Abstract

We present a configuration for surface plasmon resonance sensors based on uniform-waist tapered optical fibers and reflective elements. Once the fiber is tapered fulfilling the adiabatic criterion, a multilayer including a metallic medium is asymmetrically deposited on the uniform waist of the fiber. This feature provides the resonant excitation of multiple surface plasma waves. In addition, a mirror is produced at the fiber tip by a chemical Tollens reaction. In this way, the sensor operates in a reflective mode, more convenient for dip probes. When these sensors are spectrally interrogated, a high sensitivity of 10−4 refractive index units per nanometer is attained. These devices can be advantageously used for any kind of chemical sensing and biosensing.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  17. B. Grunwald and G. Holst, "Fibre optic refractive index microsensor based on white-light SPR excitation," Sens. Actuators A 113, 174-180 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  18. Y. Saito, J. J. Wang, D. A. Smith, and D. N. Batchelder, "A simple chemical method for the preparation of silver surfaces for efficient SERS," Langmuir 18, 2959-2961 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  19. R. Alonso, J. Subias, J. Pelayo, F. Villuendas, and J. Tornos, "Single-mode optical-fiber sensors and tunable wavelength filters based on the resonant excitation of metal-clad modes," Appl. Opt. 33, 5197-5201 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]

2006 (1)

D. Monzón-Hernández and J. Villatoro, "High-resolution refractive index sensing by means of a multiple peak surface plasmon resonance optical fiber sensor," Sens. Actuators B 115, 227-231 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (5)

J. Villatoro, D. Monzón-Hernández, and D. Talavera, "High resolution refractive index sensing with cladded multimode tapered optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 40, 106-107 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. Grunwald and G. Holst, "Fibre optic refractive index microsensor based on white-light SPR excitation," Sens. Actuators A 113, 174-180 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. J. Bueno, Ó. Esteban, N. Díaz-Herrera, M. C. Navarrete, and A. González-Cano, "Sensing properties of asymmetric double-layer covered tapered fibers," Appl. Opt. 43, 1615-1620 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Orellana, ed., Book of Abstracts, EUROPT(R)ODE VII, (Madrid, Spain 2004).

L. A. Obando, D. J. Gentleman, J. R. Holloway, and K. S. Booksh, "Manufacture of robust surface plasmon resonance fiber optic based dip-probes," Sens. Actuators B 100, 439-449 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

C. Fernández-Valdivileso, E. Egozkue, I. R. Matías, F. J. Arregui, and C. Bariáin, "Experimental study of a thermochromic materila based optical fibre sensor for monitoring the temperatura of the water in several applications," Sens. Actuators B 91, 231-240 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Villatoro, D. Monzón-Hernández, and E. Mejía, "Fabrication and modeling of uniform-waist single-mode tapered optical fiber sensors," Appl. Opt. 42, 2278-2283 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

Y. Saito, J. J. Wang, D. A. Smith, and D. N. Batchelder, "A simple chemical method for the preparation of silver surfaces for efficient SERS," Langmuir 18, 2959-2961 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

R. C. Jorgenson, "A surface plasmon resonance side active retro-reflecting sensor," Sens. Actuators B 73, 236-248 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (3)

1994 (2)

1993 (1)

R. Alonso, F. Villuendas, J. Tornos, and J. Pelayo, "New 'in-line' optical-fibre sensor based on surface plasmon excitation," Sens. Actuators A 37-38, 187-192 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

R. P. Kenny, T. A. Birks, and K. P. Oakey, "Control of optical fiber taper shape," Electron. Lett. 37, 1654-1656 (1991).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

Alonso, R.

R. Alonso, J. Subias, J. Pelayo, F. Villuendas, and J. Tornos, "Single-mode optical-fiber sensors and tunable wavelength filters based on the resonant excitation of metal-clad modes," Appl. Opt. 33, 5197-5201 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Alonso, F. Villuendas, J. Tornos, and J. Pelayo, "New 'in-line' optical-fibre sensor based on surface plasmon excitation," Sens. Actuators A 37-38, 187-192 (1993).
[Crossref]

Andrés, M. V.

Arregui, F. J.

C. Fernández-Valdivileso, E. Egozkue, I. R. Matías, F. J. Arregui, and C. Bariáin, "Experimental study of a thermochromic materila based optical fibre sensor for monitoring the temperatura of the water in several applications," Sens. Actuators B 91, 231-240 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bariáin, C.

C. Fernández-Valdivileso, E. Egozkue, I. R. Matías, F. J. Arregui, and C. Bariáin, "Experimental study of a thermochromic materila based optical fibre sensor for monitoring the temperatura of the water in several applications," Sens. Actuators B 91, 231-240 (2003).
[Crossref]

Batchelder, D. N.

Y. Saito, J. J. Wang, D. A. Smith, and D. N. Batchelder, "A simple chemical method for the preparation of silver surfaces for efficient SERS," Langmuir 18, 2959-2961 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bernabeu, E.

Birks, T. A.

R. P. Kenny, T. A. Birks, and K. P. Oakey, "Control of optical fiber taper shape," Electron. Lett. 37, 1654-1656 (1991).
[Crossref]

Booksh, K. S.

L. A. Obando, D. J. Gentleman, J. R. Holloway, and K. S. Booksh, "Manufacture of robust surface plasmon resonance fiber optic based dip-probes," Sens. Actuators B 100, 439-449 (2004).
[Crossref]

Boyd, J. T.

Bueno, F. J.

Chen, C.-L.

Cruz, J. L.

Díaz-Herrera, N.

Díez, A.

Egozkue, E.

C. Fernández-Valdivileso, E. Egozkue, I. R. Matías, F. J. Arregui, and C. Bariáin, "Experimental study of a thermochromic materila based optical fibre sensor for monitoring the temperatura of the water in several applications," Sens. Actuators B 91, 231-240 (2003).
[Crossref]

Esteban, Ó.

Fernández-Valdivileso, C.

C. Fernández-Valdivileso, E. Egozkue, I. R. Matías, F. J. Arregui, and C. Bariáin, "Experimental study of a thermochromic materila based optical fibre sensor for monitoring the temperatura of the water in several applications," Sens. Actuators B 91, 231-240 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gentleman, D. J.

L. A. Obando, D. J. Gentleman, J. R. Holloway, and K. S. Booksh, "Manufacture of robust surface plasmon resonance fiber optic based dip-probes," Sens. Actuators B 100, 439-449 (2004).
[Crossref]

González-Cano, A.

Grunwald, B.

B. Grunwald and G. Holst, "Fibre optic refractive index microsensor based on white-light SPR excitation," Sens. Actuators A 113, 174-180 (2004).
[Crossref]

Holloway, J. R.

L. A. Obando, D. J. Gentleman, J. R. Holloway, and K. S. Booksh, "Manufacture of robust surface plasmon resonance fiber optic based dip-probes," Sens. Actuators B 100, 439-449 (2004).
[Crossref]

Holst, G.

B. Grunwald and G. Holst, "Fibre optic refractive index microsensor based on white-light SPR excitation," Sens. Actuators A 113, 174-180 (2004).
[Crossref]

Homola, J.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[Crossref]

Jorgenson, R. C.

R. C. Jorgenson, "A surface plasmon resonance side active retro-reflecting sensor," Sens. Actuators B 73, 236-248 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kano, H.

Kawata, S.

Kenny, R. P.

R. P. Kenny, T. A. Birks, and K. P. Oakey, "Control of optical fiber taper shape," Electron. Lett. 37, 1654-1656 (1991).
[Crossref]

Liao, F. J.

Matías, I. R.

C. Fernández-Valdivileso, E. Egozkue, I. R. Matías, F. J. Arregui, and C. Bariáin, "Experimental study of a thermochromic materila based optical fibre sensor for monitoring the temperatura of the water in several applications," Sens. Actuators B 91, 231-240 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mejía, E.

Monzón-Hernández, D.

D. Monzón-Hernández and J. Villatoro, "High-resolution refractive index sensing by means of a multiple peak surface plasmon resonance optical fiber sensor," Sens. Actuators B 115, 227-231 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Villatoro, D. Monzón-Hernández, and D. Talavera, "High resolution refractive index sensing with cladded multimode tapered optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 40, 106-107 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Villatoro, D. Monzón-Hernández, and E. Mejía, "Fabrication and modeling of uniform-waist single-mode tapered optical fiber sensors," Appl. Opt. 42, 2278-2283 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Navarrete, M. C.

Oakey, K. P.

R. P. Kenny, T. A. Birks, and K. P. Oakey, "Control of optical fiber taper shape," Electron. Lett. 37, 1654-1656 (1991).
[Crossref]

Obando, L. A.

L. A. Obando, D. J. Gentleman, J. R. Holloway, and K. S. Booksh, "Manufacture of robust surface plasmon resonance fiber optic based dip-probes," Sens. Actuators B 100, 439-449 (2004).
[Crossref]

Orellana, G.

G. Orellana, ed., Book of Abstracts, EUROPT(R)ODE VII, (Madrid, Spain 2004).

Pelayo, J.

R. Alonso, J. Subias, J. Pelayo, F. Villuendas, and J. Tornos, "Single-mode optical-fiber sensors and tunable wavelength filters based on the resonant excitation of metal-clad modes," Appl. Opt. 33, 5197-5201 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Alonso, F. Villuendas, J. Tornos, and J. Pelayo, "New 'in-line' optical-fibre sensor based on surface plasmon excitation," Sens. Actuators A 37-38, 187-192 (1993).
[Crossref]

Saito, Y.

Y. Saito, J. J. Wang, D. A. Smith, and D. N. Batchelder, "A simple chemical method for the preparation of silver surfaces for efficient SERS," Langmuir 18, 2959-2961 (2002).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. A.

Y. Saito, J. J. Wang, D. A. Smith, and D. N. Batchelder, "A simple chemical method for the preparation of silver surfaces for efficient SERS," Langmuir 18, 2959-2961 (2002).
[Crossref]

Subias, J.

Talavera, D.

J. Villatoro, D. Monzón-Hernández, and D. Talavera, "High resolution refractive index sensing with cladded multimode tapered optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 40, 106-107 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tornos, J.

R. Alonso, J. Subias, J. Pelayo, F. Villuendas, and J. Tornos, "Single-mode optical-fiber sensors and tunable wavelength filters based on the resonant excitation of metal-clad modes," Appl. Opt. 33, 5197-5201 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Alonso, F. Villuendas, J. Tornos, and J. Pelayo, "New 'in-line' optical-fibre sensor based on surface plasmon excitation," Sens. Actuators A 37-38, 187-192 (1993).
[Crossref]

Tseng, S.-M.

Villatoro, J.

D. Monzón-Hernández and J. Villatoro, "High-resolution refractive index sensing by means of a multiple peak surface plasmon resonance optical fiber sensor," Sens. Actuators B 115, 227-231 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Villatoro, D. Monzón-Hernández, and D. Talavera, "High resolution refractive index sensing with cladded multimode tapered optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 40, 106-107 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Villatoro, D. Monzón-Hernández, and E. Mejía, "Fabrication and modeling of uniform-waist single-mode tapered optical fiber sensors," Appl. Opt. 42, 2278-2283 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villuendas, F.

R. Alonso, J. Subias, J. Pelayo, F. Villuendas, and J. Tornos, "Single-mode optical-fiber sensors and tunable wavelength filters based on the resonant excitation of metal-clad modes," Appl. Opt. 33, 5197-5201 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Alonso, F. Villuendas, J. Tornos, and J. Pelayo, "New 'in-line' optical-fibre sensor based on surface plasmon excitation," Sens. Actuators A 37-38, 187-192 (1993).
[Crossref]

Wang, J. J.

Y. Saito, J. J. Wang, D. A. Smith, and D. N. Batchelder, "A simple chemical method for the preparation of silver surfaces for efficient SERS," Langmuir 18, 2959-2961 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (8)

Electron. Lett. (2)

J. Villatoro, D. Monzón-Hernández, and D. Talavera, "High resolution refractive index sensing with cladded multimode tapered optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 40, 106-107 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. P. Kenny, T. A. Birks, and K. P. Oakey, "Control of optical fiber taper shape," Electron. Lett. 37, 1654-1656 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Langmuir (1)

Y. Saito, J. J. Wang, D. A. Smith, and D. N. Batchelder, "A simple chemical method for the preparation of silver surfaces for efficient SERS," Langmuir 18, 2959-2961 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sens. Actuators (2)

B. Grunwald and G. Holst, "Fibre optic refractive index microsensor based on white-light SPR excitation," Sens. Actuators A 113, 174-180 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Alonso, F. Villuendas, J. Tornos, and J. Pelayo, "New 'in-line' optical-fibre sensor based on surface plasmon excitation," Sens. Actuators A 37-38, 187-192 (1993).
[Crossref]

Sens. Actuators B (5)

L. A. Obando, D. J. Gentleman, J. R. Holloway, and K. S. Booksh, "Manufacture of robust surface plasmon resonance fiber optic based dip-probes," Sens. Actuators B 100, 439-449 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. Fernández-Valdivileso, E. Egozkue, I. R. Matías, F. J. Arregui, and C. Bariáin, "Experimental study of a thermochromic materila based optical fibre sensor for monitoring the temperatura of the water in several applications," Sens. Actuators B 91, 231-240 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. Monzón-Hernández and J. Villatoro, "High-resolution refractive index sensing by means of a multiple peak surface plasmon resonance optical fiber sensor," Sens. Actuators B 115, 227-231 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. C. Jorgenson, "A surface plasmon resonance side active retro-reflecting sensor," Sens. Actuators B 73, 236-248 (2001).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

G. Orellana, ed., Book of Abstracts, EUROPT(R)ODE VII, (Madrid, Spain 2004).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the setup used to measure the spectral sensor response. Side and cross-sectional views of the sensor are also shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral response when the outer medium is pure water. Dashed curve represents the sensor response for the unoptimized polarization of the input light. Optimization of the polarization direction provides the response represented on the solid curve.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Displacement of the two main λ SPR shown on the solid curve in Fig. 2 with the outer medium RI changes. Open circles correspond to the main dip and solid circles correspond to the most important secondary dip.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral response when the outer medium is pure water. The dashed curve represents the optimized polarization response as in Fig. 2. The solid curve is the response for the unpolarized light.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison between the displacement with the outer medium RI of the main dip of Fig. 4 for the optimized polarization direction (open circles) and unpolarized light (solid diamonds).

Equations (1)

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n ( T ) = n H 2 O ( T ) + 0.111 V eth V tot ,

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