and P. B. Ortner, "Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll," Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68-81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, and K. L. Carder, "Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510-1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Sathyendranath, L. Prieur, and A. Morel, "A three-component model of ocean color and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters," Int. J. Remote Sens. 10, 1373-1394 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

B. G. Mitchell and D. A. Kiefer, "Variability in the pigment specific fluorescence and absorption spectra in the northeastern Pacific Ocean," Deep Sea Res. Part A 35, 665-689 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909-10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. R. McClain, J. A. Yoder, L. P. Atkinson, J. O. Blanton, T. N. Lee, J. J. Singer, and F. Muller-Karger, "Variability of surface pigment concentrations in the South Atlantic Bight," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10675-10697 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986

J. D. Cochrane and F. J. Kelly, Jr., "Low-frequency circulation on the Texas-Louisiana continental shelf," J. Geophys. Res. 91, 10645-10659 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Dinnel and W. J. Wiseman, Jr., "Fresh water on the Louisiana and Texas shelf," Cont. Shelf Res. 6, 765-784 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

M. Kishino, M. Takahasi, N. Okami, and S. Ichimura, "Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea," Bull. Mar. Sci. 37, 634-642 (1985).

1984

O. K. Huh, L. J. Rouse, and N. D. Walker, "Cold air outbreaks over the northwest Florida Continental shelf: heat flux processes and hydrographic changes," J. Geophys. Res. 89, 717-726 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

J. D. Milliman and R. H. Meade, "World-wide delivery of river sediment to the ocean. J. Geol. 91, 1-21 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1977

A. Morel and L. Prieur, "Analysis of variations in ocean color," Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709-722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1974

W. D. Nowlin and C. A. Parker, "Effects of a cold-air outbreak on shelf waters of the Gulf of Mexico," J. Physical Oceanogr. 4, 467-486 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Amone, R. A.

Arnone, R. A.

Atkinson, L. P.

C. R. McClain, J. A. Yoder, L. P. Atkinson, J. O. Blanton, T. N. Lee, J. J. Singer, and F. Muller-Karger, "Variability of surface pigment concentrations in the South Atlantic Bight," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10675-10697 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Babin, M.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolenski, and N. Hoepffner, "Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, "Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13321-13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, J.-C. Therriault, L. Legendre, and A. Condal, "Variations in the specific absorption coefficient for natural phytoplankton assemblages: impact on estimates of primary production," Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 15-177 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909-10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Baratange, F.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, "Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution," J. Geophys. Res. , C: Oceans Atmos. 109, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, A. H.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and II waters," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14129-14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Belz, M.

R. L. Miller, M. Belz, C. E. Del Castillo, and R. Trzaska, "Determining CDOM absorption spectra in diverse aquatic environments using a multiple pathlength, liquid core waveguide system," Cont. Shelf Res. 22, 1301-1310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bjornland, T.

S. W. Wright, S. W. Jeffrey, R. F. C. Mantoura, C. A. Llewellyn, T. Bjornland, D. Repeta, and N. Welschmeyer, "Improved HPLC method for the analysis of chlorophylls and carotenoids from marine phytoplankton," Mar. Ecol.: Prog. Ser. 77, 183-196 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Blanton, J. O.

C. R. McClain, J. A. Yoder, L. P. Atkinson, J. O. Blanton, T. N. Lee, J. J. Singer, and F. Muller-Karger, "Variability of surface pigment concentrations in the South Atlantic Bight," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10675-10697 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Blough, N. V.

E. J. D'Sa, R. G. Steward, A. Vodacek, N. V. Blough, and D. Phinney, "Optical absorption of seawater colored dissolved organic matter determined using a liquid capillary waveguide," Limnol. Oceanogr. 44, 1142-1148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boicourt, W. C.

G. L. Hitchcock, W. J. Wiseman, Jr., W. C. Boicourt, A. J. Mariano, N. Walker, T. A. Nelsen, and E. Ryan, "Property fields in an effluent plume of the Mississippi River," J. Mar. Sys. 12, 109-126 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boss, E.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, "Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution," J. Geophys. Res. , C: Oceans Atmos. 109, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, C. D. Mobley, E. Boss, and W. S. Pegau, "Toward closure of upwelling radiance in coastal waters," Appl. Opt. 42, 1574-1582 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and II waters," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14129-14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bricaud, A.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolenski, and N. Hoepffner, "Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, "Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13321-13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909-10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909-10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K. L.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Amone, "Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters," Appl. Opt. 41, 5755-5772 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. D'Sa, C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, and K. L. Carder, "Estimation of colored dissolved organic matter and salinity fields in case 2 waters using SeaWiFS: examples from Florida Bay and Florida Shelf," Earth Planet. Sci. 111, 197-207 (2002).

K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, Z. P. Lee, and S. K. Hawes, "Semianalytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403-5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, "Ocean color algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937-24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, and J. S. Patch, "Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. I. An analytical model," Appl. Opt. 37, 6329-6338 (1998).
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K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, and P. B. Ortner, "Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll," Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68-81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, and K. L. Carder, "Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510-1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chang, G. C.

Chen, R. F.

K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, Z. P. Lee, and S. K. Hawes, "Semianalytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403-5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

S. E. Lohrenz, G. L. Fahnenstiel, D. G. Redalje, G. A. Lang, X. Chen, M. J. Dagg, T. E. Whitledge, and Q. Dortch, "Nutrients, irradiance, and mixing as factors regulating primary production in coastal waters impacted by the Mississippi River," Cont. Shelf Res. 19, 1113-1141 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909-10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Claustre, H.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolenski, and N. Hoepffner, "Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, "Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13321-13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cochrane, J. D.

J. D. Cochrane and F. J. Kelly, Jr., "Low-frequency circulation on the Texas-Louisiana continental shelf," J. Geophys. Res. 91, 10645-10659 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Condal, A.

M. Babin, J.-C. Therriault, L. Legendre, and A. Condal, "Variations in the specific absorption coefficient for natural phytoplankton assemblages: impact on estimates of primary production," Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 15-177 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dagg, M. J.

S. E. Lohrenz, G. L. Fahnenstiel, D. G. Redalje, G. A. Lang, X. Chen, M. J. Dagg, T. E. Whitledge, and Q. Dortch, "Nutrients, irradiance, and mixing as factors regulating primary production in coastal waters impacted by the Mississippi River," Cont. Shelf Res. 19, 1113-1141 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Darecki, M.

M. Darecki and D. Stramski, "An evaluation of MODIS and SeaWiFS bio-optical algorithms in the Baltic Sea," Remote Sens. Environ. 89, 326-350 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Del Castillo, C. E.

R. L. Miller, M. Belz, C. E. Del Castillo, and R. Trzaska, "Determining CDOM absorption spectra in diverse aquatic environments using a multiple pathlength, liquid core waveguide system," Cont. Shelf Res. 22, 1301-1310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dickey, T. D.

Dinnel, S. P.

S. P. Dinnel and W. J. Wiseman, Jr., "Fresh water on the Louisiana and Texas shelf," Cont. Shelf Res. 6, 765-784 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Donaghay, P. L.

Dortch, Q.

S. E. Lohrenz, G. L. Fahnenstiel, D. G. Redalje, G. A. Lang, X. Chen, M. J. Dagg, T. E. Whitledge, and Q. Dortch, "Nutrients, irradiance, and mixing as factors regulating primary production in coastal waters impacted by the Mississippi River," Cont. Shelf Res. 19, 1113-1141 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D'Sa, E. J.

E. J. D'Sa and R. L. Miller, "Bio-optical properties in waters influenced by the Mississippi River during low flow conditions," Remote Sens. Environ. 84, 538-549 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. J. D'Sa, C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, and K. L. Carder, "Estimation of colored dissolved organic matter and salinity fields in case 2 waters using SeaWiFS: examples from Florida Bay and Florida Shelf," Earth Planet. Sci. 111, 197-207 (2002).

E. J. D'Sa, R. G. Steward, A. Vodacek, N. V. Blough, and D. Phinney, "Optical absorption of seawater colored dissolved organic matter determined using a liquid capillary waveguide," Limnol. Oceanogr. 44, 1142-1148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. J. D'Sa and R. L. Miller, "Bio-optical properties of coastal waters," in Remote Sensing of Aquatic Coastal Environments: Technologies, Techniques and Application, R.L.Miller, C.Del Castillo, and B.McKee, eds. (Springer-Verleg, 2005), Chap. 6.
[CrossRef]

Erga, S. R.

Evans, R. H.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909-10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fahnenstiel, G. L.

S. E. Lohrenz, G. L. Fahnenstiel, D. G. Redalje, G. A. Lang, X. Chen, M. J. Dagg, T. E. Whitledge, and Q. Dortch, "Nutrients, irradiance, and mixing as factors regulating primary production in coastal waters impacted by the Mississippi River," Cont. Shelf Res. 19, 1113-1141 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fargion, G. S.

G. S. Fargion and J. L. Mueller, Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, NASA Technical Memo 2000-209966 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, 2000).

Ferrari, G. M.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolenski, and N. Hoepffner, "Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, S. A.

Frette, O.

Fry, E. S.

Garver, S. A.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, "Ocean color algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937-24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver and D. A. Siegel, "Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation. I. Time series from the Sargasso Sea," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607-18625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gentili, B.

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, "Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm," Appl. Opt. 33, 443-452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909-10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gould, R. W.

Gray, D.

Green, R. E.

R. E. Green and H. M. Sosik, "Analysis of apparent optical properties and ocean color models using measurements of seawater constituents in New England continental shelf surface waters," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Green, H. M. Sosik, and R. J. Olson, "Contributions of phytoplankton and other particles to inherent optical properties in New England continental shelf waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 2377-2391 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gumley, L. E.

C. C. Moeller, O. K. Huh, H. H. Roberts, L. E. Gumley, and W. P. Menzel, "Response of Louisiana Coastal Environments to a cold front passage," J. Coastal Res. 9, 434-447 (1993).

Hamre, B.

Harvey, G. R.

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, and P. B. Ortner, "Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll," Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68-81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hawes, S. K.

K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, Z. P. Lee, and S. K. Hawes, "Semianalytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403-5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hitchcock, G. L.

G. L. Hitchcock, W. J. Wiseman, Jr., W. C. Boicourt, A. J. Mariano, N. Walker, T. A. Nelsen, and E. Ryan, "Property fields in an effluent plume of the Mississippi River," J. Mar. Sys. 12, 109-126 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hochman, H. T.

H. T. Hochman, F. E. Muller-Karger, and J. J. Walsh, "Interpretation of the coastal zone color scanner signature of the Orinoco River plume," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7443-7455 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hoepffner, N.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolenski, and N. Hoepffner, "Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hu, C.

E. J. D'Sa, C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, and K. L. Carder, "Estimation of colored dissolved organic matter and salinity fields in case 2 waters using SeaWiFS: examples from Florida Bay and Florida Shelf," Earth Planet. Sci. 111, 197-207 (2002).

Huh, O. K.

C. C. Moeller, O. K. Huh, H. H. Roberts, L. E. Gumley, and W. P. Menzel, "Response of Louisiana Coastal Environments to a cold front passage," J. Coastal Res. 9, 434-447 (1993).

O. K. Huh, L. J. Rouse, and N. D. Walker, "Cold air outbreaks over the northwest Florida Continental shelf: heat flux processes and hydrographic changes," J. Geophys. Res. 89, 717-726 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ichimura, S.

M. Kishino, M. Takahasi, N. Okami, and S. Ichimura, "Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea," Bull. Mar. Sci. 37, 634-642 (1985).

Jeffrey, S. W.

S. W. Wright, S. W. Jeffrey, R. F. C. Mantoura, C. A. Llewellyn, T. Bjornland, D. Repeta, and N. Welschmeyer, "Improved HPLC method for the analysis of chlorophylls and carotenoids from marine phytoplankton," Mar. Ecol.: Prog. Ser. 77, 183-196 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kahru, M.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, "Ocean color algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937-24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, F. J.

J. D. Cochrane and F. J. Kelly, Jr., "Low-frequency circulation on the Texas-Louisiana continental shelf," J. Geophys. Res. 91, 10645-10659 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kiefer, D. A.

B. G. Mitchell and D. A. Kiefer, "Variability in the pigment specific fluorescence and absorption spectra in the northeastern Pacific Ocean," Deep Sea Res. Part A 35, 665-689 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kishino, M.

M. Kishino, M. Takahasi, N. Okami, and S. Ichimura, "Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea," Bull. Mar. Sci. 37, 634-642 (1985).

Kitchen, J. C.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. Moore, "The scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters," in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE 2258, 44-55 (1994).

Korotaev, G.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, "Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution," J. Geophys. Res. , C: Oceans Atmos. 109, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lalli, C. M.

T. R. Parsons, Y. Maita, and C. M. Lalli, A manual of Chemical and Biological Methods for Seawater Analysis (Pergamon, 1984).

Lang, G. A.

S. E. Lohrenz, G. L. Fahnenstiel, D. G. Redalje, G. A. Lang, X. Chen, M. J. Dagg, T. E. Whitledge, and Q. Dortch, "Nutrients, irradiance, and mixing as factors regulating primary production in coastal waters impacted by the Mississippi River," Cont. Shelf Res. 19, 1113-1141 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, "Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution," J. Geophys. Res. , C: Oceans Atmos. 109, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T. N.

C. R. McClain, J. A. Yoder, L. P. Atkinson, J. O. Blanton, T. N. Lee, J. J. Singer, and F. Muller-Karger, "Variability of surface pigment concentrations in the South Atlantic Bight," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10675-10697 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Z. P.

Legendre, L.

M. Babin, J.-C. Therriault, L. Legendre, and A. Condal, "Variations in the specific absorption coefficient for natural phytoplankton assemblages: impact on estimates of primary production," Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 15-177 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Llewellyn, C. A.

S. W. Wright, S. W. Jeffrey, R. F. C. Mantoura, C. A. Llewellyn, T. Bjornland, D. Repeta, and N. Welschmeyer, "Improved HPLC method for the analysis of chlorophylls and carotenoids from marine phytoplankton," Mar. Ecol.: Prog. Ser. 77, 183-196 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lohrenz, S. E.

S. E. Lohrenz, G. L. Fahnenstiel, D. G. Redalje, G. A. Lang, X. Chen, M. J. Dagg, T. E. Whitledge, and Q. Dortch, "Nutrients, irradiance, and mixing as factors regulating primary production in coastal waters impacted by the Mississippi River," Cont. Shelf Res. 19, 1113-1141 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Loisel, H.

H. Loisel and A. Morel, "Non-isotropy of the upward-radiance field in typical coastal (case 2) waters," Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 275-295 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Macdonald, J. B.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and II waters," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14129-14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maita, Y.

T. R. Parsons, Y. Maita, and C. M. Lalli, A manual of Chemical and Biological Methods for Seawater Analysis (Pergamon, 1984).

Mantoura, R. F. C.

S. W. Wright, S. W. Jeffrey, R. F. C. Mantoura, C. A. Llewellyn, T. Bjornland, D. Repeta, and N. Welschmeyer, "Improved HPLC method for the analysis of chlorophylls and carotenoids from marine phytoplankton," Mar. Ecol.: Prog. Ser. 77, 183-196 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mariano, A. J.

G. L. Hitchcock, W. J. Wiseman, Jr., W. C. Boicourt, A. J. Mariano, N. Walker, T. A. Nelsen, and E. Ryan, "Property fields in an effluent plume of the Mississippi River," J. Mar. Sys. 12, 109-126 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Maritorena, S.

Martinolich, P. M.

McClain, C.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, "Ocean color algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937-24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C. R.

C. R. McClain, J. A. Yoder, L. P. Atkinson, J. O. Blanton, T. N. Lee, J. J. Singer, and F. Muller-Karger, "Variability of surface pigment concentrations in the South Atlantic Bight," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10675-10697 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Meade, R. H.

J. D. Milliman and R. H. Meade, "World-wide delivery of river sediment to the ocean. J. Geol. 91, 1-21 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Menzel, W. P.

C. C. Moeller, O. K. Huh, H. H. Roberts, L. E. Gumley, and W. P. Menzel, "Response of Louisiana Coastal Environments to a cold front passage," J. Coastal Res. 9, 434-447 (1993).

Menzies, D. W.

Miller, R. L.

E. J. D'Sa and R. L. Miller, "Bio-optical properties in waters influenced by the Mississippi River during low flow conditions," Remote Sens. Environ. 84, 538-549 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Miller, M. Belz, C. E. Del Castillo, and R. Trzaska, "Determining CDOM absorption spectra in diverse aquatic environments using a multiple pathlength, liquid core waveguide system," Cont. Shelf Res. 22, 1301-1310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. J. D'Sa and R. L. Miller, "Bio-optical properties of coastal waters," in Remote Sensing of Aquatic Coastal Environments: Technologies, Techniques and Application, R.L.Miller, C.Del Castillo, and B.McKee, eds. (Springer-Verleg, 2005), Chap. 6.
[CrossRef]

Milliman, J. D.

J. D. Milliman and R. H. Meade, "World-wide delivery of river sediment to the ocean. J. Geol. 91, 1-21 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, B. G.

R. A. Reynolds, D. Stramski, and B. G. Mitchell, "A chlorophyll-dependent semianalytical reflectance model derived from field measurements of absorption and backscattering coefficients within the Southern Ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7125-7138 (2001).
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Moore, C.

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H. T. Hochman, F. E. Muller-Karger, and J. J. Walsh, "Interpretation of the coastal zone color scanner signature of the Orinoco River plume," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7443-7455 (1994).
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G. L. Hitchcock, W. J. Wiseman, Jr., W. C. Boicourt, A. J. Mariano, N. Walker, T. A. Nelsen, and E. Ryan, "Property fields in an effluent plume of the Mississippi River," J. Mar. Sys. 12, 109-126 (1997).
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J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, "Ocean color algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937-24953 (1998).
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E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, "Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution," J. Geophys. Res. , C: Oceans Atmos. 109, doi: (2004).
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W. S. Pegau, D. Gray, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Absorption and attenuation of visible and near-infrared light in water: dependence on temperature and salinity," Appl. Opt. 36, 6035-6046 (1997).
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Prieur, L.

S. Sathyendranath, L. Prieur, and A. Morel, "A three-component model of ocean color and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters," Int. J. Remote Sens. 10, 1373-1394 (1989).
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R. A. Reynolds, D. Stramski, and B. G. Mitchell, "A chlorophyll-dependent semianalytical reflectance model derived from field measurements of absorption and backscattering coefficients within the Southern Ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7125-7138 (2001).
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C. C. Moeller, O. K. Huh, H. H. Roberts, L. E. Gumley, and W. P. Menzel, "Response of Louisiana Coastal Environments to a cold front passage," J. Coastal Res. 9, 434-447 (1993).

Robinson, W.

Roesler, C. S.

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, and K. L. Carder, "Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510-1523 (1989).
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G. L. Hitchcock, W. J. Wiseman, Jr., W. C. Boicourt, A. J. Mariano, N. Walker, T. A. Nelsen, and E. Ryan, "Property fields in an effluent plume of the Mississippi River," J. Mar. Sys. 12, 109-126 (1997).
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S. Sathyendranath, L. Prieur, and A. Morel, "A three-component model of ocean color and its application to remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments in coastal waters," Int. J. Remote Sens. 10, 1373-1394 (1989).
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E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, "Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution," J. Geophys. Res. , C: Oceans Atmos. 109, doi: (2004).
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Singer, J. J.

C. R. McClain, J. A. Yoder, L. P. Atkinson, J. O. Blanton, T. N. Lee, J. J. Singer, and F. Muller-Karger, "Variability of surface pigment concentrations in the South Atlantic Bight," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10675-10697 (1988).
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D. A. Toole, D. A. Siegel, D. W. Menzies, M. J. Neumann, and R. C. Smith, "Remote-sensing reflectance determinations in the coastal ocean environment: impact of instrumental characteristics and environmental variability," Appl. Opt. 39, 456-469 (2000).
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H. D. Sosik and B. G. Mitchell, "Light absorption by phytoplankton, photosynthetic pigments and detritus in the California Current System," Deep-Sea Res. Part II 44, 1717-1748 (1995).

Sosik, H. M.

R. E. Green and H. M. Sosik, "Analysis of apparent optical properties and ocean color models using measurements of seawater constituents in New England continental shelf surface waters," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
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R. E. Green, H. M. Sosik, and R. J. Olson, "Contributions of phytoplankton and other particles to inherent optical properties in New England continental shelf waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 2377-2391 (2003).
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Stamnes, K.

Steward, R. G.

E. J. D'Sa, R. G. Steward, A. Vodacek, N. V. Blough, and D. Phinney, "Optical absorption of seawater colored dissolved organic matter determined using a liquid capillary waveguide," Limnol. Oceanogr. 44, 1142-1148 (1999).
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Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, and J. S. Patch, "Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. I. An analytical model," Appl. Opt. 37, 6329-6338 (1998).
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M. Darecki and D. Stramski, "An evaluation of MODIS and SeaWiFS bio-optical algorithms in the Baltic Sea," Remote Sens. Environ. 89, 326-350 (2004).
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Trzaska, R.

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N. N. Rabalais, R. E. Turner, and W. J. Wiseman, "Hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico," J. Environ. Qual. 30, 320-329 (2001).
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E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, "Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution," J. Geophys. Res. , C: Oceans Atmos. 109, doi: (2004).
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J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, P. L. Donaghay, and S. A. Freeman, "Use of optical scattering to discriminate particle types in coastal waters," Appl. Opt. 44, 1667-1680 (2005).
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M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and II waters," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14129-14142 (2001).
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E. J. D'Sa, R. G. Steward, A. Vodacek, N. V. Blough, and D. Phinney, "Optical absorption of seawater colored dissolved organic matter determined using a liquid capillary waveguide," Limnol. Oceanogr. 44, 1142-1148 (1999).
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G. L. Hitchcock, W. J. Wiseman, Jr., W. C. Boicourt, A. J. Mariano, N. Walker, T. A. Nelsen, and E. Ryan, "Property fields in an effluent plume of the Mississippi River," J. Mar. Sys. 12, 109-126 (1997).
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Walsh, J. J.

H. T. Hochman, F. E. Muller-Karger, and J. J. Walsh, "Interpretation of the coastal zone color scanner signature of the Orinoco River plume," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7443-7455 (1994).
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Welschmeyer, N.

S. W. Wright, S. W. Jeffrey, R. F. C. Mantoura, C. A. Llewellyn, T. Bjornland, D. Repeta, and N. Welschmeyer, "Improved HPLC method for the analysis of chlorophylls and carotenoids from marine phytoplankton," Mar. Ecol.: Prog. Ser. 77, 183-196 (1991).
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S. E. Lohrenz, G. L. Fahnenstiel, D. G. Redalje, G. A. Lang, X. Chen, M. J. Dagg, T. E. Whitledge, and Q. Dortch, "Nutrients, irradiance, and mixing as factors regulating primary production in coastal waters impacted by the Mississippi River," Cont. Shelf Res. 19, 1113-1141 (1999).
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Wiseman, W. J.

N. N. Rabalais, R. E. Turner, and W. J. Wiseman, "Hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico," J. Environ. Qual. 30, 320-329 (2001).
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G. L. Hitchcock, W. J. Wiseman, Jr., W. C. Boicourt, A. J. Mariano, N. Walker, T. A. Nelsen, and E. Ryan, "Property fields in an effluent plume of the Mississippi River," J. Mar. Sys. 12, 109-126 (1997).
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C. R. McClain, J. A. Yoder, L. P. Atkinson, J. O. Blanton, T. N. Lee, J. J. Singer, and F. Muller-Karger, "Variability of surface pigment concentrations in the South Atlantic Bight," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10675-10697 (1988).
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Zaneveld, J. R. V.

W. S. Pegau, D. Gray, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Absorption and attenuation of visible and near-infrared light in water: dependence on temperature and salinity," Appl. Opt. 36, 6035-6046 (1997).
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J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. Moore, "The scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters," in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE 2258, 44-55 (1994).

J. R. V. Zaneveld, S. Pegau, and J. L. Mueller, "Volume scattering function and backscattering coefficients: instruments, characterization, field measurements, and data analysis protocols," in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, NASA Technical Memo 211621/Rev4-Vol. IV (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, 2003).

Zaneveld, R. V.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and II waters," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14129-14142 (2001).
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Appl. Opt.

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S. Maritorena, A. Morel, and B. Gentili, "Determination of the fluorescence quantum yield by oceanic phytoplankton in their natural habitat," Appl. Opt. 39, 6725-6737 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, D. Gray, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Absorption and attenuation of visible and near-infrared light in water: dependence on temperature and salinity," Appl. Opt. 36, 6035-6046 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Toole, D. A. Siegel, D. W. Menzies, M. J. Neumann, and R. C. Smith, "Remote-sensing reflectance determinations in the coastal ocean environment: impact of instrumental characteristics and environmental variability," Appl. Opt. 39, 456-469 (2000).
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H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, "Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm," Appl. Opt. 33, 443-452 (1994).
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D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, and W. Robinson, "Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: the black pixel assumption," Appl. Opt. 39, 3582-3591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and B. Gentili, "Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. III. Implication of bidirectionality for the remote-sensing problem," Appl. Opt. 35, 4850-4862 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel and B. Gentili, "Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. II. Bidirectional aspects," Appl. Opt. 32, 6864-6879 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, C. D. Mobley, R. G. Steward, and J. S. Patch, "Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters. I. An analytical model," Appl. Opt. 37, 6329-6338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, and P. M. Martinolich, "Spectral dependence of the scattering coefficient in case 1 and case 2 waters," Appl. Opt. 38, 2377-2383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Pope and E. S. Fry, "Absorption spectrum (380-700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements," Appl. Opt. 36, 8710-8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, P. L. Donaghay, and S. A. Freeman, "Use of optical scattering to discriminate particle types in coastal waters," Appl. Opt. 44, 1667-1680 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, C. D. Mobley, E. Boss, and W. S. Pegau, "Toward closure of upwelling radiance in coastal waters," Appl. Opt. 42, 1574-1582 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bull. Mar. Sci.

M. Kishino, M. Takahasi, N. Okami, and S. Ichimura, "Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea," Bull. Mar. Sci. 37, 634-642 (1985).

Cont. Shelf Res.

S. P. Dinnel and W. J. Wiseman, Jr., "Fresh water on the Louisiana and Texas shelf," Cont. Shelf Res. 6, 765-784 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Cont. Shelf Res.

R. L. Miller, M. Belz, C. E. Del Castillo, and R. Trzaska, "Determining CDOM absorption spectra in diverse aquatic environments using a multiple pathlength, liquid core waveguide system," Cont. Shelf Res. 22, 1301-1310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Lohrenz, G. L. Fahnenstiel, D. G. Redalje, G. A. Lang, X. Chen, M. J. Dagg, T. E. Whitledge, and Q. Dortch, "Nutrients, irradiance, and mixing as factors regulating primary production in coastal waters impacted by the Mississippi River," Cont. Shelf Res. 19, 1113-1141 (1999).
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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Study area showing the locations of the 12 stations (plus signs) occupied from 17–26 March 2002 during a research cruise in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Also shown are the three passes of the MR delta including the SW Pass through which most of the river water is discharged. Atmospheric data for this study were acquired from the NOAA C-MAN station located at the tip of the SW Pass.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Atmospheric and MR water discharge conditions during the study period in March 2002. (a) Wind speed and direction and (b) pressure and air temperature recorded at the NOAA C-MAN station (BURL1) (Fig. 1) indicated the passage of a cold; front system around 22 March 2002. (c) MR water discharge recorded by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers monitoring station at Tarbert Landing, Mississippi.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Chl derived from SeaWiFS data for the study area on (a) 17 March (b) 19 March (c) 22 March, and (d) 24 March 2002. The pluses indicate the location of field observations. Clouds are masked to black.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross-shelf transect through stations 5, 6, 7, and 8 (offshore to nearshore) conducted over a one day period on (a) 18 March and (b) 24 March 2002 showing the temporal variability in SST, salinity, and Chl fluorescence (RFU) measured with a flow-through system onboard the R∕V Pelican.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Water column profiles of physical and bio-optical properties at station 6 obtained on (a), (c) 18 March and (b), (d) 24 March 2002. (a), (b) Comparison of vertical profiles of the density, Chl, and the ratio of particulate backscattering to scattering b bp : b p and (c), (d) absorption (particulate plus CDOM, and CDOM) and particulate scattering.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of vertical profiles of salinity (a), (f) and bio-optical properties such as Chl (b), (g), absorption (particulate plus CDOM) (c), (h), particulate scattering (d), (i), and the ratio of particulate backscattering to scattering b bp : b p ( e ) , (j) for stations 2, 4, 5, 10, and 12 obtained during periods before (top panel) and after (bottom panel) the frontal passage. An additional profile at station 12 obtained on 25 March is plotted to show representative daily variation in salinity and bio-optical properties.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Ratio of Chl:SPM as a function of the backscattering ratio b bp ( 532 ) : b p ( 532 ) for samples obtained at the surface, middepth, and bottom at the 12 stations before and after the frontal passage.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Results of CDOM absorption plotted as a function of salinity and the slopes of the log-linearized absorption spectra S CDOM for seasonal data obtained in April and October 2000, and March of 2002. (a) Salinity versus CDOM absorption a CDOM ( 412 ) ( m 1 ) for discrete samples (surface, mid- and bottom depths) obtained at the 12 stations during March 2002. Data are also plotted for measurements obtained in April and October 2000 for comparison. Solid line is the linear regression fit to all data points. (b) S CDOM ( nm 1 ) plotted as a function of a CDOM ( 412 ) ( m 1 ) for April and October 2000, and March 2002.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Spectral absorption properties of particulate and dissolved seawater constituents in surface samples. (a) Comparison of phytoplankton, CDOM, and nonalgal particle spectral absorption coefficients ( a ph , a CDOM , and a nap ) at station 6 on 18 and 24 March 2002 showing the large variability in absorption properties. Pure water absorption is plotted for comparison. (b) Measured versus modeled values of phytoplankton absorption at SeaWiFS wave bands, (c) phytoplankton specific absorption spectra a ph * ( λ ) , (d) logarthmic-linearized absorption spectra of nonalgal particles S nap ( nm 1 ) , (e) ratio of absorption by nonalgal particles to total particulates at 443   nm versus Chl, and (f) logarthmic-linearized absorption spectra of CDOM before and after the frontal passage.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Comparison of (a) phytoplankton, (b) nonalgal particles (at 443   nm ), (c) CDOM absorption (at 412   nm ), and (d) SPM as a function of Chl ( mg   m 3 ) for surface samples obtained in April and October 2000, and March 2002. Linear regressions (solid curve) were determined only for the March 2002 samples.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) Normalized particulate scattering spectra as a function of wavelength (top panel), (bottom panel) average value of the normalized particulate-scattering spectra of surface samples, and the average scattering spectra of Gould et al. (Ref. 49) (b) Particulate backscattering b bp versus particulate-scattering b p for surface waters at 532   nm , and (c) particulate-scattering b p ( 555 ) versus Chl   ( mg   m 3 ) for surface samples showing the regression line (solid) for March 2002. Also shown for comparison are the scatterplots for measurements obtained in April and October 2000. The dashed line shows the Morel model (Ref. 50) for case 1 waters determined at 550   nm .

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Remote sensing reflectance spectra R rs at SeaWiFS wave bands (412, 443, 490, 510, 532, 555, and 670   nm ) derived from in-water radiometric measurements (solid curve, solid circle), and IOP model-derived (dotted curve, triangle) using Eq. (2). Also shown for comparison are the R rs spectra determined from above-water measurements using the Geophysical and Environmental Research 1500 fiber-optic-based radiometer. Also plotted are the SeaWiFS derived R rs spectra using the standard atmospheric correction (Ref. 31) (SeaWiFS-Gordon, diamonds), and the iterative (Ref. 32) (S-GNIR, squares) algorithms for the nearshore stations 7, 8, and 10 obtained within 3 h of the satellite pass. The right panel shows the percent difference between the IOP model and in-water radiometric derived estimates of R rs.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Comparison between the ratios of the remote sensing reflectance R rs determined from measurements with above-water and in-water radiometers at the same locations in April 2000 and March 2002 for (a) R rs ( 490 ) / R rs ( 555 ) and (b) R rs ( 510 ) / R rs ( 555 ) . Results of (c) surface Chl   ( mg   m 3 ) plotted as a function of ratios of R rs at 490 and 555   nm wave bands [ R rs ( 490 ) / R rs ( 555 ) ] , and (d) surface CDOM absorption ( m 1 ) at 412   nm plotted as a function of the R rs ratio [ R rs ( 510 ) / R rs ( 555 ) ] for April and October 2000, and March 2002. Linear regression fit (solid line) was determined using all data points.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Comparison between in situ and SeaWiFS-derived Chl and CDOM absorption at 412   nm for data acquired in April and October 2000, and March 2002. (a) Chl retrieved from ratios of SeaWiFS-derived R rs using Eq. (11), and (b) CDOM absorption (at 412   nm ) retrieved from ratios of SeaWiFS-derived R rs using Eq. (12). Solid line is the linear regression fit to all data points.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Surface (0 to 3 m) Physical and Bio-Optical Properties for Stations 8, 7, 6, and 5 (Midtransect) and Stations 4 and 12 (Offshore) for the Periods 17–21 and 23–26 (Brackets) March 2002 Corresponding to the Prefrontal and Postfrontal Passage a

Equations (12)

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R rs = L u ( λ , 0 + ) / E d ( λ , 0 + ) .
R rs = 0.54 ( f / Q ) × b b / ( a + b b ) ,
a ( λ ) = a w ( λ ) + a ph ( λ ) + a nap ( λ ) + a CDOM ( λ ) .
a ph ( λ ) = a ph ( 440 ) a ph * ( λ ) ,
a ph ( 440 ) = 0.0403 [ Chl ] 0.668 .
a ph ( λ ) = { a 0 ( λ ) + a 1 ( λ ) ln [ a ph ( 440 ) ] } a ph ( 440 ) ,
a CDOM + nap ( λ ) = a CDOM + nap ( λ 0 ) e [ S ( λ λ 0 ) ] ,
b ( λ ) = b w ( λ ) + b p ( λ ) .
b b ( λ ) = 1 / 2 b w ( λ ) + B b p ( λ ) .
b p ( λ ) = 0.416 [ Chl ] 0.766 ( 550 / λ ) .
Chl = 1.63 [ R rs ( 490 ) / R rs ( 555 ) ] - 2.512 ,
a CDOM ( 412 ) = 0.227 [ R rs ( 510 ) / R rs ( 555 ) ] - 2.022 .

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