Abstract

Chirped Mo∕Si multilayer coatings have been designed, fabricated, and characterized for use in extreme-ultraviolet attosecond experiments. By numerically simulating the reflection of the attosecond pulse from a multilayer mirror during the optimization procedure based on a genetic algorithm, we obtain optimized layer designs. We show that normal incidence chirped multilayer mirrors capable of reflecting pulses of approximately 100 attoseconds (as) duration can be designed by enhancing the reflectivity bandwidth and optimizing the phase-shift behavior. The chirped multilayer coatings have been fabricated by electron-beam evaporation in an ultrahigh vacuum in combination with ion-beam polishing of the interfaces and in situ reflectivity measurement for layer thickness control. To analyze the aperiodic layer structure by hard-x-ray reflectometry, we have developed an automatic fitting procedure that allows us to determine the individual layer thicknesses with an error of less than 0.05  nm. The fabricated chirped mirror may be used for production of 150–160 as pulses.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005

A. Föhlisch, P. Feulner, F. Hennies, A. Fink, D. Menzel, D. Sanchez-Portal, P. M. Echenique, and W. Wurth, "Direct observation of electron dynamics in the attosecond domain," Nature 436, 373-377 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.-S. Morlens, Ph. Balcou, Ph. Zeitoun, C. Valentin, V. Laude, and S. Kazamias, "Compression of attosecond harmonic pulses by extreme-ultraviolet chirped mirrors," Opt. Lett. 30, 1554-1556 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

A. Wonisch, Th. Westerwalbesloh, W. Hachmann, N. Kabachnik, U. Kleineberg, and U. Heinzmann, "Aperiodic nanometer multilayer systems as optical key components for attosecond electron spectroscopy," Thin Solid Films 464-465, 473-477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Reider, "XUV attosecond pulses: generation and measurement," J. Phys. D 37, R37-R48 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305, 1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved electron spectroscopy of atomic inner-shell dynamics," J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 137-140, 259-264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taieb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, "Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays," Science 302, 1540-1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, "Direct observation of attosecond light bunching," Nature 426, 267-271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Aschentrup, W. Hachmann, Th. Westerwalbesloh, Y. C. Lim, U. Kleineberg, and U. Heinzmann, "Determination of layer thickness fluctuations in Mo/Si multilayers by cross sectional HR-TEM and x-ray diffraction," Appl. Phys. A 77, 607-611 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Vinogradov, "Multilayer X-ray optics," Quantum Electron. 32, 1113-1121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. L. Beigman, A. S. Pirozhkov, and E. N. Ragozin, "Reflection of few-cycle x-ray pulses by aperiodic multilayer structures," J. Opt. A , Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 433-439 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

I. L. Beigman, A. S. Pirozhkov, and E. N. Ragozin, "Reflection of atto- and femtosecond x-ray pulses from aperiodic multilayer mirror," JETP Lett. 74, 149-153 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. C. Lim, Th. Westerwalbesloh, A. Aschentrup, O. Wehmeyer, G. Haindl, U. Kleineberg, and U. Heinzmann, "Fabrication and characterization of EUV multilayer mirrors optimized for small spectral reflection bandwidth," Appl. Phys. A 72, 121-124 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, M. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation," Science 292, 1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Singh and J. Braak, "Capping layers for extreme-ultraviolet multilayer interference coating," Opt. Lett. 26, 259-261 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. Singh and J. J. M. Braat, "Design of multilayer extreme-ultraviolet mirrors for enhanced reflectivity," Appl. Opt. 39, 2189-2197 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Michette and Z. Wang, "Optimization of depth-graded multilayer coatings for broadband reflectivity in the soft X-ray and EUV regions," Opt. Commun. 177, 47-55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Kohlachevskii, A. S. Pirozhkov, and E. N. Ragozin, "Broadband x-ray optical elements based on aperiodic multilayer structures," Quantum Electron. 30, 428-434 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. Wormington, C. Panaccione, K. M. Matney, and D. K. Bowen, "Characterization of structures from x-ray scattering data using genetic algorithms," Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London , Ser. A 357, 2827-2848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnürer, Z. Cheng, M. Hentschel, G. Tempea, P. Kálmán, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, "Absorption-limited generation of coherent ultrashort soft-X-ray-pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 722-725 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

1994

1993

S. P. Vernon, D. G. Stearns, and R. S. Rosen, "Chirped multilayer coatings for increased x-ray throughout," Opt. Lett. 18, 672-674 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, "X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission and reflection at E= 50-30 000 eV, Z = 1-92," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-424 (1993); updated at http://www.cxro.lbl.gov/opticallowbarconstants.
[CrossRef]

Agostini, P.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taieb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, "Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays," Science 302, 1540-1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, M. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation," Science 292, 1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aschentrup, A.

A. Aschentrup, W. Hachmann, Th. Westerwalbesloh, Y. C. Lim, U. Kleineberg, and U. Heinzmann, "Determination of layer thickness fluctuations in Mo/Si multilayers by cross sectional HR-TEM and x-ray diffraction," Appl. Phys. A 77, 607-611 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Lim, Th. Westerwalbesloh, A. Aschentrup, O. Wehmeyer, G. Haindl, U. Kleineberg, and U. Heinzmann, "Fabrication and characterization of EUV multilayer mirrors optimized for small spectral reflection bandwidth," Appl. Phys. A 72, 121-124 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Augé, F.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, M. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation," Science 292, 1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balcou, Ph.

A.-S. Morlens, Ph. Balcou, Ph. Zeitoun, C. Valentin, V. Laude, and S. Kazamias, "Compression of attosecond harmonic pulses by extreme-ultraviolet chirped mirrors," Opt. Lett. 30, 1554-1556 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, M. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation," Science 292, 1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuska, A.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305, 1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bammer, F.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beigman, I. L.

I. L. Beigman, A. S. Pirozhkov, and E. N. Ragozin, "Reflection of few-cycle x-ray pulses by aperiodic multilayer structures," J. Opt. A , Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 433-439 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. L. Beigman, A. S. Pirozhkov, and E. N. Ragozin, "Reflection of atto- and femtosecond x-ray pulses from aperiodic multilayer mirror," JETP Lett. 74, 149-153 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bernitzki, H.

T. Kuhlmann, Y. A. Sergey, T. Feigl, N. Kaiser, H. Bernitzki, and H. Lauth, "Design and fabrication of broadband EUV multilayer mirrors," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, R.L.Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE 4688, 509-515 (2002).

Bowen, D. K.

M. Wormington, C. Panaccione, K. M. Matney, and D. K. Bowen, "Characterization of structures from x-ray scattering data using genetic algorithms," Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London , Ser. A 357, 2827-2848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Braak, J.

Braat, J. J. M.

Brabec, T.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schnürer, Z. Cheng, M. Hentschel, G. Tempea, P. Kálmán, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, "Absorption-limited generation of coherent ultrashort soft-X-ray-pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 722-725 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Breger, P.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taieb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, "Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays," Science 302, 1540-1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, M. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation," Science 292, 1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carré, B.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taieb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, "Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays," Science 302, 1540-1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charalambidis, D.

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, "Direct observation of attosecond light bunching," Nature 426, 267-271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Z.

M. Schnürer, Z. Cheng, M. Hentschel, G. Tempea, P. Kálmán, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, "Absorption-limited generation of coherent ultrashort soft-X-ray-pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 722-725 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, "X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission and reflection at E= 50-30 000 eV, Z = 1-92," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-424 (1993); updated at http://www.cxro.lbl.gov/opticallowbarconstants.
[CrossRef]

de Bohan, A.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taieb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, "Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays," Science 302, 1540-1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeBell, G. W.

Dinu, L. C.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taieb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, "Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays," Science 302, 1540-1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drescher, M.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved electron spectroscopy of atomic inner-shell dynamics," J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 137-140, 259-264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305, 1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Echenique, P. M.

A. Föhlisch, P. Feulner, F. Hennies, A. Fink, D. Menzel, D. Sanchez-Portal, P. M. Echenique, and W. Wurth, "Direct observation of electron dynamics in the attosecond domain," Nature 436, 373-377 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feigl, T.

T. Kuhlmann, Y. A. Sergey, T. Feigl, N. Kaiser, H. Bernitzki, and H. Lauth, "Design and fabrication of broadband EUV multilayer mirrors," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, R.L.Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE 4688, 509-515 (2002).

Ferencz, K.

Feulner, P.

A. Föhlisch, P. Feulner, F. Hennies, A. Fink, D. Menzel, D. Sanchez-Portal, P. M. Echenique, and W. Wurth, "Direct observation of electron dynamics in the attosecond domain," Nature 436, 373-377 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fink, A.

A. Föhlisch, P. Feulner, F. Hennies, A. Fink, D. Menzel, D. Sanchez-Portal, P. M. Echenique, and W. Wurth, "Direct observation of electron dynamics in the attosecond domain," Nature 436, 373-377 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Föhlisch, A.

A. Föhlisch, P. Feulner, F. Hennies, A. Fink, D. Menzel, D. Sanchez-Portal, P. M. Echenique, and W. Wurth, "Direct observation of electron dynamics in the attosecond domain," Nature 436, 373-377 (2005).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

U. Kleineberg, Th. Westerwalbesloh, W. Hachmann, U. Heinzmann, J. Tümmler, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, and S. Müllender, "Effect of substrate roughness on Mo/Si multilayer optics for EUVL produced by UHV-e-beam evaporation and ion polishing," Thin Solid Films 433, 230-236 (2003).

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Y. C. Lim, Th. Westerwalbesloh, A. Aschentrup, O. Wehmeyer, G. Haindl, U. Kleineberg, and U. Heinzmann, "Fabrication and characterization of EUV multilayer mirrors optimized for small spectral reflection bandwidth," Appl. Phys. A 72, 121-124 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Aschentrup, W. Hachmann, Th. Westerwalbesloh, Y. C. Lim, U. Kleineberg, and U. Heinzmann, "Determination of layer thickness fluctuations in Mo/Si multilayers by cross sectional HR-TEM and x-ray diffraction," Appl. Phys. A 77, 607-611 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
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M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
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Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taieb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, "Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays," Science 302, 1540-1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Schnürer, Z. Cheng, M. Hentschel, G. Tempea, P. Kálmán, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, "Absorption-limited generation of coherent ultrashort soft-X-ray-pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 722-725 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Tilsch, M.

Toma, E. S.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, M. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation," Science 292, 1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trubetskov, M. K.

Tsakiris, G. D.

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, "Direct observation of attosecond light bunching," Nature 426, 267-271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tschudi, T.

Tümmler, J.

U. Kleineberg, Th. Westerwalbesloh, W. Hachmann, U. Heinzmann, J. Tümmler, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, and S. Müllender, "Effect of substrate roughness on Mo/Si multilayer optics for EUVL produced by UHV-e-beam evaporation and ion polishing," Thin Solid Films 433, 230-236 (2003).

Tzallas, P.

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, "Direct observation of attosecond light bunching," Nature 426, 267-271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uiberacker, M.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved electron spectroscopy of atomic inner-shell dynamics," J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 137-140, 259-264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305, 1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ulm, G.

U. Kleineberg, Th. Westerwalbesloh, W. Hachmann, U. Heinzmann, J. Tümmler, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, and S. Müllender, "Effect of substrate roughness on Mo/Si multilayer optics for EUVL produced by UHV-e-beam evaporation and ion polishing," Thin Solid Films 433, 230-236 (2003).

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A. V. Vinogradov, "Multilayer X-ray optics," Quantum Electron. 32, 1113-1121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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A. G. Michette and Z. Wang, "Optimization of depth-graded multilayer coatings for broadband reflectivity in the soft X-ray and EUV regions," Opt. Commun. 177, 47-55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wehmeyer, O.

Y. C. Lim, Th. Westerwalbesloh, A. Aschentrup, O. Wehmeyer, G. Haindl, U. Kleineberg, and U. Heinzmann, "Fabrication and characterization of EUV multilayer mirrors optimized for small spectral reflection bandwidth," Appl. Phys. A 72, 121-124 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Westerwalbesloh, Th.

A. Wonisch, Th. Westerwalbesloh, W. Hachmann, N. Kabachnik, U. Kleineberg, and U. Heinzmann, "Aperiodic nanometer multilayer systems as optical key components for attosecond electron spectroscopy," Thin Solid Films 464-465, 473-477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved electron spectroscopy of atomic inner-shell dynamics," J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 137-140, 259-264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305, 1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Aschentrup, W. Hachmann, Th. Westerwalbesloh, Y. C. Lim, U. Kleineberg, and U. Heinzmann, "Determination of layer thickness fluctuations in Mo/Si multilayers by cross sectional HR-TEM and x-ray diffraction," Appl. Phys. A 77, 607-611 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. C. Lim, Th. Westerwalbesloh, A. Aschentrup, O. Wehmeyer, G. Haindl, U. Kleineberg, and U. Heinzmann, "Fabrication and characterization of EUV multilayer mirrors optimized for small spectral reflection bandwidth," Appl. Phys. A 72, 121-124 (2001).
[CrossRef]

U. Kleineberg, Th. Westerwalbesloh, W. Hachmann, U. Heinzmann, J. Tümmler, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, and S. Müllender, "Effect of substrate roughness on Mo/Si multilayer optics for EUVL produced by UHV-e-beam evaporation and ion polishing," Thin Solid Films 433, 230-236 (2003).

Witte, K.

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, "Direct observation of attosecond light bunching," Nature 426, 267-271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wonisch, A.

A. Wonisch, Th. Westerwalbesloh, W. Hachmann, N. Kabachnik, U. Kleineberg, and U. Heinzmann, "Aperiodic nanometer multilayer systems as optical key components for attosecond electron spectroscopy," Thin Solid Films 464-465, 473-477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wormington, M.

M. Wormington, C. Panaccione, K. M. Matney, and D. K. Bowen, "Characterization of structures from x-ray scattering data using genetic algorithms," Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London , Ser. A 357, 2827-2848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wright, M. H.

P. R. Gill, W. Murray, and M. H. Wright, "The Levenberg-Marquardt method," in Practical Optimization (Academic 1981), pp. 136-137.

Wurth, W.

A. Föhlisch, P. Feulner, F. Hennies, A. Fink, D. Menzel, D. Sanchez-Portal, P. M. Echenique, and W. Wurth, "Direct observation of electron dynamics in the attosecond domain," Nature 436, 373-377 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305, 1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeitoun, Ph.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. A

A. Aschentrup, W. Hachmann, Th. Westerwalbesloh, Y. C. Lim, U. Kleineberg, and U. Heinzmann, "Determination of layer thickness fluctuations in Mo/Si multilayers by cross sectional HR-TEM and x-ray diffraction," Appl. Phys. A 77, 607-611 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Lim, Th. Westerwalbesloh, A. Aschentrup, O. Wehmeyer, G. Haindl, U. Kleineberg, and U. Heinzmann, "Fabrication and characterization of EUV multilayer mirrors optimized for small spectral reflection bandwidth," Appl. Phys. A 72, 121-124 (2001).
[CrossRef]

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, "X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission and reflection at E= 50-30 000 eV, Z = 1-92," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-424 (1993); updated at http://www.cxro.lbl.gov/opticallowbarconstants.
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved electron spectroscopy of atomic inner-shell dynamics," J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 137-140, 259-264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A

I. L. Beigman, A. S. Pirozhkov, and E. N. Ragozin, "Reflection of few-cycle x-ray pulses by aperiodic multilayer structures," J. Opt. A , Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 433-439 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D

G. A. Reider, "XUV attosecond pulses: generation and measurement," J. Phys. D 37, R37-R48 (2004).
[CrossRef]

JETP Lett.

I. L. Beigman, A. S. Pirozhkov, and E. N. Ragozin, "Reflection of atto- and femtosecond x-ray pulses from aperiodic multilayer mirror," JETP Lett. 74, 149-153 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nature

A. Föhlisch, P. Feulner, F. Hennies, A. Fink, D. Menzel, D. Sanchez-Portal, P. M. Echenique, and W. Wurth, "Direct observation of electron dynamics in the attosecond domain," Nature 436, 373-377 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, "Direct observation of attosecond light bunching," Nature 426, 267-271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

A. G. Michette and Z. Wang, "Optimization of depth-graded multilayer coatings for broadband reflectivity in the soft X-ray and EUV regions," Opt. Commun. 177, 47-55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London

M. Wormington, C. Panaccione, K. M. Matney, and D. K. Bowen, "Characterization of structures from x-ray scattering data using genetic algorithms," Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London , Ser. A 357, 2827-2848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. Schnürer, Z. Cheng, M. Hentschel, G. Tempea, P. Kálmán, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, "Absorption-limited generation of coherent ultrashort soft-X-ray-pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 722-725 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electron.

A. V. Vinogradov, "Multilayer X-ray optics," Quantum Electron. 32, 1113-1121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Kohlachevskii, A. S. Pirozhkov, and E. N. Ragozin, "Broadband x-ray optical elements based on aperiodic multilayer structures," Quantum Electron. 30, 428-434 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Science

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305, 1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, M. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation," Science 292, 1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taieb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, "Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays," Science 302, 1540-1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films

A. Wonisch, Th. Westerwalbesloh, W. Hachmann, N. Kabachnik, U. Kleineberg, and U. Heinzmann, "Aperiodic nanometer multilayer systems as optical key components for attosecond electron spectroscopy," Thin Solid Films 464-465, 473-477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

The software for this work used the galib genetic algorithm package, written by Matthew Wall at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

U. Kleineberg, Th. Westerwalbesloh, W. Hachmann, U. Heinzmann, J. Tümmler, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, and S. Müllender, "Effect of substrate roughness on Mo/Si multilayer optics for EUVL produced by UHV-e-beam evaporation and ion polishing," Thin Solid Films 433, 230-236 (2003).

P. R. Gill, W. Murray, and M. H. Wright, "The Levenberg-Marquardt method," in Practical Optimization (Academic 1981), pp. 136-137.

E. Spiller, Soft X-ray Optics(SPIE Press, 1994), p. 203.

T. Kuhlmann, Y. A. Sergey, T. Feigl, N. Kaiser, H. Bernitzki, and H. Lauth, "Design and fabrication of broadband EUV multilayer mirrors," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, R.L.Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE 4688, 509-515 (2002).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) An example of a near-cutoff part of the high-harmonic spectrum produced in Ne by a 500 TW laser with a pulse duration of 7 fs, which is similar to that used for production of attosecond pulses in Ref. 1. The spectrum is taken from Ref. 27. (b) Model spectrum of pulse (3) used in simulations: dashed curve, without a Zr filter; solid curve, with a Zr filter. The pulse parameters are a = 30 fs−1, b = 5 fs−2, and ω0 = 137 fs−1 (90 eV).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Reflectivity (solid curve) and phase shift (dashed curve, right scale) of the 20 layer mirror optimized for flat-top reflectivity with linear phase shift using the objective function (6). (b) Temporal profile of the pulse reflected from this mirror. Incident pulse (3) with parameters indicated in the caption to Fig. 1 was used in the simulation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Same as in Fig. 2, except for the multilayer design optimized for a Gaussian-like reflectivity profile.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Same as in Fig. 2, except for the multilayer design optimized using objective function (7).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Layout of the UHV chamber for the production of multilayer mirrors.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental and fitted reflectivity of the fabricated multilayer mirror as a function of the grazing incident angle for the Cu Kα x-ray line. The calculated spectral and temporal properties of this mirror are shown in Fig. 7.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) (a) Calculated reflectivity (black curves) and the phase shift (gray curves, right scale) of the 10 layer mirror designed and fabricated for the attosecond pulse production. (b) Temporal profile of the pulse reflected from this mirror. Dashed curves show the expected results from the designed multilayer stack; solid curves show the calculated results for the fabricated stack.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Calculated (solid curve) and measured (triangles) normal-incidence reflectivity of the fabricated ten-layer mirror in the energy range of 80–110 eV. The calculated curve is multiplied by 0.44 to normalize it to the experimental data.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Measured photoelectron spectra produced by the ultrashort pulse reflected from the ten-layer mirror. Measured data (crosses) are fitted by a Gaussian curve (solid curve). The dashed curve connects experimental points to guide the eyes. (b) Fourier transform of the measured spectrum (solid curve) fitted by the Gaussian curve (dashed curve).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) Visualization of the streaking experiment: A two-dimensional plot (gray scale) of the photoelectron spectra as a function of the time delay between the XUV pulse and the IR laser pulse. The maximum of the spectrum (bright pixels) oscillates showing the acceleration and deceleration of electrons by the laser field.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

τ eff = [ I ˜ ( t ) d t ] / I max ,
R puls = [ I ( t ) d t ] / [ I ( t ) d t ] .
E ( t ) = E 0 sin ( a t ) a t exp ( b t 2 ) cos ( ω 0 t α t 2 / 2 ) .
E ( t ) = E 0 exp [ π 2 ( t τ eff ) 2 ] cos ( ω 0 t ) .
f ( x 1 ,   , x N ) = i = 1 N w i ( g i x i ) 2 .
f 1 = w 1 ( 1 R int ) 2 + w 2 i [ d 2 φ d ω 2 ( ω i ) ] 2 + w 3 i [ G ( ω i ) R ( ω i ) ] 2 ,
f 2 = w 1 ( 1 R puls ) 2 + w 2 ( τ eff ) 2 + w 3 i [ G ( ω i ) I ( ω i ) ] 2 ,
f = i = 1 N [ log ( R i     meas ) log ( R i     sim ) ] 2 ,

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