Abstract

The ultraviolet narrowband filter radiometer (UV-RAD) designed by the authors to take ground-based measurements of UV solar irradiance, total ozone, and biological dose rate is described, together with the main characteristics of the seven blocked filters mounted on it, all of which have full widths at half maxima that range 0.67 to 0.98  nm. We have analyzed the causes of cosine response and calibration errors carefully to define the corresponding correction terms, paying particular attention to those that are due to the spectral displacements of the filter transmittance peaks from the integer wavelength values. The influence of the ozone profile on the retrieved ozone at large solar zenith angles has also been examined by means of field measurements. The opportunity of carrying out nearly monochromatic irradiance measurements offered by the UV-RAD allowed us to improve the procedure usually followed to reconstruct the solar spectrum at the surface by fitting the computed results, using radiative transfer models with field measurements of irradiance. Two long-term comparison campaigns took place, showing that a mean discrepancy of +0.3% exists between the UV-RAD total ozone values and those given by the Brewer #63 spectroradiometer and that mean differences of +0 .3% and -0.9% exist between the erythemal dose rates determined with the UV-RAD and those obtained with the Brewer #63 and the Brewer #104 spectroradiometers, respectively.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. R. Meier, G. P. Anderson, C. A. Cantrell, L. A. Hall, J. Lean, K. Minschwaner, R. E. Shetter, and K. Stamnes, "Actinic radiation in the terrestrial atmosphere," J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 59, 2111-2157 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Bérces, A. Fekete, S. Gaspar, P. Grof, P. Rettberg, G. Horneck, and G. Ronto, "Biological UV dosimeters in the assessment of the biological hazard from environmental radiation," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 53, 36-43 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Termorshuizen, J. Garssen, M. Norval, L. Koulu, J. Laihia, L. Leino, C. T. Jansen, F. De. Gruijl, N. K Gibbs, C. de Simone, and H. Van Loveren, "A review of studies on the effects of ultraviolet irradiation on the resistance to infections: evidence from rodent infection models and verification by experimental and observational human studied," Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 2, 263-275 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. M. Sabburg, A. V. Parisi, and M. G. Kimlin, "Enhanced spectral UV irradiance: a 1-year preliminary study," Atmos. Res. 66, 261-272 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Slusser, J. Gibson, D. Bigelow, D. Kolinski, W. Mou, G. Koenig, and A. Beaubien, "Comparison of column ozone retrievals by use of an UV multifilter rotating shadow-band radiometer with those from Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers," Appl. Opt. 38, 1543-1551 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Steinmetz, "Continuous solar UV monitoring in Germany," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 41, 181-187 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Dahlback, "Measurements of biologically effective UV doses, total ozone abundances, and cloud effects with multichannel moderate bandwidth filter instruments," Appl. Opt. 35, 6514-6521 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. Gillotay, B. Walravens, D. Bolsée, and P. C. Simon, "Comparison of erythemal doses based on solar UV measurements from filter- and spectro-radiometers," Adv. Space Res. 26, 1955-1970 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Masserot, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, M. Houët, N. Krotkov, and R. McPeters, "Retrieval of ozone column from global irradiance measurements and comparison with TOMS data. A year of data in the Alps," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Houët and C. Brogniez, "Ozone column retrieval from solar UV irradiance measurements at ground level: sensitivity tests and uncertainty estimation," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D15302 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. A. Fuenzalida, "Global ultraviolet spectra derived directly from observations with multichannel radiometers," Appl. Opt. 37, 7912-7919 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. A. K. Høiskar, R. Haugen, T. Danielsen, A. Kylling, K. Edvardsen, A. Dahlback, B. Johnsen, M. Blumthaler, and J. Schreder, "Multichannel moderate-bandwidth filter instrument for measurement of the ozone-column amount, cloud transmittance, and ultraviolet dose rate," Appl. Opt. 42, 3472-3479 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. S. Bigelow, J. R. Slusser, A. F. Beaubien, and J. H. Gibson, "The USDA ultraviolet radiation monitoring program," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 601-615 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Bais, S. Kazadzis, D. Balis, Ch. S. Zerefos, and M. Blumthaler, "Correcting global solar ultraviolet spectra recorded by a Brewer spectroradiometer for its angular response error," Appl. Opt. 37, 6339-6334 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Grobner, M. Blumthaler, and W. Ambach, "Experimental investigation of spectral global irradiance measurement errors due to a nonideal cosine response," Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2493-2496 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. U. Feister, R. Grewe, and K. Gericke, "A method for correction of cosine errors in measurements of spectral UV irradiance," Solar Energy 60, 313-332 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. B. W. Forgan, "A new method for calibrating reference and field pyranometers," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 638-645 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. De Backer, P. Koepke, A. Bais, X. de Cabo, T. Frei, D. Gyllotay, C. Haite, A. Heikkilä, T. Koskela, E. Kyrö, B. Lapeta, J. Lorente, K. Masson, B. Mayer, H. Plets, A. Redondas, A. Renaud, G. Schauberger, A. Schmalwieser, H. Schwander, and K. Vanicek, "Comparison of measured and modeled UV indices for the assessment of health risks," Meteorol. Appl. 8, 267-277 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Madronich, "UV radiation in the natural and perturbed atmosphere", in Environmental Effects of UV (Ultraviolet) Radiation, M. Tevini, ed. (Lewis, Boca Raton, 1993), pp. 17-69.
  20. C. Tomasi, V. Vitale, B. Petkov, A. Lupi, and A. Cacciari, "Improved algorithm for calculations of Rayleigh-scattering optical depth in standard atmospheres," Appl. Opt. 44, 3320-3341 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. H. Uhlig and N. Kaiser, "Blocking improved narrow-band filters for the UV-B region," Opt. Eng. 40, 2331-2337 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. Scateboe, "ALOMAR: atmospheric science using lidars, radars and ground based instruments," J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 58, 1823-1826 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  23. K. Stamnes, J. Slusser, and M. Bowen, "Derivation of total ozone abundance and cloud effects from spectral irradiance measurements," Appl. Opt. 30, 4418-4426 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Standard Atmosphere 1976 (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1976).
  25. B. Mayer and G. Seckmeyer, "Systematic long-term comparison of spectral UV measurements and UVSPEC modeling results," J. Geophys. Res. 102(D7), 8755-8767 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  26. P. Wang and J. Lenoble, "Comparison between measurements and modeling of UV-B irradiance for clear sky: a case study," Appl. Opt. 33, 3964-3971 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. H. Schwander, P. Koepke, and A. Ruggaber, "Uncertainties in modeled UV irradiances due to limited accuracy and availability of input data," J. Geophys. Res. 102 (D8), 9419-9429 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. F. McKinlay and B. L. Diffey, "A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin," CIE J. 6, 17-22 (1987).

2005

2004

M. Houët and C. Brogniez, "Ozone column retrieval from solar UV irradiance measurements at ground level: sensitivity tests and uncertainty estimation," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D15302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

F. Termorshuizen, J. Garssen, M. Norval, L. Koulu, J. Laihia, L. Leino, C. T. Jansen, F. De. Gruijl, N. K Gibbs, C. de Simone, and H. Van Loveren, "A review of studies on the effects of ultraviolet irradiation on the resistance to infections: evidence from rodent infection models and verification by experimental and observational human studied," Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 2, 263-275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Masserot, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, M. Houët, N. Krotkov, and R. McPeters, "Retrieval of ozone column from global irradiance measurements and comparison with TOMS data. A year of data in the Alps," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

H. De Backer, P. Koepke, A. Bais, X. de Cabo, T. Frei, D. Gyllotay, C. Haite, A. Heikkilä, T. Koskela, E. Kyrö, B. Lapeta, J. Lorente, K. Masson, B. Mayer, H. Plets, A. Redondas, A. Renaud, G. Schauberger, A. Schmalwieser, H. Schwander, and K. Vanicek, "Comparison of measured and modeled UV indices for the assessment of health risks," Meteorol. Appl. 8, 267-277 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Uhlig and N. Kaiser, "Blocking improved narrow-band filters for the UV-B region," Opt. Eng. 40, 2331-2337 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

D. Gillotay, B. Walravens, D. Bolsée, and P. C. Simon, "Comparison of erythemal doses based on solar UV measurements from filter- and spectro-radiometers," Adv. Space Res. 26, 1955-1970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

A. Bérces, A. Fekete, S. Gaspar, P. Grof, P. Rettberg, G. Horneck, and G. Ronto, "Biological UV dosimeters in the assessment of the biological hazard from environmental radiation," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 53, 36-43 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Slusser, J. Gibson, D. Bigelow, D. Kolinski, W. Mou, G. Koenig, and A. Beaubien, "Comparison of column ozone retrievals by use of an UV multifilter rotating shadow-band radiometer with those from Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers," Appl. Opt. 38, 1543-1551 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

U. Feister, R. Grewe, and K. Gericke, "A method for correction of cosine errors in measurements of spectral UV irradiance," Solar Energy 60, 313-332 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Steinmetz, "Continuous solar UV monitoring in Germany," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 41, 181-187 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Meier, G. P. Anderson, C. A. Cantrell, L. A. Hall, J. Lean, K. Minschwaner, R. E. Shetter, and K. Stamnes, "Actinic radiation in the terrestrial atmosphere," J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 59, 2111-2157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Mayer and G. Seckmeyer, "Systematic long-term comparison of spectral UV measurements and UVSPEC modeling results," J. Geophys. Res. 102(D7), 8755-8767 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Schwander, P. Koepke, and A. Ruggaber, "Uncertainties in modeled UV irradiances due to limited accuracy and availability of input data," J. Geophys. Res. 102 (D8), 9419-9429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

R. Scateboe, "ALOMAR: atmospheric science using lidars, radars and ground based instruments," J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 58, 1823-1826 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Dahlback, "Measurements of biologically effective UV doses, total ozone abundances, and cloud effects with multichannel moderate bandwidth filter instruments," Appl. Opt. 35, 6514-6521 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Forgan, "A new method for calibrating reference and field pyranometers," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 638-645 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Grobner, M. Blumthaler, and W. Ambach, "Experimental investigation of spectral global irradiance measurement errors due to a nonideal cosine response," Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2493-2496 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

1991

1987

A. F. McKinlay and B. L. Diffey, "A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin," CIE J. 6, 17-22 (1987).

Ambach, W.

J. Grobner, M. Blumthaler, and W. Ambach, "Experimental investigation of spectral global irradiance measurement errors due to a nonideal cosine response," Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2493-2496 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, G. P.

R. R. Meier, G. P. Anderson, C. A. Cantrell, L. A. Hall, J. Lean, K. Minschwaner, R. E. Shetter, and K. Stamnes, "Actinic radiation in the terrestrial atmosphere," J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 59, 2111-2157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bais, A.

H. De Backer, P. Koepke, A. Bais, X. de Cabo, T. Frei, D. Gyllotay, C. Haite, A. Heikkilä, T. Koskela, E. Kyrö, B. Lapeta, J. Lorente, K. Masson, B. Mayer, H. Plets, A. Redondas, A. Renaud, G. Schauberger, A. Schmalwieser, H. Schwander, and K. Vanicek, "Comparison of measured and modeled UV indices for the assessment of health risks," Meteorol. Appl. 8, 267-277 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Bais, S. Kazadzis, D. Balis, Ch. S. Zerefos, and M. Blumthaler, "Correcting global solar ultraviolet spectra recorded by a Brewer spectroradiometer for its angular response error," Appl. Opt. 37, 6339-6334 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Balis, D.

Beaubien, A.

Beaubien, A. F.

D. S. Bigelow, J. R. Slusser, A. F. Beaubien, and J. H. Gibson, "The USDA ultraviolet radiation monitoring program," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 601-615 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bérces, A.

A. Bérces, A. Fekete, S. Gaspar, P. Grof, P. Rettberg, G. Horneck, and G. Ronto, "Biological UV dosimeters in the assessment of the biological hazard from environmental radiation," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 53, 36-43 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bigelow, D.

Bigelow, D. S.

D. S. Bigelow, J. R. Slusser, A. F. Beaubien, and J. H. Gibson, "The USDA ultraviolet radiation monitoring program," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 601-615 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Blumthaler, M.

Bolsée, D.

D. Gillotay, B. Walravens, D. Bolsée, and P. C. Simon, "Comparison of erythemal doses based on solar UV measurements from filter- and spectro-radiometers," Adv. Space Res. 26, 1955-1970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bowen, M.

Brogniez, C.

M. Houët and C. Brogniez, "Ozone column retrieval from solar UV irradiance measurements at ground level: sensitivity tests and uncertainty estimation," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D15302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Masserot, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, M. Houët, N. Krotkov, and R. McPeters, "Retrieval of ozone column from global irradiance measurements and comparison with TOMS data. A year of data in the Alps," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cacciari, A.

Cantrell, C. A.

R. R. Meier, G. P. Anderson, C. A. Cantrell, L. A. Hall, J. Lean, K. Minschwaner, R. E. Shetter, and K. Stamnes, "Actinic radiation in the terrestrial atmosphere," J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 59, 2111-2157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dahlback, A.

Danielsen, T.

De Backer, H.

H. De Backer, P. Koepke, A. Bais, X. de Cabo, T. Frei, D. Gyllotay, C. Haite, A. Heikkilä, T. Koskela, E. Kyrö, B. Lapeta, J. Lorente, K. Masson, B. Mayer, H. Plets, A. Redondas, A. Renaud, G. Schauberger, A. Schmalwieser, H. Schwander, and K. Vanicek, "Comparison of measured and modeled UV indices for the assessment of health risks," Meteorol. Appl. 8, 267-277 (2001).
[CrossRef]

de Cabo, X.

H. De Backer, P. Koepke, A. Bais, X. de Cabo, T. Frei, D. Gyllotay, C. Haite, A. Heikkilä, T. Koskela, E. Kyrö, B. Lapeta, J. Lorente, K. Masson, B. Mayer, H. Plets, A. Redondas, A. Renaud, G. Schauberger, A. Schmalwieser, H. Schwander, and K. Vanicek, "Comparison of measured and modeled UV indices for the assessment of health risks," Meteorol. Appl. 8, 267-277 (2001).
[CrossRef]

de Simone, C.

F. Termorshuizen, J. Garssen, M. Norval, L. Koulu, J. Laihia, L. Leino, C. T. Jansen, F. De. Gruijl, N. K Gibbs, C. de Simone, and H. Van Loveren, "A review of studies on the effects of ultraviolet irradiation on the resistance to infections: evidence from rodent infection models and verification by experimental and observational human studied," Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 2, 263-275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Diffey, B. L.

A. F. McKinlay and B. L. Diffey, "A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin," CIE J. 6, 17-22 (1987).

Edvardsen, K.

Feister, U.

U. Feister, R. Grewe, and K. Gericke, "A method for correction of cosine errors in measurements of spectral UV irradiance," Solar Energy 60, 313-332 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fekete, A.

A. Bérces, A. Fekete, S. Gaspar, P. Grof, P. Rettberg, G. Horneck, and G. Ronto, "Biological UV dosimeters in the assessment of the biological hazard from environmental radiation," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 53, 36-43 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Forgan, B. W.

B. W. Forgan, "A new method for calibrating reference and field pyranometers," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 638-645 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Frei, T.

H. De Backer, P. Koepke, A. Bais, X. de Cabo, T. Frei, D. Gyllotay, C. Haite, A. Heikkilä, T. Koskela, E. Kyrö, B. Lapeta, J. Lorente, K. Masson, B. Mayer, H. Plets, A. Redondas, A. Renaud, G. Schauberger, A. Schmalwieser, H. Schwander, and K. Vanicek, "Comparison of measured and modeled UV indices for the assessment of health risks," Meteorol. Appl. 8, 267-277 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fuenzalida, H. A.

Garssen, J.

F. Termorshuizen, J. Garssen, M. Norval, L. Koulu, J. Laihia, L. Leino, C. T. Jansen, F. De. Gruijl, N. K Gibbs, C. de Simone, and H. Van Loveren, "A review of studies on the effects of ultraviolet irradiation on the resistance to infections: evidence from rodent infection models and verification by experimental and observational human studied," Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 2, 263-275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gaspar, S.

A. Bérces, A. Fekete, S. Gaspar, P. Grof, P. Rettberg, G. Horneck, and G. Ronto, "Biological UV dosimeters in the assessment of the biological hazard from environmental radiation," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 53, 36-43 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gericke, K.

U. Feister, R. Grewe, and K. Gericke, "A method for correction of cosine errors in measurements of spectral UV irradiance," Solar Energy 60, 313-332 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gibbs, N. K

F. Termorshuizen, J. Garssen, M. Norval, L. Koulu, J. Laihia, L. Leino, C. T. Jansen, F. De. Gruijl, N. K Gibbs, C. de Simone, and H. Van Loveren, "A review of studies on the effects of ultraviolet irradiation on the resistance to infections: evidence from rodent infection models and verification by experimental and observational human studied," Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 2, 263-275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, J.

Gibson, J. H.

D. S. Bigelow, J. R. Slusser, A. F. Beaubien, and J. H. Gibson, "The USDA ultraviolet radiation monitoring program," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 601-615 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gillotay, D.

D. Gillotay, B. Walravens, D. Bolsée, and P. C. Simon, "Comparison of erythemal doses based on solar UV measurements from filter- and spectro-radiometers," Adv. Space Res. 26, 1955-1970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grewe, R.

U. Feister, R. Grewe, and K. Gericke, "A method for correction of cosine errors in measurements of spectral UV irradiance," Solar Energy 60, 313-332 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grobner, J.

J. Grobner, M. Blumthaler, and W. Ambach, "Experimental investigation of spectral global irradiance measurement errors due to a nonideal cosine response," Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2493-2496 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Grof, P.

A. Bérces, A. Fekete, S. Gaspar, P. Grof, P. Rettberg, G. Horneck, and G. Ronto, "Biological UV dosimeters in the assessment of the biological hazard from environmental radiation," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 53, 36-43 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gruijl, F. De.

F. Termorshuizen, J. Garssen, M. Norval, L. Koulu, J. Laihia, L. Leino, C. T. Jansen, F. De. Gruijl, N. K Gibbs, C. de Simone, and H. Van Loveren, "A review of studies on the effects of ultraviolet irradiation on the resistance to infections: evidence from rodent infection models and verification by experimental and observational human studied," Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 2, 263-275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gyllotay, D.

H. De Backer, P. Koepke, A. Bais, X. de Cabo, T. Frei, D. Gyllotay, C. Haite, A. Heikkilä, T. Koskela, E. Kyrö, B. Lapeta, J. Lorente, K. Masson, B. Mayer, H. Plets, A. Redondas, A. Renaud, G. Schauberger, A. Schmalwieser, H. Schwander, and K. Vanicek, "Comparison of measured and modeled UV indices for the assessment of health risks," Meteorol. Appl. 8, 267-277 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Haite, C.

H. De Backer, P. Koepke, A. Bais, X. de Cabo, T. Frei, D. Gyllotay, C. Haite, A. Heikkilä, T. Koskela, E. Kyrö, B. Lapeta, J. Lorente, K. Masson, B. Mayer, H. Plets, A. Redondas, A. Renaud, G. Schauberger, A. Schmalwieser, H. Schwander, and K. Vanicek, "Comparison of measured and modeled UV indices for the assessment of health risks," Meteorol. Appl. 8, 267-277 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hall, L. A.

R. R. Meier, G. P. Anderson, C. A. Cantrell, L. A. Hall, J. Lean, K. Minschwaner, R. E. Shetter, and K. Stamnes, "Actinic radiation in the terrestrial atmosphere," J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 59, 2111-2157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Haugen, R.

Heikkilä, A.

H. De Backer, P. Koepke, A. Bais, X. de Cabo, T. Frei, D. Gyllotay, C. Haite, A. Heikkilä, T. Koskela, E. Kyrö, B. Lapeta, J. Lorente, K. Masson, B. Mayer, H. Plets, A. Redondas, A. Renaud, G. Schauberger, A. Schmalwieser, H. Schwander, and K. Vanicek, "Comparison of measured and modeled UV indices for the assessment of health risks," Meteorol. Appl. 8, 267-277 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Høiskar, B. A. K.

Horneck, G.

A. Bérces, A. Fekete, S. Gaspar, P. Grof, P. Rettberg, G. Horneck, and G. Ronto, "Biological UV dosimeters in the assessment of the biological hazard from environmental radiation," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 53, 36-43 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Houët, M.

M. Houët and C. Brogniez, "Ozone column retrieval from solar UV irradiance measurements at ground level: sensitivity tests and uncertainty estimation," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D15302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Masserot, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, M. Houët, N. Krotkov, and R. McPeters, "Retrieval of ozone column from global irradiance measurements and comparison with TOMS data. A year of data in the Alps," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, C. T.

F. Termorshuizen, J. Garssen, M. Norval, L. Koulu, J. Laihia, L. Leino, C. T. Jansen, F. De. Gruijl, N. K Gibbs, C. de Simone, and H. Van Loveren, "A review of studies on the effects of ultraviolet irradiation on the resistance to infections: evidence from rodent infection models and verification by experimental and observational human studied," Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 2, 263-275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Johnsen, B.

Kaiser, N.

H. Uhlig and N. Kaiser, "Blocking improved narrow-band filters for the UV-B region," Opt. Eng. 40, 2331-2337 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kazadzis, S.

Kimlin, M. G.

J. M. Sabburg, A. V. Parisi, and M. G. Kimlin, "Enhanced spectral UV irradiance: a 1-year preliminary study," Atmos. Res. 66, 261-272 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koenig, G.

Koepke, P.

H. De Backer, P. Koepke, A. Bais, X. de Cabo, T. Frei, D. Gyllotay, C. Haite, A. Heikkilä, T. Koskela, E. Kyrö, B. Lapeta, J. Lorente, K. Masson, B. Mayer, H. Plets, A. Redondas, A. Renaud, G. Schauberger, A. Schmalwieser, H. Schwander, and K. Vanicek, "Comparison of measured and modeled UV indices for the assessment of health risks," Meteorol. Appl. 8, 267-277 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Schwander, P. Koepke, and A. Ruggaber, "Uncertainties in modeled UV irradiances due to limited accuracy and availability of input data," J. Geophys. Res. 102 (D8), 9419-9429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kolinski, D.

Koskela, T.

H. De Backer, P. Koepke, A. Bais, X. de Cabo, T. Frei, D. Gyllotay, C. Haite, A. Heikkilä, T. Koskela, E. Kyrö, B. Lapeta, J. Lorente, K. Masson, B. Mayer, H. Plets, A. Redondas, A. Renaud, G. Schauberger, A. Schmalwieser, H. Schwander, and K. Vanicek, "Comparison of measured and modeled UV indices for the assessment of health risks," Meteorol. Appl. 8, 267-277 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koulu, L.

F. Termorshuizen, J. Garssen, M. Norval, L. Koulu, J. Laihia, L. Leino, C. T. Jansen, F. De. Gruijl, N. K Gibbs, C. de Simone, and H. Van Loveren, "A review of studies on the effects of ultraviolet irradiation on the resistance to infections: evidence from rodent infection models and verification by experimental and observational human studied," Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 2, 263-275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krotkov, N.

D. Masserot, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, M. Houët, N. Krotkov, and R. McPeters, "Retrieval of ozone column from global irradiance measurements and comparison with TOMS data. A year of data in the Alps," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kylling, A.

Kyrö, E.

H. De Backer, P. Koepke, A. Bais, X. de Cabo, T. Frei, D. Gyllotay, C. Haite, A. Heikkilä, T. Koskela, E. Kyrö, B. Lapeta, J. Lorente, K. Masson, B. Mayer, H. Plets, A. Redondas, A. Renaud, G. Schauberger, A. Schmalwieser, H. Schwander, and K. Vanicek, "Comparison of measured and modeled UV indices for the assessment of health risks," Meteorol. Appl. 8, 267-277 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Laihia, J.

F. Termorshuizen, J. Garssen, M. Norval, L. Koulu, J. Laihia, L. Leino, C. T. Jansen, F. De. Gruijl, N. K Gibbs, C. de Simone, and H. Van Loveren, "A review of studies on the effects of ultraviolet irradiation on the resistance to infections: evidence from rodent infection models and verification by experimental and observational human studied," Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 2, 263-275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lapeta, B.

H. De Backer, P. Koepke, A. Bais, X. de Cabo, T. Frei, D. Gyllotay, C. Haite, A. Heikkilä, T. Koskela, E. Kyrö, B. Lapeta, J. Lorente, K. Masson, B. Mayer, H. Plets, A. Redondas, A. Renaud, G. Schauberger, A. Schmalwieser, H. Schwander, and K. Vanicek, "Comparison of measured and modeled UV indices for the assessment of health risks," Meteorol. Appl. 8, 267-277 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lean, J.

R. R. Meier, G. P. Anderson, C. A. Cantrell, L. A. Hall, J. Lean, K. Minschwaner, R. E. Shetter, and K. Stamnes, "Actinic radiation in the terrestrial atmosphere," J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 59, 2111-2157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Leino, L.

F. Termorshuizen, J. Garssen, M. Norval, L. Koulu, J. Laihia, L. Leino, C. T. Jansen, F. De. Gruijl, N. K Gibbs, C. de Simone, and H. Van Loveren, "A review of studies on the effects of ultraviolet irradiation on the resistance to infections: evidence from rodent infection models and verification by experimental and observational human studied," Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 2, 263-275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lenoble, J.

D. Masserot, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, M. Houët, N. Krotkov, and R. McPeters, "Retrieval of ozone column from global irradiance measurements and comparison with TOMS data. A year of data in the Alps," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Wang and J. Lenoble, "Comparison between measurements and modeling of UV-B irradiance for clear sky: a case study," Appl. Opt. 33, 3964-3971 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lorente, J.

H. De Backer, P. Koepke, A. Bais, X. de Cabo, T. Frei, D. Gyllotay, C. Haite, A. Heikkilä, T. Koskela, E. Kyrö, B. Lapeta, J. Lorente, K. Masson, B. Mayer, H. Plets, A. Redondas, A. Renaud, G. Schauberger, A. Schmalwieser, H. Schwander, and K. Vanicek, "Comparison of measured and modeled UV indices for the assessment of health risks," Meteorol. Appl. 8, 267-277 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lupi, A.

Madronich, S.

S. Madronich, "UV radiation in the natural and perturbed atmosphere", in Environmental Effects of UV (Ultraviolet) Radiation, M. Tevini, ed. (Lewis, Boca Raton, 1993), pp. 17-69.

Masserot, D.

D. Masserot, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, M. Houët, N. Krotkov, and R. McPeters, "Retrieval of ozone column from global irradiance measurements and comparison with TOMS data. A year of data in the Alps," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Masson, K.

H. De Backer, P. Koepke, A. Bais, X. de Cabo, T. Frei, D. Gyllotay, C. Haite, A. Heikkilä, T. Koskela, E. Kyrö, B. Lapeta, J. Lorente, K. Masson, B. Mayer, H. Plets, A. Redondas, A. Renaud, G. Schauberger, A. Schmalwieser, H. Schwander, and K. Vanicek, "Comparison of measured and modeled UV indices for the assessment of health risks," Meteorol. Appl. 8, 267-277 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, B.

H. De Backer, P. Koepke, A. Bais, X. de Cabo, T. Frei, D. Gyllotay, C. Haite, A. Heikkilä, T. Koskela, E. Kyrö, B. Lapeta, J. Lorente, K. Masson, B. Mayer, H. Plets, A. Redondas, A. Renaud, G. Schauberger, A. Schmalwieser, H. Schwander, and K. Vanicek, "Comparison of measured and modeled UV indices for the assessment of health risks," Meteorol. Appl. 8, 267-277 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Mayer and G. Seckmeyer, "Systematic long-term comparison of spectral UV measurements and UVSPEC modeling results," J. Geophys. Res. 102(D7), 8755-8767 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McKinlay, A. F.

A. F. McKinlay and B. L. Diffey, "A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin," CIE J. 6, 17-22 (1987).

McPeters, R.

D. Masserot, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, M. Houët, N. Krotkov, and R. McPeters, "Retrieval of ozone column from global irradiance measurements and comparison with TOMS data. A year of data in the Alps," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meier, R. R.

R. R. Meier, G. P. Anderson, C. A. Cantrell, L. A. Hall, J. Lean, K. Minschwaner, R. E. Shetter, and K. Stamnes, "Actinic radiation in the terrestrial atmosphere," J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 59, 2111-2157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Minschwaner, K.

R. R. Meier, G. P. Anderson, C. A. Cantrell, L. A. Hall, J. Lean, K. Minschwaner, R. E. Shetter, and K. Stamnes, "Actinic radiation in the terrestrial atmosphere," J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 59, 2111-2157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mou, W.

Norval, M.

F. Termorshuizen, J. Garssen, M. Norval, L. Koulu, J. Laihia, L. Leino, C. T. Jansen, F. De. Gruijl, N. K Gibbs, C. de Simone, and H. Van Loveren, "A review of studies on the effects of ultraviolet irradiation on the resistance to infections: evidence from rodent infection models and verification by experimental and observational human studied," Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 2, 263-275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Parisi, A. V.

J. M. Sabburg, A. V. Parisi, and M. G. Kimlin, "Enhanced spectral UV irradiance: a 1-year preliminary study," Atmos. Res. 66, 261-272 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Petkov, B.

Plets, H.

H. De Backer, P. Koepke, A. Bais, X. de Cabo, T. Frei, D. Gyllotay, C. Haite, A. Heikkilä, T. Koskela, E. Kyrö, B. Lapeta, J. Lorente, K. Masson, B. Mayer, H. Plets, A. Redondas, A. Renaud, G. Schauberger, A. Schmalwieser, H. Schwander, and K. Vanicek, "Comparison of measured and modeled UV indices for the assessment of health risks," Meteorol. Appl. 8, 267-277 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Redondas, A.

H. De Backer, P. Koepke, A. Bais, X. de Cabo, T. Frei, D. Gyllotay, C. Haite, A. Heikkilä, T. Koskela, E. Kyrö, B. Lapeta, J. Lorente, K. Masson, B. Mayer, H. Plets, A. Redondas, A. Renaud, G. Schauberger, A. Schmalwieser, H. Schwander, and K. Vanicek, "Comparison of measured and modeled UV indices for the assessment of health risks," Meteorol. Appl. 8, 267-277 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Renaud, A.

H. De Backer, P. Koepke, A. Bais, X. de Cabo, T. Frei, D. Gyllotay, C. Haite, A. Heikkilä, T. Koskela, E. Kyrö, B. Lapeta, J. Lorente, K. Masson, B. Mayer, H. Plets, A. Redondas, A. Renaud, G. Schauberger, A. Schmalwieser, H. Schwander, and K. Vanicek, "Comparison of measured and modeled UV indices for the assessment of health risks," Meteorol. Appl. 8, 267-277 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rettberg, P.

A. Bérces, A. Fekete, S. Gaspar, P. Grof, P. Rettberg, G. Horneck, and G. Ronto, "Biological UV dosimeters in the assessment of the biological hazard from environmental radiation," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 53, 36-43 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ronto, G.

A. Bérces, A. Fekete, S. Gaspar, P. Grof, P. Rettberg, G. Horneck, and G. Ronto, "Biological UV dosimeters in the assessment of the biological hazard from environmental radiation," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 53, 36-43 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ruggaber, A.

H. Schwander, P. Koepke, and A. Ruggaber, "Uncertainties in modeled UV irradiances due to limited accuracy and availability of input data," J. Geophys. Res. 102 (D8), 9419-9429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sabburg, J. M.

J. M. Sabburg, A. V. Parisi, and M. G. Kimlin, "Enhanced spectral UV irradiance: a 1-year preliminary study," Atmos. Res. 66, 261-272 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scateboe, R.

R. Scateboe, "ALOMAR: atmospheric science using lidars, radars and ground based instruments," J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 58, 1823-1826 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schauberger, G.

H. De Backer, P. Koepke, A. Bais, X. de Cabo, T. Frei, D. Gyllotay, C. Haite, A. Heikkilä, T. Koskela, E. Kyrö, B. Lapeta, J. Lorente, K. Masson, B. Mayer, H. Plets, A. Redondas, A. Renaud, G. Schauberger, A. Schmalwieser, H. Schwander, and K. Vanicek, "Comparison of measured and modeled UV indices for the assessment of health risks," Meteorol. Appl. 8, 267-277 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schmalwieser, A.

H. De Backer, P. Koepke, A. Bais, X. de Cabo, T. Frei, D. Gyllotay, C. Haite, A. Heikkilä, T. Koskela, E. Kyrö, B. Lapeta, J. Lorente, K. Masson, B. Mayer, H. Plets, A. Redondas, A. Renaud, G. Schauberger, A. Schmalwieser, H. Schwander, and K. Vanicek, "Comparison of measured and modeled UV indices for the assessment of health risks," Meteorol. Appl. 8, 267-277 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schreder, J.

Schwander, H.

H. De Backer, P. Koepke, A. Bais, X. de Cabo, T. Frei, D. Gyllotay, C. Haite, A. Heikkilä, T. Koskela, E. Kyrö, B. Lapeta, J. Lorente, K. Masson, B. Mayer, H. Plets, A. Redondas, A. Renaud, G. Schauberger, A. Schmalwieser, H. Schwander, and K. Vanicek, "Comparison of measured and modeled UV indices for the assessment of health risks," Meteorol. Appl. 8, 267-277 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Schwander, P. Koepke, and A. Ruggaber, "Uncertainties in modeled UV irradiances due to limited accuracy and availability of input data," J. Geophys. Res. 102 (D8), 9419-9429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Seckmeyer, G.

B. Mayer and G. Seckmeyer, "Systematic long-term comparison of spectral UV measurements and UVSPEC modeling results," J. Geophys. Res. 102(D7), 8755-8767 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shetter, R. E.

R. R. Meier, G. P. Anderson, C. A. Cantrell, L. A. Hall, J. Lean, K. Minschwaner, R. E. Shetter, and K. Stamnes, "Actinic radiation in the terrestrial atmosphere," J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 59, 2111-2157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Simon, P. C.

D. Gillotay, B. Walravens, D. Bolsée, and P. C. Simon, "Comparison of erythemal doses based on solar UV measurements from filter- and spectro-radiometers," Adv. Space Res. 26, 1955-1970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Slusser, J.

Slusser, J. R.

D. S. Bigelow, J. R. Slusser, A. F. Beaubien, and J. H. Gibson, "The USDA ultraviolet radiation monitoring program," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 601-615 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stamnes, K.

R. R. Meier, G. P. Anderson, C. A. Cantrell, L. A. Hall, J. Lean, K. Minschwaner, R. E. Shetter, and K. Stamnes, "Actinic radiation in the terrestrial atmosphere," J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 59, 2111-2157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Stamnes, J. Slusser, and M. Bowen, "Derivation of total ozone abundance and cloud effects from spectral irradiance measurements," Appl. Opt. 30, 4418-4426 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinmetz, M.

M. Steinmetz, "Continuous solar UV monitoring in Germany," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 41, 181-187 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Termorshuizen, F.

F. Termorshuizen, J. Garssen, M. Norval, L. Koulu, J. Laihia, L. Leino, C. T. Jansen, F. De. Gruijl, N. K Gibbs, C. de Simone, and H. Van Loveren, "A review of studies on the effects of ultraviolet irradiation on the resistance to infections: evidence from rodent infection models and verification by experimental and observational human studied," Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 2, 263-275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tomasi, C.

Uhlig, H.

H. Uhlig and N. Kaiser, "Blocking improved narrow-band filters for the UV-B region," Opt. Eng. 40, 2331-2337 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Van Loveren, H.

F. Termorshuizen, J. Garssen, M. Norval, L. Koulu, J. Laihia, L. Leino, C. T. Jansen, F. De. Gruijl, N. K Gibbs, C. de Simone, and H. Van Loveren, "A review of studies on the effects of ultraviolet irradiation on the resistance to infections: evidence from rodent infection models and verification by experimental and observational human studied," Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 2, 263-275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vanicek, K.

H. De Backer, P. Koepke, A. Bais, X. de Cabo, T. Frei, D. Gyllotay, C. Haite, A. Heikkilä, T. Koskela, E. Kyrö, B. Lapeta, J. Lorente, K. Masson, B. Mayer, H. Plets, A. Redondas, A. Renaud, G. Schauberger, A. Schmalwieser, H. Schwander, and K. Vanicek, "Comparison of measured and modeled UV indices for the assessment of health risks," Meteorol. Appl. 8, 267-277 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vitale, V.

Walravens, B.

D. Gillotay, B. Walravens, D. Bolsée, and P. C. Simon, "Comparison of erythemal doses based on solar UV measurements from filter- and spectro-radiometers," Adv. Space Res. 26, 1955-1970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

Zerefos, Ch. S.

Adv. Space Res.

D. Gillotay, B. Walravens, D. Bolsée, and P. C. Simon, "Comparison of erythemal doses based on solar UV measurements from filter- and spectro-radiometers," Adv. Space Res. 26, 1955-1970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Slusser, J. Gibson, D. Bigelow, D. Kolinski, W. Mou, G. Koenig, and A. Beaubien, "Comparison of column ozone retrievals by use of an UV multifilter rotating shadow-band radiometer with those from Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers," Appl. Opt. 38, 1543-1551 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Fuenzalida, "Global ultraviolet spectra derived directly from observations with multichannel radiometers," Appl. Opt. 37, 7912-7919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. A. K. Høiskar, R. Haugen, T. Danielsen, A. Kylling, K. Edvardsen, A. Dahlback, B. Johnsen, M. Blumthaler, and J. Schreder, "Multichannel moderate-bandwidth filter instrument for measurement of the ozone-column amount, cloud transmittance, and ultraviolet dose rate," Appl. Opt. 42, 3472-3479 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bais, S. Kazadzis, D. Balis, Ch. S. Zerefos, and M. Blumthaler, "Correcting global solar ultraviolet spectra recorded by a Brewer spectroradiometer for its angular response error," Appl. Opt. 37, 6339-6334 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Tomasi, V. Vitale, B. Petkov, A. Lupi, and A. Cacciari, "Improved algorithm for calculations of Rayleigh-scattering optical depth in standard atmospheres," Appl. Opt. 44, 3320-3341 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dahlback, "Measurements of biologically effective UV doses, total ozone abundances, and cloud effects with multichannel moderate bandwidth filter instruments," Appl. Opt. 35, 6514-6521 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Stamnes, J. Slusser, and M. Bowen, "Derivation of total ozone abundance and cloud effects from spectral irradiance measurements," Appl. Opt. 30, 4418-4426 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wang and J. Lenoble, "Comparison between measurements and modeling of UV-B irradiance for clear sky: a case study," Appl. Opt. 33, 3964-3971 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atmos. Res.

J. M. Sabburg, A. V. Parisi, and M. G. Kimlin, "Enhanced spectral UV irradiance: a 1-year preliminary study," Atmos. Res. 66, 261-272 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.

D. S. Bigelow, J. R. Slusser, A. F. Beaubien, and J. H. Gibson, "The USDA ultraviolet radiation monitoring program," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 601-615 (1998).
[CrossRef]

CIE J.

A. F. McKinlay and B. L. Diffey, "A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin," CIE J. 6, 17-22 (1987).

Geophys. Res. Lett.

J. Grobner, M. Blumthaler, and W. Ambach, "Experimental investigation of spectral global irradiance measurement errors due to a nonideal cosine response," Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2493-2496 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Masserot, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, M. Houët, N. Krotkov, and R. McPeters, "Retrieval of ozone column from global irradiance measurements and comparison with TOMS data. A year of data in the Alps," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Immunopharmacol.

F. Termorshuizen, J. Garssen, M. Norval, L. Koulu, J. Laihia, L. Leino, C. T. Jansen, F. De. Gruijl, N. K Gibbs, C. de Simone, and H. Van Loveren, "A review of studies on the effects of ultraviolet irradiation on the resistance to infections: evidence from rodent infection models and verification by experimental and observational human studied," Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 2, 263-275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.

B. W. Forgan, "A new method for calibrating reference and field pyranometers," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 638-645 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys.

R. R. Meier, G. P. Anderson, C. A. Cantrell, L. A. Hall, J. Lean, K. Minschwaner, R. E. Shetter, and K. Stamnes, "Actinic radiation in the terrestrial atmosphere," J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 59, 2111-2157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Scateboe, "ALOMAR: atmospheric science using lidars, radars and ground based instruments," J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 58, 1823-1826 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

B. Mayer and G. Seckmeyer, "Systematic long-term comparison of spectral UV measurements and UVSPEC modeling results," J. Geophys. Res. 102(D7), 8755-8767 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Schwander, P. Koepke, and A. Ruggaber, "Uncertainties in modeled UV irradiances due to limited accuracy and availability of input data," J. Geophys. Res. 102 (D8), 9419-9429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Houët and C. Brogniez, "Ozone column retrieval from solar UV irradiance measurements at ground level: sensitivity tests and uncertainty estimation," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D15302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Photochem. Photobiol. B

M. Steinmetz, "Continuous solar UV monitoring in Germany," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 41, 181-187 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Bérces, A. Fekete, S. Gaspar, P. Grof, P. Rettberg, G. Horneck, and G. Ronto, "Biological UV dosimeters in the assessment of the biological hazard from environmental radiation," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 53, 36-43 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Meteorol. Appl.

H. De Backer, P. Koepke, A. Bais, X. de Cabo, T. Frei, D. Gyllotay, C. Haite, A. Heikkilä, T. Koskela, E. Kyrö, B. Lapeta, J. Lorente, K. Masson, B. Mayer, H. Plets, A. Redondas, A. Renaud, G. Schauberger, A. Schmalwieser, H. Schwander, and K. Vanicek, "Comparison of measured and modeled UV indices for the assessment of health risks," Meteorol. Appl. 8, 267-277 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

H. Uhlig and N. Kaiser, "Blocking improved narrow-band filters for the UV-B region," Opt. Eng. 40, 2331-2337 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Solar Energy

U. Feister, R. Grewe, and K. Gericke, "A method for correction of cosine errors in measurements of spectral UV irradiance," Solar Energy 60, 313-332 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. Madronich, "UV radiation in the natural and perturbed atmosphere", in Environmental Effects of UV (Ultraviolet) Radiation, M. Tevini, ed. (Lewis, Boca Raton, 1993), pp. 17-69.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Standard Atmosphere 1976 (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1976).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Left, schematic diagram of the UV-RAD with its main components: 1, hemispherical diffuser; 2, entrance optics with field stopper and collimating system (consisting of two lenses); 3, UV–VIS passband with a pair of colored glass filters (see also Fig. 3 below); 4, filter wheel; 5, synchronous motor rotating the filter wheel; 6, photomultiplier; 7, thermoelectric (Peltier) heat pump; 8, recording and controlling electronics. Right, photograph of the instrument during a measurement test in Antarctica. The radiometer is 310 mm × 300 mm × 370 mm in size, with an overall weight of 12 kg.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Angular dependence curves of the cosine error of the UV-RAD entrance optics as a function of solar zenith angle θ: CE b is the error for direct solar radiation, CE d is the cosine response to the diffuse irradiance, and (3) CE g curves are the global solar irradiance errors that pertain to the 299.60, 325.50, and 364.05 nm channels.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Left, spectral transmittance curves of the various components used to give form to the 314.25 nm UV-RAD channel: (a) fast UV–VIS passband filter, (b) pair of Oriel Model 51 124 colored glass filters, both centered at λ = 330 nm, (c) UV short-pass filter, and (d) supplementary filter with λ i = 314.25 nm and a FWHM of 0.73 nm. (e) Spectral transmittance curve of the 314.25 nm UV-RAD channel, which results from the combined use of the four components described in (a)–(d) and hence were obtained at each wavelength as the product of the monochromatic transmittance values of the five filters. Right, top to bottom, sequence of the optical components used to define the overall UV-RAD channel structure following the incoming radiation direction.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Two examples of the dependence of the FDC on solar zenith angle θ and total ozone Q for the 305.80 and the 325.50 nm UV-RAD channels.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Values of constants k 3 and k 5 determined by comparison of the UV-RAD measurements with those taken with the Bentham DTM 300V spectroradiometer at the ALOMAR (Norway) for the 310 nm UV-RAD channel and the 325 nm channel, respectively. The UV-RAD data are corrected for the cosine error and filter displacement. The open circles and solid curves provide the mean values of ki calculated over 1 h periods, together with the corresponding standard deviations (vertical bars).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Mean daily values of the ratio between the total ozone values determined from the Brewer spectroradiometer #63 and UV-RAD measurements taken at Sestola (Italy) during the 6 month period from January to June 2003. The mean value of the Brewer∕UV-RAD ratio, determined for the 6 month data set was 0.997, with an overall standard deviation of 0.033. The solid curve gives the running mean of the ratio, calculated for a 10 day window, showing that this quantity is subject to average variations of less than 4%.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Vertical ozone profiles used for computing the ozone lookup tables. The dashed curve indicates the ozone density values provided by the TUV computer code library based on the U.S. Standard Atmosphere.[24] The solid curve defines the vertical profile of ozone density obtained from the ozone DIAL profile measured at the ALOMAR in the altitude range from 8 to 46 km and extrapolated to both the surface level and the maximum TUV level of 74 km by use of the values given by the TUV library profile.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Time-patterns of total ozone Q measured at the ALOMAR during October 2004. (a) Values of Q derived from the UV-RAD measurements for the 338 nm∕310 nm ratio between solar irradiances together with the lookup table created with the DIAL profile shown in Fig. 7, the lookup table computed with the TUV library profile, and the GUV measurements. The Brewer values of Q and the DIAL values are shown. (b) Values of ratio α obtained from Brewer and GUV measurements; ratio β from Brewer and UV-RAD measurements, obtained with the TUV library ozone profile; and ratio γ obtained from the same measurements made for ratio β, with the ozone DIAL profile in place of the TUV profile. Corresponding values of solar zenith angle θ0 at the local noon.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Three examples of comparison among the solar spectra recorded with the UV-RAD at the ALOMAR for various sky-cover conditions and the corresponding Brewer spectra. Data taken on (a) 7 October 2004 at 13:30 local time for θ = 77.5° and an ECOD of 9.5; (b) 15 October 2004 at 11:33 local time for θ = 78° and an ECOD of 0.27; and (c) 20 October 2004 at 12:04 local time for θ = 80° and an ECOD of 33.7.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Daily time patterns of the erythemal dose rate measured at the ALOMAR on 17 October 2004 for clear-sky conditions, with the UV-RAD, the GUV radiometer, and the Brewer spectroradiometer. (b) Values of the ratio Brewer∕UV-RAD at the erythemal dose rates determined from the Brewer spectroradiometer and the UV-RAD measurements carried out at several hours of the day during the Sestola campaign. (c) Same as (b) for the values of the ratio Brewer∕UV-RAD determined during the ALOMAR campaign. (d) Scatter diagram of the ratio GUV∕UV-RAD for the erythemal dose rates determined by the GUV radiometer and the UV-RAD at ALOMAR on several days of the October 2004 field campaign. The mean values of the ratios are given in (b)–(d), together with their standard deviations.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Characteristics of the UV-RAD Channels

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

CE g ( λ , θ ) = [ 1 R b g ( λ , θ ) ] CE d ( θ ) + R b g ( λ , θ ) CE b ( θ ) ,
F d ( λ , θ , φ ) = 0 2 π 0 π / 2 F ( λ , θ , φ ) cos ( θ ) sin ( θ ) d θ d φ ,
CE d ( θ ) = 0 2 π 0 π / 2 F ( λ , θ , φ ) CE b ( θ ) cos ( θ ) sin ( θ ) dθdφ F d ( λ , θ , φ ) = 2 0 π / 2 CE b ( θ ) cos ( θ ) sin ( θ ) d θ .
V i = k i 0 R i ( λ ) F ( λ ) d λ ,
k i = V i 0 R i ( λ ) F ( λ ) d λ = V i λ = 0 R i , λ F λ Δ λ .
k i = V i F λ .
FDC i ( θ , Q ) = 0 R i , λ i + Δ λ ( λ ) F ( λ , θ , Q ) d λ 0 R i , λ i ( λ ) F ( λ , θ , Q ) d λ ,
d D d t = 0 F ( λ ) A ( λ ) d λ .

Metrics